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IGNOU Solved Question Papers: FST - 01 (December' 2010)

Term-End Examination
December, 2010
Time: 3 hours Maximum Marks: 100
Note: All the questions of section-A is compulsory. Your answers should be brief and to the point.
1. Fill in the blanks: 5
(i) Johannes Kepler discovered the laws of _____ motion.
(ii) The disc part of the galaxy consists of _____ and clouds of dust and gas.
(iii) Home sapiens arose in _____ and migrated rest of old world via Middle East.
(iv) Carbon dioxide is utilised during photosynthesis and released during _____
(v) About 78% of gaseous component of our atmosphere is _____
2. State if the following statements are true (T) or false (F): 5

(i) Carbohydrates and fats are called body - building foods.
(ii) Ergonomics is the study of the interaction of organisms with their environment.
(iii) Man occupies more than one trophic level in an eco-system.
(iv) Use of satellite communication has revolutionized communication technology.
(v) Research and development programmers are important for the growth of any industry.
3. Give short answers for the following (Not more than 50 words): 10
(i) Write any two factors which were responsible for the decline of science in post - Gupta period.
(ii) Give any two examples of materials that are used as semi conductors.
(iii) Give any four examples of plantation crops.
(iv) List any two bacterial and any two viral diseases of human beings.
(v) Write two applications of LASER.
Ans: Applications of Laser
Military Applications: Laser technology is used on land, sea and in space for military purposes. The same technology could be used to destroy forests, factories, farms and habitations by installing deadly laser weapons in satellites, therefore such misuse of this technology should be banned.
Healing Touch of Lasers: Today, laser is used in surgeries, in brain tumors, treating cancers, etc.
Note: Answer any eight questions. Limit your answers to 100 words for each question.
1. What do you understand by science of ergonomics? How has it helped to improve the life of humans? 5
Ans: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
How Ergonomics helps in improving human life:
Human factors and ergonomics is connected to how the user, their equipment and their environments interact with each other. In normal everyday language, ergonomics concerns itself with making you perform better and think better, walk/ run/ sprint better. It is also a proactive health measure as well a reactive one. What that basically means is that it can help to prevent health issues such as poor posture leading to chronic back pain, as well as being able to ease health issues after they have struck already. This is how ergonomics can help you to make a difference in your lives today, even if you are already suffering from ergonomic related problems.

2. 'Science has always played a crucial role in production. Justify this statement. 5
3. Briefly describe how development in the area of transport has affected the living style of people. 5
4. With the help of a suitable example, explain how a persistent pollutant gets accumulated in organism of various trophic levels. 5
5. List five essential components of land management. 5
6. Name the virus that causes AIDS. Why does AIDS patient generally suffer from secondary infections? What are the three ways by which AIDS can be transmitted? 5
7. Briefly discuss the role of Biotechnology in agriculture. 5
8. Briefly describe Darwin's theory of evolution through Natural selection. 5
Ans: The Earth is an ancient planet with a history reaching back almost without limit. Limitless time this perhaps more than any other factor is essential for the evolutionary thinking of the past century. In the list of 19th century discoveries we have to add one more that is the sense of time. According to Darwin when he was on his voyage around the world as a naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle, he carried with him a book entitled Principles of Geology. With the help of this book he agreed that geological phenomena were the result of natural forces operating over enormous period of time and operating in manner no different from their operation today.
Too little time has passed since he advocated the theory to allow free play for Darwin’s evolutionary mechanism. Darwin’s mechanism proposed random variations arising over lengthy periods of time and becoming fixed in natural populations by surviving the natural selection.
The Process of Evolution: Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, first published in 1859, has been vastly enriched in detail, but its outlines unchanged. His statement was approximately as follows:
(i)  All species produce offspring in numbers greater than can be supported by the finite resources of their environment.
(ii)  Natural variability arises randomly among members of each species.
(iii) Therefore, a struggle survival starts. Variants best adapted to their environment survive through a process of natural selection, and they form the next generation in their own image.
Plant and animal species compete within and among themselves for food, water, air, and light. According to time, place and phenomena all species slightly changed in its form and characters. They have to adapt themselves according to environment and try to change or modify the environment, where they like for their protection and nourishment.
Origin of Species: Both Darwin and his successors assigned a central role to the concept of the species. The species has been defined as the evolving unit but it has proved to be a surprisingly slippery concept to pin down in practice. In other words, many of the important evolutionary events take place at a level below that of the species, the population.
We face a similar problem in evolution. Like the splitting of a fertilized egg, the evolution of a species has never been observed. Yet the practicing taxonomist is often called on to decide whether two organisms are members of the same species or not. The answer is often an educated guess.

9. With the help of suitable diagrams, differentiate between the solar and lunar eclipses. 5
10. With the help of a suitable example, explain how hormones work in coordination with nervous system, to control the internal functioning of a person. 5
Answer any four questions. Limit your answers upto 250 words for each question.
1 What do you understand by cycling of materials in an Ecosystem? Describe the Nitrogen cycle in detail. 10
2. Discuss the role of communication technology in imparting education through distance mode. 10
3. With the help of two examples discuss the importance of technology in small scale industries. 10
4. Discuss the reasons for development of science in European society during post renaissance period. Describe the factors responsible for Industrial Revolution. 10
5. Describe the remote sensing method used for exploration of land and water resources. Give the importance of resource mapping. 10
Ans. Remote Sensing Method: In this method, the information from the remote areas is collected using cameras carried by an aeroplane to photograph large areas of land. Cameras are mounted on satellites to obtain pictures of clouds, water, forests, etc. radio waves are picked up by the detectors in the aero plane or satellites. The density of vegetation, size and shape of plants and trees can be found using this method. These waves also provide information about the minerals and oil under the surface.
Types of Resource Maps: Several maps are prepared as discussed below:
  1. Soil Maps: As the name suggests it shows different types of soils and their composition.
  2. Mineral Maps: It shows the location of various kinds of mineral deposits.
  3. Hydrological Maps: It gives information o depth of water table.
  4. Snow-cover Maps: It gives information of snow packs on high mountains.
  5. Resource Mapping: Resource mapping is done to locate different resources like water, minerals, vegetation, etc., at the correct location. It is used for development of agricultural, water development and other transportation facilities.

6. Explain the following: 10
(i) Artificial Intelligence.
(ii) Technology forecasting.

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