Theory of Communication [English Language and Communication Skills Notes NEP 2023]

Theory of Communication 
[English Language and Communication Skills Notes NEP 2023]

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In this Article, You will Get English Language and Communication Skills NotesTheory of Communication. For More notes on Business Communication visit our blog regularly.

Table of Contents – English Language and Communication Skills Notes

1. Meaning and Nature of Business Communication

2. Need and Significance of Business Communication

3. Objectives of Business Communication

4. Process of Business Communication

5. Forms of Business Communication

a) Internal and External Communication

b) Oral, Written and Non-verbal Communication

c) Horizontal, Vertical and Diagonal Communication

6. Meaning and Importance of Feedback

7. Meaning of Effective Communication. How Communication is made effective.

8. Principles of Effective Communication

9. Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Communication

10. Models of Communication

a) Linear Model

b) Cyclical or transactional Model

c) Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

d) David Berlo Model

11. Audience Analysis – Comprehensive Concept

Meaning of the term “Communication”

The term communication is derived from a Latin word „communis‟ which means common. This means establishing a common ground. Now whatever is common is shared by all. But what is that which is shared by all in communication? It is fact, ideas, understanding, opinions, information etc.

In the words of Newman, Summer & Warren, “communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions by two or more persons.”

According to Keith Davis, “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.”

Communication should not be interpreted as merely sending or receiving messages. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. It is a two way process and is complete only when there is some response from the receiver of information.

Nature or Characteristics of communication

An analysis of various definitions of communication revel the nature or characteristics of communication which are as follows:-

1.       Communication involves at least two persons: Communication involves at least two persons the sender and the receiver. The sender sends the messages and is known as the communicator. The receiver receives the message and is known as communicate.

2.       Communication is a two way process: Communication is essentially a two way process. It does not merely means sending and receiving messages. It is not complete unless and until the message has been understood by the receiver in the same sense.

3.       Purpose of communication: This basic purpose of communication is to create an understanding. The receiver should understand the message sent and should response accordingly.

4.       Form of communication: Communication may take several form e.g. order, instruction, report, queries etc. it may be verbal or written. It may be formal or informal.

5.       Scope of communication: communication pervades all human relationship. It is essential in all type of organizational and at all levels of management.

6.       Communication is a dynamic process: Communication is influenced by the mood and thinking of the sender and receiver. The way a message is accepted depends upon the fact that which of the fine sensory organs of the receiver is active at that time.

7.       Communication is much more than words: Communication is not merely sending or receiving facts, expressed in words. It also involves ideas and emotions. A lot of communication is done through signs, symbols and gestures.

8.       Communication is a goal oriented process: Communication is a goal oriented and effective only when there is congruence of goals of sender and receiver.

Significance (Need) of Business communication

Communication is the life blood of business. It is an all pervasive function of management. Today the organizational structure is designed on the basis of specialization and division of labour. Large number of people work together who are functionally related to each other. Thus, co ordination is must amongst the workmen. Co-ordination can be achieved only when there is mutual trust and understanding between them. This understanding is created by effective communication. Thus communication is an essential ingredient for effective management. Further the role of communication may be summed up as:-

1. The objectives, plans and policies of the organization are cleared to the workers through communication.

2. It provides unity of direction to various activities of the enterprise.

3. It helps in controlling and coordinating the various activities of the organization.

4. It helps in motivating the workers of an organization.

5. It helps the managers to develop their managerial skill.

According to Sir John Harvey-Jones, “Communication is the single most essential skill. Effective   communication is the need of the day.” In recent times communication has become all more essential due to the following reasons:-

1. Growth in the size of the business organization: An efficient system of communication is required because the business organizations are growing tremendously. Thousands of people work in the organization. Organizations have factories or offices in different parts of the country or even world.

2. Advance technology: Day by day rapid changes are taking place in science and technology leading to obsolescence of old technology. Thus in order to upgrade or modernize technology proper communication between the superior and subordinate in an organization is a must.

3. Tough competition in the market: Globalization and liberalization have resulted in cut throat competition. Thus to survive such competition, persuasive communication in form of advertisement, publicity, personal contacts are essential.

4. Growing specialization: Division of work paved way for specialists to work in different department’s sound communication is thus essential for ensuring mutual cooperation and understanding between different departments.

5. Trade union movement: trade union movement is on its growth. Management now has to consult trade unions on various matters. A strong and meaningful relation between management and trade union is possible only by effective communication.

6. Human relation: Employee’s participation in management helps to develop among them a sense of loyalty and belongingness towards the organization. Thus effective communication between management and employee is necessary to develop mutual trust and confidence.

7. Public relations: Public relations help an organization to improve its image in society as the organization has a social responsibility especially towards the customers.

Objectives of Business Communication

The objectives of business communication are wide and large. Information, Order, permission, Warning, Motivation, Advice and Raising morale are activated through the means of communication. The objectives of business communication are stated below:

1. To Exchange Information: The prime objective of communication is to exchange information internally and externally i.e. to deal within the organization and outside the organization.

2. To Achieve Goal: The goal of the organization can be obtained through effective organizational communication. Everybody tries to acquire such goal and therefore it requires effective organizational communication.

3. To Maintain Co-ordination and Co-operation: Co-ordination and co-operation among three levels i.e. corporate level, divisional level and functional level of an Organization are maintained through communication.

4. To Plan: Planning decides what is to be done in future. All the information and data which are required to make a plan for business can be obtained or gathered through communication.

5. To Facilitate Direction and Motivation: The boss gives direction or order to his subordinate. And managers need to motivate their employees to increase the concentration and productivity. Hence, communication helps to facilitate direction and motivation.

6. To Achieve Efficiency: Communication can provide information regarding past and present. It also helps to anticipate about future. So, Communication increases efficiency of the workers by providing instant information.

7. To Solve Problem: Communication can remove the gap between employees and employer. Fruitful communication ensures a network in an Organization to solve problems. Conflict arises and exists in an Organization. Fruitful communication ensures a network to solve conflict. It also removes the gap between employee and employer.

8. To Create Consciousness: Communication helps both employer and employee to be conscious about their respective roles, duties and activities. As a result, responsibility and accountability is located among the concerned persons.

9. To Increase Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction requires better job environment and better job environment is possible if there exists communication chain. Strong chain helps to overcome job related stress.

10. To Improve Employer-Employee Relationship: To achieve the Organizational objectives, there must be good relationship between employee and employer. And to improve such relationship, there must be effective communication.

Process of Communication

The process of communication is the inter relationship between several independent components. It consists of a chain of related actions and reaction which together result in exchange of information. In order to understand the process of communication, it is necessary to describe each of these components. A model of communication process is as follows:-

1.       SENDER

2.       IDEATION

3.       MESSAGE

4.       INCODING


6.       RECEIVER

7.       DECODING


9.       FEEDBACK

1.       Sender: The sender is the first component of the process of c communication. The sender may be a speaker, a writer or any other person. He is the one who has a message and wants it to share it for some purpose.

2.       Ideation: Ideation is the preliminary step in communication where sender creates an idea to communicate. This idea is the content and basis of the message to be communicated. Several ideas may generate in the sender’s mind. The sender must identify, analyze and arrange the ideas sequentially before transmitting them to the receiver.

3.       Message: Message is the heart of communication. It is what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. It may be verbal i.e. written or spoken or non verbal i.e. body language, space language, etc.

4.       Encoding: To encode is to put an idea into words. In this step the communicator organizes his ideas into a series of symbols or words which will be communicated to the intended receiver. Thus the ideas are converted into words or symbols. The words and the symbols should be selected carefully, it should be understandable and most of all it should be suitable for transmission and reception.

5.       Transmission: Next in the process of communication is transmission of the message as encoded messages are transmitted through various media and channels of communication connects the sender and the receiver. The channel and media should be selected keeping in mind the requirement of the receiver, the communication to be effective and efficient the channel should be appropriate.

6.       Receiver: Receiver is the person or group for whom the message is meant. He may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Any neglect on the part of the receiver may make the communication ineffective. Receiver is thus the ultimate destination of the message. It the message does not reach the receiver the communication is said to be incomplete.

7.       Decoding: Decoding means translation of symbols encoded by the sender into ideas for understanding. Understanding the message by receiver is the key to the decoding process. The message should be accurately reproduced in the receiver’s mind. If the receiver is unable to understand the message correctly the communication is ineffective.

8.       Behaviour of the receiver: It refers to the response by the receiver of the communication received from the sender. He may like to ignore the message or to store the information received or to perform the task assigned by the sender. Thus communication is complete as soon as the receiver responses.

9.       Feedback: Feedback indicates the result of communication. It is the key element in the communication and is the only way of judging the effectiveness of communication. It enables the sender to know whether his message has been properly interpreted or not. Systematic use of feedback helps to improve future message. Feedback, like the message could be oral, written or non verbal. It has to be collected from the receiver.

Forms of Communication

Communication is the transfer of ideas and information from one person to another person. It is a bridge of meaning among people so that they can share what they fell and know. By using this bridge, a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that sometimes separates people. To make successful communication there are different methods/ ways:

(A) On the basis of location of the receiver: Depending on the location of the receiver there are two types of communication:

1. Internal Communication

2. External Communication

1. Internal Communication: Communication among the members of an organization is known as internal communication. That is when executives and employee of an organization communicate each other within the organization then it will be labeled as internal communication.

2. External Communication: When executives and employees of an organization communicates or exchanges information with outsiders of the organization then it is called external communication.

Both internal and external communication can be subdivided into two types:

i. Formal Communication

ii. Informal Communication 

i. Formal Communication:  When information exchanged through formal organization channels by following fixed rules then it is knows as formal communication.

ii. Informal Communication: Fixed rules and system cannot prevent people from talking with each other. Thus the communication that takes place within and outside of an organization through unofficial lines can labeled as informal communication.

(B) On the basis of media of presentation: From this point of view communication can be of three types:

(1) Written communication 

(2) Oral / Verbal Communication

(3) Non-Verbal Communication

(1) Written Communication: When information, ideas, or feelings exchange in written form that is known as written communication. Written communication has its own importance and for some particular purposes it has no other alternatives.

(2) Oral / Verbal Communication: It is a process of communication through words. Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns. Oral communication normally takes place in a face to face situation. It may be formal or informal.

(3) Non-Verbal Communication: Communication without using words or writings known as non-verbal communication. In other words, non-verbal communication means communication through physical movements and facial expressions. Gestures, posture, eye movements, etc. are examples of non-verbal communication.

(C) On the Basis of Information flow: Depending on the flow of information there are different types of communication:

(1) Vertical Communication

(2) Horizontal Communication

(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication

(1) Vertical Communication: When communication takes place between superior and subordinates than it is known as vertical communication. Here flow of information can be of two types:

(i) Downward

(ii) Upward 

(i) Downward: it is the flow of information from higher authority to lower authority.

(ii) Upward: Here the flow of information goes to higher authority from subordinates.

(2) Horizontal Communication: This type of communication flows between employees of equal level.

(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication: Communication across the formal chain of command is known as cross or diagonal communication. In this case executives and employees of different departments and of different levels communicate each other without maintaining the official channels.

(D) Other forms of Communication:  Besides the above types of communication there can be some other forms of communication like mass communication.

Mass Communication: When communication takes place among large group of people then it can be termed as mass communication. There is no formal system for mass communication, it is situational. For different social and political purposes mass communication can takes place.

Meaning of Feedback and Its Importance

The receiver’s response or reaction to the sender’s message is called feedback. Feedback ensures proper and mutual understanding between sender and receiver. Feedback provides primary information about the success of the communication. In other words, feedback is the reaction to the sender message. When receiver answers or responses to the sender’s through a message or information is called feedback. Some definitions of feedback are as follows:

According to Pearson and Nelson, “Feedback is the receiver’s verbal and nonverbal response to the source’s message.”

According to Bovee and others, “Feedback is a response from the receiver that informs the sender how the message is being interpreted and how the communication is being received in general.”

According to Bartol and Martin, “Feedback is the receiver’s basic response to the interpreted message.”

According to S.P. Robbins, “Feedback determines whether or not understanding has been achieved.”

So, feedback is the process of reaction or response of receiver to the sender with regard to the sender’s message.

Importance of Feedback in Communication Process

Communication plays a very crucial role in an organization. In fact, communication is the reason for human existence. Feedback provides primary information about the success of the communication process. It is the basis of proper understanding between sender and receiver. It is especially important in two way communication process. The necessities of feedback are given below:

1. Achievement of goal: Feedback helps to achieve goals of the communication. The main objective of feedback in communication process is to get necessary information from the receiver and hear the receiver’s reaction regarding the subject matter.

2. Basis of problem solving and decision making: Importance of Feedback act as a basis of problem solving and decision making of the organization. Here, communicator or sender can get different information from the receiver which act as evidence and may be needed in decision making.

3. Collection of information: Feedback is a good basis of collecting information for planning on what nest to be done especially statistical report.

4. Coordination of activates: The employees who engaged in various departments have to co-ordinate, contact and send back response as feedback with each other for performing their assign duties.

5. Effective communication: Feedback is a basis for measuring the effectiveness of communication. Whether receiver has shown positive or negative attitude with the sender fully depends on importance of feedback.

6. Practicing democratic approach: Feedback helps to subordinate to express their opinion independently. They can exchange their ideas and opinions freely with superiors. They can also share their creative ideas with superiors which ensure practicing democratic approach in the organization.

7. Better understanding: Feedback ensures better understanding between sender and receiver. When receiver response to the sender, sender can easily evaluate the attitudes of the receiver.

8. Improving labor-management relations: Improved labor-management relationship is essential to every organization. It is prerequisites for organizational success and productivity.

9. Completes the process of communication: Feedback completes the whole process of communication and makes it continuous and sustains communication process.

10. New idea generation: feedback is a main way for new idea generation. It helps to subordinate to express their new and creative opinion freely without any hesitation.

11. Field of expressing opinions: Employees need to be provided with a venue for expressing their needs, concerns and opinions. When an employee has an issue with an experience, they need the proper outlet to provide feedback to be accessible and easy to find.

12. Ensure greater productivity: The more satisfied customers and the more motivated employees ensure more sales and create a favorable bottom line. Feedback will create greater productivity n the long run.

Meaning of Effective Communication

Communication becomes effective when the receiver understands the meaning of the message as the sender intends. All communication attempts may not be effective. Certain barriers and problems may cause communication failure. When information is received timely, exact meaning of the message is understood and proper feedback is given, communication becomes effective. Consequently, to make an effective communication, the following qualities of communication are needed:

1. Timely receiving.

2. Understanding exact meaning of the message.

3. Proper feedback is given by the receiver to the sender.

R.W. Griffin mentioned about Effective Communication, "Effective communication is the process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended."

How Communication is made effective?

Communication becomes effective when the receiver understands the meaning of the message as the sender intends. To make communication effective, the following rules should be involved:

1. Specific Purpose: The sender must be clear about the specific purpose that he wants to communicate to the receiver.

2. Study the Listener: The sender must study the interest and attitude of the receiver to make communication effective more.

3.  Organization of Idea or Thought: The communicator must make up a plan about how he is going to communicate. He must organize his thoughts and ideas in advance.

4. Proper Transmission of Message: The message must be transmitted in such a way that it is accepted by the listener or reader with interest.

5. Personal Touch: The personal element is the keynote of communication. Sender's sincerity & sympathy influence the listener a lot. 

6. Mutual Understanding: A mutual understanding should be established between the sender and receiver of the message.

7. Awareness of the Need for Effective Communication: The sender and receiver of communication must be aware to make communication meaningful.

8. Provision for Feedback: When message is sent to the receiver, there must be a feedback to the sender. Two way communications creates the best possible feedback.

9. Selection of a Good Channel: The sender of message must select an effective and formal channel to communicate with the receiver.

10. Active Listening: This provides proper feedback to the sender to complete the communication process.


Effective communication is one of the master skills to boost productivity. A communication is said effective when message will be received and understood the way we intended. A very helpful guideline to effective communication is given by the 7 C’s and 4 S’s. In any business environment, adherence to the 7C’s and 4S’s helps the sender in transmitting his message with ease and accuracy. The 7C’s are as follows:

1. Conciseness: The message to be communicated should be as brief and concise as possible. Only simple and brief statements should be made.

2. Concreteness: Concrete and specified expressions should be used in favour of vague and abstract expressions. The facts should also be specified. The level of message of the sender should be according to the receiver’s level of knowledge, understanding and educational background. Such communication builds confidence between sender and receiver.

3. Consistency: Communication approach must have consistency. Excessive vicissitudes might lead to confusion in the mind of the receiver. All the ideas and points must work in tandem and form an appropriate sequence. Such communication will minimise communication barriers.

4. Correctness: It is mandatory to send the message in a correct manner i.e. it must have supporting facts, figures, examples etc. This is done to ensure that if any idea has remained unclear to the receiver he may understand it more clearly, correctly and appropriately based on the supply of facts etc. The sender's ideas must be balanced. The most important aspects of the message should be emphasised for increased attention of the receiver.

5. Clarity: Clarity of thought should precede a conversation. The message constructed by the sender should be unambiguous should adhere to a simple sentence structure. This permits the receiver to understand the message with little effort. Complete clarity of ideas facilitates ease of comprehension. Ideas should be conveyed in a manner that they are understood with simplicity.

6. Credibility: The above-mentioned points prove futile in the absence of the credibility factor because credibility depends on the trust factor between the sender and receiver. The sender should exude confidence that the receiver will receive the message being sent by him. Similarly, the receiver should maintain constant interaction with the sender and display trust in the sender's credibility. He should accept the sender's messages as the truth.

7. Courtesy: Courtesy follows credibility. Results beyond expectation can be achieved if tact, diplomacy and appreciation of people are woven in the message. Courtesy in expression is an effective and integral part of business world. Once the credibility of the sender has been established, attempts should be made at being courteous in expression. In the business world, being courteous can pave the way to success.

The 4S’s are as follows: The 4S’s are as important as 7C’s. They also increase the possibility of effective communication.

1. Sincerity: Sincerity increases the level of trust between sender and receiver. The receiver also expects sincerity from the sender. If there is a slight sense of insincerity in the message and if the observer is keen about the message then it may affect the communication process.

2. Strength: The strength of the message depends upon the credibility of the sender. If the sender himself believes in the message then there is strength and conviction in whatever he states. Half hearted statements or utterances that the sender does not believe in pepper the process of communication with falsehood.

3. Simplicity: Simplicity of language is a pivotal factor is communication. Lucidity of ideas, simple words give rise to an unequivocal message.

4. Shortness: The message must be precise and concise. Brief messages are transmitted and comprehended more clearly, more effortlessly and are more effective and economical.



Interpersonal communication is the ability to relate to people in written as well as verbal communication.   It can occur in either one to one or a group of people.  It also means being able to handle different people in different situations.  Gestures such as eye contact, body movement and hand gestures are also part of interpersonal communication.   Listening, talking and conflict resolutions are the common features of interpersonal communication.   The types of interpersonal communication may vary from verbal to non verbal and from situation to situation.


Intrapersonal communication is defined as the communication process within an individual.   It is the foundation for all communication.   Each and every one is having intrapersonal communication at all times.  It begins with language and thought itself, but includes our perception of what language and thought are.   Every individual may see something and assume a particular attitude toward the subject; however one can be certain that each assumption made is distinctly different. Intrapersonal communication is a challenge because one has so many variations that arise from our perceptions at particular moments.

Models of Communication

Linear Model of Business Communication

In linear model, communication is considered one way process where sender is the only one who sends message and receiver doesn't give feedback or response. The message signal is encoded and transmitted through channel in presence of noise. The sender is more prominent in linear model of communication. Linear model was founded by Shannon and Weaver which was later adapted by David Berlo into his own model known as SMCR (Source, Message, Channel, Receiver) Model of Communication. Linear model is applied in mass communication like television, radio, etc. This model is not applicable in general human communication as general human communication has to have feedback and responses.

Criticisms of Linear Model

1)      The model assumes that communication has a particular beginning and an end, so it is not continuous.

2)      There is no concept of feedback which makes it inapplicable to direct human communication and only applicable to mass communication like newspaper, television, etc. There is no way to know if the communication was effective or not.

3)      Human communication is mostly circular rather than linear as audience is also an active participant.

4)      Communication may not happen in turns and more than one message can be sent at the same time.

5)      The sender must have the ability to encode and the receiver must have the ability to decode.

6)      The model has become less relevant to electronic communication and internet where it’s not clear who is the sender and who is the receiver.

Cyclical or Transactional model of Business Communication

Cyclical or Transactional model of communication is the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages. Here, both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending and receiving occurs at the same time. The communicators can be humans or machines but humans are taken as communicators in this article to analyze general communication between humans. The model is mostly used for interpersonal communication and is also called circular model of communication.

Criticisms of Transactional Model

1)      Without verbal response, the sender cannot be sure that the receiver got the message as intended. Feedback is an important component in the communication process, especially in interpersonal communication as it gives a space to clarify misunderstandings.

2)      The transactional model gives the opportunity for a lot of noise because the communication is simultaneous. For example, when many people are talking at the same time in a meeting, the objective of the meeting will not be fulfilled.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

In 1948, Shannon was an American mathematician, Electronic engineer and Weaver was an American scientist both of them join together to write an article in “Bell System Technical Journal” called “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” and also called as “Shannon-Weaver model of communication”. This model is specially designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver. Also they find factors which affecting the communication process called “Noise”. At first the model was developed to improve the Technical communication. Later it’s widely applied in the field of Communication.

The model deals with various concepts like Information source, transmitter, Noise, channel, message, receiver, channel, information destination, encode and decode.

Sender : The originator of message or the information source selects desire message.

Encoder : The transmitter which converts the message into signals. The sender’s messages converted into signals like waves or Binary data which is compactable to transmit the messages through cables or satellites. For example: In telephone the voice is converted into wave signals and it transmits through cables

Decoder : The reception place of the signal which converts signals into message. The receiver converts those binary data or waves into message which is comfortable and understandable for receiver. Otherwise receiver can’t receive the exact message and it will affect the effective communication between sender and receiver.

Receiver : The destination of the message from sender. Based on the decoded message the receiver gives their feed back to sender. If the message distracted by noise it will affect the communication flow between sender and receiver.

Noise:  The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message. The model is clearly deals with external noises only which affect the messages or signals from external sources. For example: If there is any problems occur in network which directly affect the mobile phone communication or distract the messages

Practical Example of  Shannon-Weaver model of communication :

Thomson made call to his assistant “come here I want to see you”.  During his call, noise appeared (transmission error) and his assistant received “I want” only. Again Assistant asked Thomson (feedback) “what do you want Thomson”.

Sender       :   Thomson

Encoder     :   Telephone (Thomson)

Channel     :   Cable

Noise          :   Distraction in voice

Reception  :   Telephone (Assistant)

Receiver     :   Assistant.

Due to transmission error or noise, Assistant can’t able to understand Thomson’s messages.

Criticism of Shannon-Weaver model of communication :

1.       One of the simplest model and its generally not applied in various communication theories.

2.       The model which attracts both academics of Human communication and Information theorist to leads their further research in communication.

3.       It’s more effective in person-to-person communication rather than group or mass audience.

4.       The model based on “Sender and Receiver”. Here sender plays the primary role and receiver plays the secondary role (receive the information or passive)

5.       Communication is not a one way process.  If it’s behaved like that, it will lose its strength. For example: Audience or receiver who listening a radio, reading the books or watching television is a one way communication because absence of feedback.

6.       Understanding Noise will helps to solve the various problems in communication.

David Berlo Model of Communication:

While the Aristotle model of communication puts the speaker in the central position and suggests that the speaker is the one who drives the entire communication, the Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. Berlo’s model of communication operates on the SMCR model.

a) S – Source: The source in other words also called the sender is the one from whom the thought originates. He is the one who transfers the information to the receiver after carefully putting his thoughts into words. It is done with the help of communication skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social System and Culture.

Communication Skills: An individual must possess excellent communication skills to make his communication effective and create an impact among the listeners. The speaker must know where to take pauses, where to repeat the sentences, how to speak a particular sentence, how to pronounce a word and so on.

Attitude: It is rightly said that if one has the right attitude, the whole world is at his feet. There is actually no stopping for the person if he has the right attitude. A person might be a very good speaker but if he doesn’t have the right attitude, he would never emerge as a winner.

Knowledge: Here knowledge is not related to the educational qualification of the speaker or the number of degrees he has in his portfolio. Knowledge is actually the clarity of the information which the speaker wants to convey to the second party. One must be thorough in what he is speaking with complete in-depth knowledge of the subject.

Culture: Culture refers to the cultural background of the community or the listeners where the speaker is communicating or delivering his speech.

b) M – Message: When an individual converts his thoughts into words, a message is created. The process is also called as Encoding. Any message further comprises of the following elements:

Content: One cannot show his grey matter to others to let him know what he is thinking. A thought has to be put into words and content has to be prepared. Content is actually the matter or the script of the conversation. It is in simpler words, the backbone of any communication.

Element: It has been observed that speech alone cannot bring a difference in the communication. Keep on constantly speaking and the listeners will definitely lose interest after some time. The speech must be coupled with lots of hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements to capture the attention of the listeners and make the speech impressive. Hand movements, gestures, postures, facial expressions, body movements, gestures all come under the elements of the message.

Treatment: Treatment is actually the way one treats his message and is conveys to the listeners. One must understand the importance of the message and must know how to handle it.

Structure: A message cannot be expressed in one go. It has to be properly structured in order to convey the message in the most desired form.

Code: Enter a wrong code and the locks will never open. Enter a wrong password, you will not be able to open your email account. In the same way the code has to be correct in the communication.

c) C - Channel: Channel actually refers to the medium how the information flows from the sender to the receiver.

How does one know what the other person is speaking ? - Through Hearing.

How does one know whether the pasta he has ordered is made in white sauce or not ? - Through Tasting.

How does one know that there is a diversion ahead or it’s a no parking zone? - Through Seeing. How will an individual come to know that the food is fresh or stale ? How do we find out the fragrance of a perfume ? – Through Smelling.

How will you find out whether the milk is hot or not ? - Through Touching.

All the five senses are the channels which help human beings to communicate with each other.

d) R – Receiver: When the message reaches the receiver, he tries to understand what the listener actually wants to convey and then responds accordingly. This is also called as decoding. The receiver should be on the same platform as the speaker for smooth flow of information and better understanding of the message. He should possess good communication skills to understand what the speaker is trying to convey. He should have the right attitude to understand the message in a positive way. His knowledge should also be at par with the listener and must know about the subject. He should also be from the same social and cultural background just like the speaker.

There are several loopholes in the Berlo’s model of communication. According to the berlo’s model of communication, the speaker and the listener must be on a common ground for smooth conversion which is sometimes not practical in the real scenario.



To send out a meaningful communication, the sender needs to know the audience or audiences he is dealing with. Otherwise one lands with a situation where one has spoken but not told. If it is a buyer’s market, with a choice of products to the consumer, the need to know the audience is even more urgent.

Modern management researchers have identified five types of audiences:

a)      Primary audience: This is the audience that will decide the fate of your communication – to act on it or not to act on it. The housewife who selects the washing soap is the primary audience to a soap ad.

b)      Secondary audience: These are the people who comment on the message and implement the decision once it is taken. The husband who buys the soap from the market is the secondary audience.

c)       Initial audience: This is the person or persons who are the first to receive the message and then pass it on to someone else to deal with. The general manager may be the one to receive and address a complaint to the sales manager. He is, then the initial audience.

d)      “Gatekeeper” audience: These are the people who have the power to stop the message before it reaches the addressee. The secretary to chairman is a gatekeeper audience.

e)      “Watch dog” audience: This includes all alert by standers who see a message conveyed and, if necessary, react favorably or otherwise. Woman activists, as a watch dog audience, may object to some posters.


Now one can see that the communication must pass through the filter or screen reach where it is meant to, convey the correct sense, be acted upon, and withstand the scrutiny of the alert.

The importance of audience analysis: If you have been sending messages for a large number of people, then you probably know that “many men, many minds”. Some like an emotional appeal, some an intellectual or scientific. That is why advertisement of a food product says: “Taste may be the reason, vitamins the excuse – or vice versa.” This is a clever device to attract all kind of consumers.

Knowing your audience

To know an audience is to know what motivates the members of it. In Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, Antony has to speak to the Romans after Caesar’s murder. The Romans at that time dislike the dead king. Antony has to gain sympathy for Caesar and create antipathy for the killers. He starts by befriending the listeners. He then makes an ironical remark about how people forget the good in others (here Caesar), and partially praises the murderers! He does not want to shock the listeners. He then shows how good a friend Caesar was to Antony …… and eventually shows how generous Caesar was to the citizens of Rome. Antony manages to reverse the mob opinion against the murderers and gets the Romans to hunt for them.

This is a masterpiece of persuasive communication based on common human psychology. A businessman may manipulate minds much the same way. He starts with an appeal to the values which the audience likes even if he has to create new values.

The audience may like the virtue of economy (limited spending), yet the businessman may play on human psychology to sell luxury goods that simplify life and make it comfortable. He appeals to a value (comfort) which is often deeper than the value of saving money.

Two-wheeler makers compete with each other by emphasizing different values in their target audience: the riding joy, the speed and acceleration, the fuel efficiency, the prestige of owning the number one product, and so on. The audience mood changes from one to the other as it receives different messages. So, after the businessman has made a study of what moves the audience, he adapts his message to it.

Audience analysis guides you to:

a)      Protecting the receiver’s ago.

b)      Blending logic and emotion with suitable images of each.

c)       A choice of appealing arguments, facts and figures.

d)      Underlining the positive in your message.

You may organize the message this way:

a)      Be direct except to give bad news (e.g. declining dividends).

b)      Outline the message.

c)       Use headings and subheadings as you go.

As for the style of the message:

a)      Make the language easy at every level – words, sentences, quotes.

b)      Avoid being defensive or rude.

c)       Remove negativity.

d)      Use the languages with which the audience is at ease – conversational and familiar.

Advice on visuals:

a)      Use charts, models, photos etc.

b)      Get the visuals designed by graphic experts.

c)       Use appealing colour combinations.

In the case of a mixed audience, it is best to give priority to (i) Those that will decide to act or not to act on the message. (ii) The ones who will screen it. A film is made to suit the common taste of the public and the censor board. 

Conclusion: After going through this article, i believe all of you have now complete idea about business communication. If you like our Business Communication Notes article then visit our website regularly.

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