2015

(November)

PHILOSOPHY

(Major)

Course: 502

(Logic - Western)

Full Marks: 80

Pass Marks: 32

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Find out the correct answer: 1x8=8

- A proposition by itself is/is not an argument.
- No valid standard form categorical syllogism with a particular conclusion can have two particular/universal premises.
- When the truth value of is true and the truth value of is false, then the truth value of will be true/false.
- The symbolic expression of the phrase ‘there is at least one such that’ is.
- The relation between universal and existential quantification is expressed through square of proposition/opposition.
- The method of agreement/difference is based on the canon of elimination that whatever antecedent can be left out without prejudice to the effect can be no part of the cause.
- In analogy, we pass from particular to general/particular to particular.
- “The ground of induction is itself a result of induction” is a statement of Bain/Mill.

2. Write short notes on any four of the following: 4x4=16

- Relational proposition.
- Existential fallacy.
- Rules of replacement.
- Symbolization of singular proposition.
- Hume’s problem of induction.

3. What do you mean by sound argument? Explain the differences between Traditional logic and Modern logic. 3+8=11

Or

Explain the square of opposition of propositions with suitable example. 11

4. Define syllogism. Explain any four general rules of syllogism. 4+8=12

Or

Test the validity of the following syllogistic forms by means of a Venn diagram: 3x4=12

- AAA in the Second Figure.
- EIO in the Third Figure.
- AEE in the First Figure.
- IAI in the Fourth Figure.

5. Construct truth table for the following and find out whether they are tautologies, contradictions or contingent expressions: 2+2+2+2+3=11

Or

Construct formal proof of validity for the following: 5½x2=11

6. What do you mean by predicate logic? Explain the rules of universal instantiation and existential generalization with examples. 3+8=11

Or

Symbolize the following propositions by using quantifies: 2+2+3+2+2=11

- Men are all bird lovers.
- Nothing is both right and wrong.
- Not any atheist believes in God.
- A few students are meritorious.
- There are green cloths.

7. Explain probability. What are the grounds of probability? Explain them. 5+6=11

Or

State and explain the joint method of agreement and difference after J. S. Mill. 11

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