## Saturday, December 29, 2018

2013
(November)
PHILOSOPHY
(Major)
Course: 502
(Logic - Western)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Find out the correct answer: 1x8=8
1. Symbolic logic uses ideograms which stand directly/indirectly for concepts.
2. If a premise is negative, the major premise is universal/particular in Fourth figure.
3. When the truth value of is true and the truth- value of is false then the truth-value of will be true/false.
4. There are three/four rules of quantification.
5. Classical theory of probability is advanced by Bertrand Russell/De Morgan.
6. Problem of Induction is raised by Hume/John Venn.
7. De Morgan’s theorem is a kind of Rule of Inference/Rule of Replacement.
8. If one premise is particular the conclusion must be universal/particular in a syllogism.
2. Write short notes on any four of the following: 4x4=16
1. Use of symbols.
2. Characteristics of syllogism.
3. Rules of inference.
4. Predicate logic.
5. Working hypothesis.
3. “Classical logic is related to symbolic logic as embryo to adult organism.” Discuss. 11
Or
What is proposition according to modern logicians? Explain simple proposition and its various kinds.      1+10=11
4. Explain and illustrate the general rules of syllogisms. 12
Or
Test the validity of the following syllogistic forms by means of a Venn diagram: 3x4=12
1. EIO in First figure.
2. AEE in the Second figure.
3. IAI in Third figure.
4. EAE is Fourth figure.
5. Construct truth table for the following and find out whether they are tautologies, contradictions or contingent expressions:
1. 2
2. 2
3. 2
4. 2
5. 3
Or
Construct formal proof of validity for the following: 5 ½ x2=11
6. What do you mean by quantification? Write on the rules of quantification. 2+9=11
Or
Symbolize the following propositions by using quantifiers:
1. All ripe bananas are sweet and nutritious. 2
2. Mangoes are sweet or tart. 2
3. Some teachers are either humble or boastful. 2
4. All but singers were absent. 2
5. Some books are interesting and funny. 3
7. What do you mean by the problems of induction? How does Mill attempt to solve the problem? Discuss.       2+9=11
Or
State and explain with examples the method of concomitant variation. What is the significance of this method? 1+8+2=11

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