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Tuesday, June 26, 2018


This syllabus for Environmental Studies aims to enhance a learner’s knowledge, skills and attitudes to environment. This course, which is structured into five blocks, covers different aspects of the environment: natural resources, eco-system, biodiversity, environmental pollution and social issues related to environment. A learner, while reading the theoretical part, is expected that he/she would by himself/herself move out of the scope of the text book into the realm of real learning amidst his/her own environment.

Unit 1: Introduction To Environmental Studies & Natural Resources                    20 Marks
Ø  Definition, Scope and Importance of Environment Studies.
Ø  Renewal and Non-Renewable Resources.
a)      Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, Timber extraction, mining, dams their effects on forests and tribal people.
b)      Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dam’s benefits and problems.
c)       Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources.
d)      Food resources: World food problems, Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effect of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity.
e)      Energy resources: Growing energy needs renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources.
f)       Land resources: Land as resource; Land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.
Ø  Role of an individual in Conservation of Natural Resources.
Ø  Need for Public awareness & equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyle.

Unit 2: Eco-system                                                                                               20 Marks
Ø  Concept of an ecosystem; its structure and function.
Ø  Producers, Consumers and Decomposers.
Ø  Energy flow in ecosystem and ecological succession.
Ø  Food Chain, Food webs and ecological pyramids.
Ø  Introduction, types characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem –
a)      Forest ecosystem.
b)      Grassland ecosystem.
c)       Desert ecosystem.
d)      Aquatic ecosystem.

Unit 3: Biodiversity, Its Conservation                                                                   20 Marks
Ø  Introduction – Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.
Ø  Bio-geographical classification of India & hot-sports of biodiversity in India.
Ø  Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive use, productive use, social ethical, aesthetic and option values.
a)      Threats to Bio-diversity: Habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man wild life conflicts.
b)      Endangered and endemic species of India.
Ø  Conservation of Bio-diversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of Bio-diversity.

Unit 4: Environmental Pollution                                                                             20 Marks
Ø  Definition – Causes, effects and control measures of
a)      Air Pollution.
b)      Water Pollution.
c)       Soil Pollution.
d)      Marine Pollution.
e)      Noise Pollution.
f)       Thermal Pollution.
g)      Nuclear Hazards.
Ø  Solid Waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of Urban and Industrial wastes.
Ø  Role of an Individual in prevention of pollution.
Ø  Disaster Management: Food, earthquake, Cyclone and Landslides.

Unit 5: Social Issues and the Environment                                                                  20 Marks
Ø  From Unsustainable to Sustainable development.
Ø  Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management.
Ø  Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concern.
Ø  Environmental ethics: Issue and possible solutions.
Ø  Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion.
Ø  Population Growth, variation among nation; Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme; women and Child welfare.
Ø  Environment and human health and hygiene (sanitation, HIV/AIDS etc.
Ø  Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human health.

1.       Kalita, Dr. Mahanta K. Introduction to Environmental Studies, Asian Books Pvt. Ltd.
2.       Sharma, Dr. J. P. Comprehensive Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Classes, Laxmi Publication.
3.       Dara, S. S. A Textbook of Environmental Chemistry & Pollution Control, S. Chand.
4.       Agarwal, K. C. 2001 Environmental Biology, NIdi Publication Ltd. Bikaner.
5.       Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd. Ahmedabad.
6.       Hawkins, R. E. Encyclopedia of Indian Natural History, Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay.

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