Tuesday, December 05, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 3)

UNIT – 3
US HEGEMONY IN WORLD POLITICS
VERY SHORT ANSWER (1 Mark)
1. What is uni-polar system?
Ans. When power is concentrated in the hands of one powerful group or in one power block, it is called uni-polar system.
2. Correct the sentence.
The roots of the word ‘hegemony’ lie in classical Rome.
Ans. the root of the word ‘Hegemony’ lies in classical Greek.
3. Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
Originally, the word ‘hegemony’ was used to denote the preponderant position of Athens in ancient Greece.
Ans. True.
4. Fill in the blank:
____ is the direct outcome of a US military research project.
Ans. Internet is the direct outcome of a U.S. military research project.
5. What is soft power?
Ans. (i) This the third sense of hegemony which is about the capacity to ‘manufacture consent’.
6. When did the first Gulf War break out?
Ans. The 1st Gulf War occurred in August, 1990.
7. What is hard power?

Ans. (i) This is the first meaning of hegemony that relates to the relations, patterns and balances of military capability between states.
          (ii) It is this notion of hegemony as military preponderance that is especially germane to the current position and role of the US in world politics.
8. What is meant by ‘Operation Desert Storm’? [2013]
Ans. The liberation of Kuwait from Iraq by the United Nations came to be known as “Operation Desert Storm”.
9. Give an example of hegemony as structural power.
Ans. Technical education like MBA – the idea that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university is uniquely American. Today, there is no country in the world in which MBA is not a prestigious academic degree.
10. Which event does ‘9/11’ refer to in the context of contemporary world politics?
Ans. On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control over four American commercial aircraft shortly after takeoff and flew them into important buildings in the US.
11. In which year Iraq invaded Kuwait?
Ans. In 1991, Iraq invaded Kuwait.
12. Write one constraint on American power?
Ans. The institutional architecture of the US
13. When the US Hegemony began?
Ans. US hegemony began from 1991.
14. In which year US Military research project began?
Ans. In 1950, US military research project began.
15. Give one example of a global public goods?
Ans. Internet is an example of global public govt.

16. What is Global village?
Ans. Global village refers to a world with a safe super power and even if the behaviour of the super power is intolerable the other do not have any other of leaving.
17. Who was the President of USA during the ‘First Gulf War’?
Ans. George W. Bush was the president of USA during the first gulf war.
18. How many persons were killed in the attack of 9/11?
Ans. More than 3000 people were killed in the attack of 9/11.
19. When the first MBA course outside USA was established?
Ans. The first MBA course outside USA was established in 1950.
20. Name the first business school which was established in USA in 1881?
Ans. Wharton school is the first business school established in 1881 in U.S.A.
VERY SHORT ANSWER (2 Marks)
1. What does hegemony mean?
Ans. Hegemony is defined as dominating the international system by only one centre of power.
2. Give two examples of public goods.
Ans. Two examples of public goods are – Internet and sea.
3. Who launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ against whom?
Ans. George W. Bush launched “Operation Enduring Freedom” against all those suspected to be behind the 9/11 attack mainly All Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
4. When did US hegemony begin?
Ans. The U.S. hegemony had began since 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
5. Who set up Bretton Woods System and when?
Ans. The Bretton Woods System was set up by the U.S. after the Second World War.
6. Mention two products of US hegemony.
Ans. The two products of U.S. hegemony are Internet and SLOC’s
7. What is bandwagon strategy?
And. Bandwagon strategy occurs when weaker states beside that the cost of opposing a stronger power exceeds the benefits to be gained from supporting it.
8. Do you think alternative centres of political and economic power can limit US hegemony? Justify your answer.
Ans. Yes, to some extent alternative centres of political and economic power limit the US hegemony. Organization like ASEAN, European Union begun to play dominant role in all over the world
9. Who won the US presidential election in 1992 and in 1996?
Ans. Bill Clinton won the presidential election in 1992 and in 1996.
10. What do you mean by term ‘hegemony’?
Ans. The term hegemony means leadership. Hegemony is a state of power that is able to dominate the global political system.
11. What is the US share in the world economy?
Ans. The U.S share in the world economy is 25 percent.
12. When did the US hegemony begin and why?
Ans. U.S hegemony began in 1991 after the collapse of Soviet Union. When Soviet Union was disintegrated totally in 1991 then the hegemony of U.S started and the U.S become the only super-power.
13. Explain the process by which US hegemony got established?
Ans. The process was three types by which U.S hegemony established. They are –
a)      Hegemony as hard power.
b)      Hegemony as soft power.
c)       Hegemony as structural power.
14. What do you understand by Bandwagon strategy?
Ans. Bandwagon strategy was a strategy for own development of production for the expansion of business, progress of technology to put domination on other state.
15. What means by PPP?
Ans. PPP means Pakistan People’s Party.
16. Mention the constraints that operate on the US hegemony?
Ans. The constraints that operate of US hegemony are –
a)      NATO
b)      Civil society and American mass media.
c)       Institutional architecture of American state.
17. What is All Queda?
Ans. All Queda was a terrorist group of Afghanistan. U.S.A launched operation “Enduring freedom” against All Queda.
18. What is ‘Hegemony as Soft power?
Ans. Hegemony as soft power means that it arises from the attractiveness of a country’s culture, political ideals and policies. The ideological or cultural dimension is the main basis for soft power.
LONG ANSWER (4 Marks)
1. What is Guantanams Bay? Discuss its significance.
Ans. Guantanams Bay is a US naval base in Cuba where the detained persons were sent.
      Its significance is that the prisoners were meted out inhuman behaviour. They were arrested mostly without proofs. The prisoners here didn’t enjoy the law of their own country, or of the US. Even the Un representatives were not allowed to meet them.
2. Write a brief note on Indio-US relationship?
Ans. Indo-US relationship –
a)      Areas of Conflict:
                                 i.            India’s friendship with Soviet Union: US did not like the behaviour shown by India during the Cold War era. It was upset with India’s closeness to Soviet Union.
                               ii.            India’s policy of non-alignment: US was also upset with India’s policy of non-alignment. It said that India is being a diplomat over the issue.


                              iii.            US support to Pakistan: India did not like US supporting Pakistan and providing all the required assistance during Indo-Pak War.
b)      Areas of Cooperation:
                                 i.            Indian-American Diaspore: This factor is providing a good platform for the development of Indo-US relationship.
                               ii.            Trade relations: Trade relations between the two countries have been profitable to both the countries and are improving the relationship.
3. Suggest some measures to resist hegemony.
Ans. (i) Coalition of big powers: A military coalition by the big powers like China, India, Russia etc. have the potential to challenge US hegemony.
      (ii) Bandwagon Strategy: It suggests that instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system.
      (iii) Hide strategy: This implies staying aloof from the dominant power and not allowing any influence of the hegemony.
      (iv) Combination of NGO’s social movements: It may arise from sections of the media and intellectual, artists, written etc. These various actors’ may well form links across national boundaries including Americans to criticize and resist US policies.
4. Discuss the role of states in a global village.
Ans. The whole world is now a global village. We live in this global village with U.S. being the village headman. None of the actors’ can leave the global village even if the actions of the hegemony become intolerable as this is the only world we know and the only village we live in. Resistance to the headman’s hegemony would then be the only option available to line in the global village.
5. What was ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’? List out its outcome?
Ans. On March 19, 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the code name “operation Iraqi Freedom”. The purpose of this invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass-destruction.
      The purpose of this invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction. The U.S. military lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war but Iraqi casualties were very much higher.
6. Explain the US military action during Clinton Era?
Ans. Operation Allied Force:
a)      The Albanian population in the Kosovo province of Yugoslavia faced discrimination and the government too did not pay any attention.
b)      In 1999, the air forces of the NATO countries led by the US bombarded targets around Yugoslavia for well over two months.
c)       The resulted in the downfall of the government of Slobodan Milosevic and the stationing of the NATO forces in Kosovo.
7. What is ‘Hegemony as Hard Power’?
Ans. American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the U.S. has military capacities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time. The military dominance of the U.S. is not just based on higher military spending but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm that no other power can at present concussively span.
VERY LONG ANSWER (6 Marks)
1. What are the different types of hegemony? Give examples of each of them.
Ans. Hegemony is three types. These are –
         i.            Hegemony as hard power.
       ii.            Hegemony as soft power.
      iii.            Hegemony as structural power.
Hegemony as hard power:


a)      American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US both has military capacities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time.
b)      The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm that no other power can at present concavely span.
Hegemony as soft power:
a)      The predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military power and economic powers but also on its cultural presence.
b)      All ideas of the good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth century in America.
Hegemony as structural power:
a)      Internet: Although interest is sun today as making the virtual world of www possible, we would not forget that the internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in 1950. Even today, the internet relies on a Global Network of Satellites, most of which are owned by the US government.
b)      Technical Educations like M.B.A: The idea that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university is uniquely American. Today, there is no country in the world in which MBA is not a prestigious academic degree.
2. ‘The biggest constraints to American hegemony lie within the heart of the hegemony itself’ – Identify three constraints on American power.
Ans. After the 2nd World War there were two super-powers i.e. U.S.A. and U.S.S.R with the sudden collapse of the Soviet Union, one super power ceased to exist. On the other hand, the powers of another super power i.e. U.S.A. enhanced. Thus the U.S. hegemony began in 1991 after Soviet Union disappeared from international scene. But history tells us that empires decline because they decay from within similarly, the biggest constraint to American hegemony is from within. Broadly, there are three constraints on American power.
      The first constraint is the institutional architecture of the American state itself. American system is based on division of powers between the three organs of government i.e. legislature, executive and judiciary. These organs put many restrictions on military powers the second constraint on American society. The third constraint on American power is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Out of these three constraints, third constraint on American power is the most important in the future. NATO is the only one organization in the world which can put some check on the American power. NATO will be successful in moderating the U.S. Hegemony.
3. Mention the new factors that emerged in India-US relations in recent years. [2013]
Ans. So far as the debate in Lok Sabha on the Indo-US agreement, on the nuclear energy, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says that recent time, India’s impressive economic development rate has made the country and alternative partner for a number of countries concerning US. International politics largely in terms of military energy are fearful of the growing closeness between India and USA. The growing closeness of interest between the USA and India creates a welfare for India. At the recent phase of global hegemony, India has needed a good partnership with the USA. Dr. Manmohan Singh believes that it is in the welfare of our country to have a good and pivotal relation with all the major countries, but interest on the relationship with the USA. Hence, he advocate a strategy that would allowed India to take opportunity of US hegemony and the mutual relations to set up the best possible for itself. The highlighting factors show the Indo-US relationship and its importance.
a)      15% of all high-tech starts up are by Indo-Americans.
b)      The USA absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sectors.
c)       35% of the technical staff of doing is estimated to be of India.
4. ‘A classic example of the structural power of the US is the academic degree called the Master’s in Business Administration Illustrate.
Ans. The idea that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university is uniquely American. The first business school in the world, the Wharton school at the University of Penasylusnia was established in 1881. The first MBA courses were initiated around 1900. Today there is no country in the world in which MBA is not prestigious academic degree.
5. Describe the process of normalization of relationship between United States of America and India?
 Ans. So far as the debate in Lok Sabha on the Indo-US agreement, on nuclear energy, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says that recent time, India’s impressive economic development rate has made the country and alternative partner for a number of countries concerning USA. International politics largely in terms of military energy are fearful of the growing closeness between India and USA. The growing closeness of interest between the USA and India creates welfare for India. At the recent phase of global hegemony, India has needed a good partnership with the USA. Dr. Manmohan Singh believes that it is in the welfare of our country to have a good and pivotal relation with all the major countries, but interest on the relationship with the USA. Hence, he advocate a strategy that would allowed India to take opportunity of US hegemony and the mutual relations to set up the best possible for itself. The highlighting factors shows the Indo-US relationship and its importance.
a)      15% of all high-tech starts up are by Indo-Americans.
b)      The USA absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sectors.
c)       35% of the technical staff of doing is estimated to be of India.
6. What is the new world order? State its implications.
Ans. The phrase “new world order” was an attempt to define the nature of the post Cold War era and was popularized by George Bush. It is generally related to the dramatic change in world politics and alternations in the balance of power.
      The emergence of ‘new world order’ has numerous implications –
1)      Greater role of the United Nations in world politics especially on issues of global security, peacekeeping and issues of development;
2)      Respect for broad values such as democracy, human rights, international law;
3)      Network of global institutions;
4)      Emergence of US hegemony in world politics.
7. What were the ways of Overcoming US Hegemony?
Ans. Firstly, there is growing realization that there is no single military power that is capable of balancing the US. Given the differences amongst countries like China, India and Russia, a military coalition to challenge the US is unlikely possible in the near future.
      Secondly, some people advocate the ‘bandwagon strategy’. It is argued that the US hegemony provides opportunities for countries and national interest is best served when working with the hegemony especially in economic and military sectors.
      Thirdly, many states believe that rather than antagonizing the US, it is better to ‘hide’, look the other way. This strategy may not be fruitful for countries like Russia, China and the EU in the long run.

      Fourthly, the challenge to US hegemony will come from one-state actor, social movements, NGOs and public opinion. 

Popular Posts for the Day