Saturday, March 07, 2020


Bachelor’s Degree Programme (BDP)
ASSIGNMENT (2019-20)
Elective Course in Commerce
ECO – 02: Accountancy-I
For July 2019 and January 2020 admission cycle
Dear Students,
As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course.
Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.
This assignment is valid for two admission cycles (July 2019 and January 2020). The validity is given below:
1)      Those who are enrolled in July 2019, it is valid up to June 2020.
2)      Those who are enrolled in January 2020, it is valid up to December 2020.
You have to submit the assignment of all the courses to The Coordinator of your Study Centre.
For appearing in June Term-End Examination, you must submit assignment to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th March. Similarly for appearing in December Term-End Examination, you must submit assignments to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th September.

Course Code : ECO-02
Course Title : Accountancy – 1
Assignment Code : ECO-02TMA/2019-20
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions
1. Define Accounting. What are its objectives? Briefly explain the accounting concepts which guide the accountant at the recording stage.                                               (3+5+12)

Ans: Accounting is the analysis and interpretation of book-keeping records. It includes not only maintains of accounting records but also the preparation of financial and economic information Which involves the measurement of transaction and other events pertaining to a business.
According to the American institute of certified public accounts” The arts of recordings, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money transaction and events which in parts, at least of a financial charter and interpreting the result there of”.
Again in 1966, AICPA defines Accounting as “The process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit; informed judgement and decisions by the uses of accounts”.
Thus accounting may be defined as the process of recording, classifying, summarizing, analysing and interpreting the financial transactions and communicating the results. There of to the persons interested in such information.
Objectives of Accounting
The main objective of Accounting is to provide financial information to stakeholders. This financial information is normally given via financial statements, which are prepared on the basis of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). There are various accounting standards developed by professional accounting bodies all over the world. In India, these are governed by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, (ICAI). In the US, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is responsible to lay down the standards. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is the body that sets up the International Accounting Standards.
These standards basically deal with accounting treatment of business transactions and disclosing the same in financial statements. In short the basic objectives of accounting are stated below:
(a) To ascertain the amount of profit or loss made by the business i.e. to compare the income earned versus the expenses incurred and the net result thereof.
(b) To know the financial position of the business i.e. to assess what the business owns and what it owes.
(c) To provide a record for compliance with statutes and laws applicable.
(d) To enable the readers to assess progress made by the business over a period of time.
(e) To disclose information needed by different stakeholders.
Accounting concepts:
The term ‘concept’ is used to denote accounting postulates, i.e., basic assumptions or conditions upon which the accounting structure is based. The following are the common accounting concepts adopted by many business concerns:
i) Business Entity Concept: Business entity concept implies that the business unit is separate and distinct from the persons who provide the required capital to it. This concept can be expressed through an accounting equation, viz., Assets = Liabilities + Capital. The equation clearly shows that the business itself owns the assets and in turn owes to various claimants.
ii) Money Measurement Concept: According to this concept, only those events and transactions are recorded in accounts which can be expressed in terms of money. Facts, events and transactions which cannot be expressed in monetary terms are not recorded in accounting. Hence, the accounting does not give a complete picture of all the transactions of a business unit. 2006
iii) Going Concern Concept: Under this concept, the transactions are recorded assuming that the business will exist for a longer period of time. Keeping this in view, the suppliers and other companies enter into business transactions with the business unit. This assumption supports the concept of valuing the assets at historical cost or replacement cost.      
iv) Dual Aspect Concept: According to this basic concept of accounting, every transaction has a two-fold aspect, Viz., certain benefits and 2. Receiving certain benefits. The basic principle of double entry system is that every debit has a corresponding and equal amount of credit. This is the underlying assumption of this concept. The accounting equation viz., Assets = Capital + Liabilities or Capital = Assets – Liabilities, will further clarify this concept, i.e., at any point of time the total assets of the business unit are equal to its total liabilities.
V) Periodicity Concept: Under this concept, the life of the business is segmented into different periods and accordingly the result of each period is ascertained. Though the business is assumed to be continuing in future, the measurement of income and studying the financial position of the business for a shorter and definite period will help in taking corrective steps at the appropriate time. Each segmented period is called “accounting period” and the same is normally a year.
vi) Historical Cost Concept: According to this concept, the transactions are recorded in the books of account with the respective amounts involved. For example, if an asset is purchases, it is entered in the accounting record at the price paid to acquire the same and that cost is considered to be the base for all future accounting.
vii) Matching Concept: The essence of the matching concept lies in the view that all costs which are associated to a particular period should be compared with the revenues associated to the same period to obtain the net income of the business.
viii) Realisation Concept: This concept assumes or recognizes revenue when a sale is made. Sale is considered to be complete when the ownership and property are transferred from the seller to the buyer and the consideration is paid in full.
ix) Accrual Concept: According to this concept the revenue is recognized on its realization and not on its actual receipt. Similarly the costs are recognized when they are incurred and not when payment is made. This assumption makes it necessary to give certain adjustments in the preparation of income statement regarding revenues and costs.

2. What are the various types of errors that are usually committed in the process of accounting? Explain with the help of examples.                                           (20)
Ans: Errors: In accounting, an error may be defined as a ‘mistake’. Generally, errors arise out of innocence or carelessness or lack of accounting knowledge on the part of the person who is responsible for maintaining the accounts. Errors may occur at the time of journalizing, posting, balancing or preparation of trial balance.
Types of Error:


Errors of Principle

Clerical Errors

Errors of Omission

Errors of Commission

Compensating Errors

Trial Balance
All errors of accounting procedure can be classified as follows: 

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