Dibrugarh University B.Com 6th Sem: International Business Solved Papers (May' 2016)

2016 (May)
COMMERCE (General)
Course: 602 (International Business)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Write the full form of the following:                                                                 1x8=8
a)      DGFT =Directorate General of Foreign Trade.
b)      ECGC =Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited.
c)       TRIPS = Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property.
d)      EPCs = Export Promotion Councils.
e)      OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operative and Development.
f)       OPEC = Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
g)      EOUs = Export Oriented Units.
h)      MFN = Most Favoured Nation.
2. Write short notes on the following (any four):                             4x4=16
a) Export Processing Zone: Export Processing Zones are industrial estates, which form enclaves from the Domestic Tariff Areas (DTA). These are usually situated near seaports or airports. They are intended to provide an internationally competitive duty free environment for export production at low cost. This enables the products of EPZs to be competitive, both quality wise and price-wise, in the international markets. These zones have been set up at various places in India which include: Kandla (Gujarat), Santa Cruz (Mumbai), Falta (West Bengal), Noida (Uttar Pradesh), Cochin (Kerala), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), and Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh). Santa Cruz zone is exclusively meant for electronic goods and gem and jewellery items. All other EPZs deal with multifarious items. Recently the EPZs have been converted to Special Economic Zones (SEZs) which are more advanced form of export processing zones. These SEZs are free from all rules and regulations governing imports and exports units except relating to labour and banking Government has also permitted development of EPZs by private, state or joint sector. The inter-ministerial committee on private EPZs has already cleared proposals for setting up of private EPZs in Mumbai, Surat and Kanchipuram.
b) Export-Import Bank of India: The Export-Import (EXIM) Bank of India is the principal financial institution in India for coordinating the working of institutions engaged in financing export and import trade. It is a statutory corporation wholly owned by the Government of India. It was established on January 1, 1982 for the purpose of financing, facilitating and promoting foreign trade of India. Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) was set up by an Act of the Parliament “THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1981” for providing financial assistance to exporters and importers, and for functioning as the principal financial institution for co-ordinating the working of institutions engaged in financing export and import of goods and services with a view to promoting the country’s international trade and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
c) Deferred Payment System: A deferred payment is an arrangement in which a debt does not have to be repaid until sometime in the future. The debt might be created when a person imported a good or service. The use of deferred payment plans is one of the more common sales and marketing tools used by companies. Essentially, the underlying concept is that importer can buy now and pay later. When an importer is unable to pay for the purchase right away but has a reasonable expectation of being able to provide payment in full by a certain date in the future, a deferred payment plan makes sense for both the consumer and the seller. Some companies offer these plans only to preferred customers, but others offer them to everyone.
In case of a foreign trade deferred payment means payment made by a buyer at a specified or determinable future date stipulated in the letter of credit or documentary collection, providing that the documents are found to be in order. An example is 60 days after date of transport document or invoice date. No draft is called for under this type of payment. It is important to remember that a buyer will have credit/collateral/cash tied up until payment is made; and if a deferred payment is made through a letter of credit, it is guaranteed to a seller just as if it were made immediately. The risk increases for a seller if the remitting bank is located in a risky country.
d) Export Credit Insurance: Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited, was established in the year 1957 by the Government of India to strengthen the export promotion drive by covering the risk of exporting on credit. ECGC provides a range of export credit risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and services, and also offers guarantees to banks and financial institutions to enable exporters obtain better facilities from them.
Export credit insurance is a policy offered by ECGC and private entities to business houses who wants to their assets from the credit risk of importers. These risks include non-payment risk, currency risks and political risk.  Exporters have a lot to benefit from export credit as it provides:
1)      insurance protection to exporters against payment risks
2)      provides information on credit-worthiness of overseas buyers
3)      provides information on about 180 countries with its own credit ratings
4)      guidance in export related activities
5)      makes it easy to obtain export finance from banks/financial institutions
6)      assists exporters in recovering bad debts
a)      Export Promotion Councils: Export Promotion Council: The Export Promotion Councils are established under the Companies Act 2013 to provide direct institutional support to the Indian exporters. The Government of India has created a separate export promotion council for every industry. Export Promotion Councils are the representative bodies of the various exporting industries. They serve as a bridge between the Government and exporters for export promotion and development. The exporters should register themselves with the respective export promotion councils and become the member of the councils. A nominal fee is charged by the export promotion council to issue membership certificate. This certificate is called Registration-cum-Membership Certificate (RCMC). This certificate is issued in terms of the EXIM policy. Export Promotion council helps the member-exporters on technical matters, export marketing strategies and export promotion. Experts are appointed in various working committees of the export promotion councils in order to help the exporters to solve various issues relating to international trade. The offices of the Indian Export Promotion Councils are established in foreign countries for the benefit of the Indian exporters. The export promotion council perform both advisory and executive functions.
b)      Bilateral Agreement.
3. (a) Discuss the growth of India’s foreign trade in the context of global foreign trade.      12
Ans: India’s Foreign trade in global context
Most countries have managed the political process of keeping protectionism at bay despite growing unemployment and shrinkage of employment opportunities. Over the past few years, the number of restriction on international trade has dropped sharply. Member countries of the WTO have resorted to emergency measures to block imports on fewer occasions. Such measures included anti-dumping levies, recourse to special safeguards mechanism, and imposition of countervailing duties. However, cities of the report contend that protectionism exists but in less traditional forms. For instance, the bailout of financial institutions and car companies, and “Buy American” procurement rules in the US are cited as examples of protectionism. The failure to move ahead with the Doha round of trade talks is perhaps the most relevant example of lack of commitment among industrialized countries to free trade.
India and other select countries (2000-09)

(US$ billion 2008
Growth rate %
Share in world
Exports (%)
Change in
Share (%)
Hong Kong
Emerging &
Developing Economies












Recent Trends and Developments in India’s Foreign Trade
I. Trade in Merchandise
EXPORTS (including re-exports)
In consonance with the revival exhibited by exports in the last four months, during January,2017 exports continue to show a positive growth of 4.32 per cent in dollar terms (valued at US$ 22115.03 million) and 5.61 per cent in Rupee terms (valued at Rs. 150559.98 crore) as compared to US$ 21199.02 million (Rs. 142568.31 crore) during January,2016.
Cumulative value of exports for the period April-January 2016-17 was US$ 220922.78 million (Rs. 1484473.55 crore) as against US$ 218532.64 million (Rs. 1420572.68 crore) registering a positive growth of 1.09 per cent in Dollar terms and positive growth of 4.50 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year.
Non-petroleum exports in January 2017 were valued at US$ 19422.86 million against US$ 19111.38 million in January 2016, an increase of 1.6 %. Non-petroleum exports during April - January 2016-17 were valued at US$ 196254.10 million as compared to US$ 192071.50 million for the corresponding period in 2016, an increase of 2.2%.
The growth in exports is positive for USA (2.63%),EU(5.47%) and Japan(13.43%) but China has exhibited negative growth of (-1.51%) for November 2016 over the corresponding period of previous year as per latest WTO statistics.
Imports during January 2017 were valued at US$ 31955.94 million (Rs. 217557.32 crore) which was 10.70 per cent higher in Dollar terms and 12.07 per cent higher in Rupee terms over the level of imports valued at US$ 28866.53 million (Rs. 194134.02 crore) in January, 2016. Cumulative value of imports for the period April-January 2016-17 was US$ 307311.86 million (Rs. 2065656.42 crore) as against US$ 326277.38 million (Rs. 2120158.57 crore) registering a negative growth of 5.81 per cent in Dollar terms and 2.57 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year.
Oil imports during January, 2017 were valued at US$ 8140.83 million which was 61.07 percent higher than oil imports valued at US$ 5054.29 million in January 2016. Oil imports during April-January, 2016-17 were valued at US$ 69062.66 million which was 5.81 per cent lower than the oil imports of US$ 73321.66 million in the corresponding period last year.
Non-oil imports during January, 2017 were estimated at US$ 23815.11 million which was 0.01 per cent higher than non-oil imports of US$ 23812.24 million in January, 2016. Non-oil imports during April-January 2016-17 were valued at US$ 238249.20 million which was 5.81 per cent lower than the level of such imports valued at US$ 252955.72 million in April-January, 2015-16. 
II. TRADE IN SERVICES (for December, 2016, as per the RBI Press Release dated 15th February 2017)
EXPORTS (Receipts): Exports during December 2016 were valued at US$ 13804 Million (Rs. 93729.71 Crore) registering a positive growth of 3.49 per cent in dollar terms as compared to positive growth of 1.72 per cent during November 2016 (as per RBI’s Press Release for the respective months).
IMPORTS (Payments): Imports during December 2016 were valued at US$ 8294 Million (Rs. 56316.59 Crore) registering a negative growth of 0.35 per cent in dollar terms as compared to positive growth of 8.37 per cent during November 2016 (as per RBI’s Press Release for the respective months).
MERCHANDISE: The trade deficit for April-January, 2016-17 was estimated at US$ 86389.08 million which was 19.82% lower than the deficit of US$ 107744.74 million during April-January, 2015-16.
SERVICES: As per RBI’s Press Release dated 15th February 2017, the trade balance in Services (i.e. net export of Services) for December, 2016 was estimated at US$ 5510 million. The net export of services for April- December, 2016-17 was estimated at US$ 48316 million which is lower than net export of services of US$ 53557 million during April- December, 2015-16. (The data for April-December 2015-16 and 2016-17 has been derived by adding April-December month wise QE data of RBI Press Release).
OVERALL TRADE BALANCE: Overall the trade balance has improved. Taking merchandise and services together, overall trade deficit for April- January 2016-17 is estimated at US$ 38073.08 million which is 29.7 percent lower in Dollar terms than the level of US$ 54187.74 million during April-January 2015-16. (Services data pertains to April-December 2016-17 as December 2016 is the latest data available as per RBI’s Press Release dated 15th February 2017)
(b) Write a brief note on Export-Import Policy of Government of India.                           12
Ans: Export – Import Policy or Foreign Trade Policy: No country is self-sufficient in the world today.  Therefore, every country has to import goods and to pay for imports it has to export goods to other countries.  The ideal situation would be if every country specialized in the production of those goods in which it has a comparative cost advantage.  But in addition to comparative cost several other factors including political considerations have played an important part in determining the pattern of imports and exports. To protect domestic industries, many countries in the past had imposed heavy tariffs to restrict imports. 
India's Foreign Trade Policy also known as Export Import Policy (EXIM) in general, aims at developing export potential, improving export performance, encouraging foreign trade and creating favorable balance of payments position. Foreign Trade Policy is prepared and announced by the Central Government (Ministry of Commerce). Foreign Trade Policy or EXIM Policy is a set of guidelines and instructions established by the DGFT (Directorate General of Foreign Trade) in matters related to the import and export of goods in India.
The foreign trade policy, has offered more incentives to exporters to help them tide over the effects of a likely demand slump in their major markets such as the US and Europe. Foreign trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, it represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history, its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.
Export- Import (EXIM) Policy 2002-07 
In order to maintain the balance of payments and to avoid trade deficit the government of India has announced a trade policy for imports and exports. After every five years the government of India reviews the import and export policy in view of the changing international economic situation.  The policy relates to promotion of exports and regulation of imports so as to promote economic growth and overcome trade deficit. Accordingly, the export-and import policies (EXIM Policy) were announced by the government first in 1985 and then in 1988 which was again revised in 1990.  All these policies made necessary provision for extension of import liberalisation measures.  All these policies made necessary provision for import of capital goods and raw materials for industrialization, utilisation and liberalisation of REP (Registered Exporters Policy) licenses, liberal import of technology and policy for export and trading houses.  The government announced its new EXIM policy for 2002-2007 which is mainly a continuation of the EXIM policy of 1997-2002. The new export-import policy for 2002-2007 aims at pushing up growth of exports to 12 per cent a year as compared to about 1.56 per cent achieved during the financial year 2001-2002.  
The main features of this export- import policy are given below:
a)      Concessions to exporters: To enable Indian companies to compete effectively in the competitive international markets and to give a boost to sagging exports various concessions had been given to the exporters in this new EXIM policy 2002-2007.  These concessions are:
1.       Exporters will now have 360 days to bring in their foreign exchange remittances as compared to the earlier limit of 180 days.
2.       Exporters will be allowed to retain the entire amount held in their exchange earner foreign currency (EEFC) accounts.
3.       Exporters will now get long-term loans at the prime lending rate for that tenure.
b)      Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) and Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) SchemesDEPB and EPCG are important tools of promoting exports.  These schemes have been made more flexible.  In the DEPB and EPCG schemes new initiatives have been granted to the cottage industries, handicrafts, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, textile and leather products.
c)       Strengthening Special Export Zones (SEZ): The new long-term EXIM policy has sought to enable Indian SEZs to be at par with its international rivals.  The EXIM policy has given a boost to the banking sector reforms by permitting Indian banks to set up overseas banking units in SEZs. 
d)      Soft options for computer hardware industry: The export import (EXIM) policy has put the Indian computer manufacturers at par with manufacturers in other parts of the world. Companies manufacturing or assembling computers in the country will be able to import both capital and raw materials at lower duty rates to sell in the domestic market.
As per the information technology agreement which is part of the world trade organisation zero duty the agreement on I. T. sector, 217 I. T. components would attract a zero duty by 2005.  Therefore, foreign companies can import these products into the country while Indian manufacturers who did the same had to meet export obligations on their imports.  Now, the new EXIM policy states that domestic sales will be considered as a fulfillment of the export obligation, thereby freeing the domestic manufacturers from exports completely.
Salient Features of Foreign Trade Policy 2009-14
1.       $ 200 billion or Rs 98,000 crore is the export target for 2010-11.
2.       100% growth of India’s export of goods and services by 2014.
3.       15% growth target for next two years; 25% thereafter.
4.       3.28% targeted India’s share of global trade by 2020 double from the current 1.64%.
5.       Jaipur, Srinagar Anantnag, Kanpur, Dewas and Ambur identified as towns of export excellence.
6.       26 new markets added to focus market scheme.
7.       Provision for state-run banks to provide dollar credits.
8.       Duty entitlement passbook scheme extended till Dec. 2010.
9.       Tax sops for export-oriented and software export units extended till March 2011.
10.   New directorate of trade remedy measures to be set up.
11.   Plan for diamond bourses.
12.   New facility to allow import of cut and polished diamonds for grading and certification.
13.   Export units allowed to sell 90% of goods in domestic market.
14.   Export oriented instant tea companies can sell up to 50% produce in domestic market.
15.   Single-window scheme for farm exports.
16.   Number of duty-free samples for exporters raised to 50 pieces.
17.   Value limits of personal carriage increased to $5 million (Rs 24.5 core) for participation in overseas exhibitions.
Salient Features of the present  Foreign Trade Policy 2015-2020
1.       Increase exports to $900 billion by 2019-20, from $466 billion in 2013-14
2.       Raise India's share in world exports from 2% to 3.5%.
3.       Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS) and Service Exports from India Scheme (SEIS) launched.
4.       Higher level of rewards under MEIS for export items with High domestic content and value addition.
5.       Chapter-3 incentives extended to units located in SEZs.
6.       Export obligation under EPCG scheme reduced to 75% to Promote domestic capital goods manufacturing.
7.       FTP to be aligned to Make in India, Digital India and Skills India initiatives.
8.       Duty credit scrips made freely transferable and usable For payment of custom duty, excise duty and service tax.
9.       Export promotion mission to take on board state Governments
10.   Unlike annual reviews, FTP will be reviewed after two-and-Half years.
11.   Higher level of support for export of defence, farm Produce and eco-friendly products.
4. (a) Analyze the performance of India’s foreign trade policies after liberalization of the economy.      11
Ans: Direction of Indian foreign trade since last 10 years or after liberalisation
The international environment is very important from the pint of view of certain categories of business. It is particularly important for industries directly depending on imports or exports and import-competing industries. An international marketer is required to understand, evaluate and work out various parameters before venturing into any country. These Parameters are called environmental factors and they determine the direction and purpose of the international business operation. Many decisions depend upon environmental factors right from selection of the country, location of the plant liaison with the government, and entry of investment from local bodies, product launch, channel management, promotion and opening of outlets. The first challenge for an organization is to navigate from its home country to the host country. Thereafter it has to develop a proper system so that the venture is successful in the host country; learn all about the regulatory bodies both in the host country and home country; understand the customer’s changing tastes and attitude towards foreign goods and finally obtain revenue and make the business effective with right people.
The severity of economic crisis of 1991 provided an opportunity to the Government to make far-reaching changes in macroeconomic policy. There was liberalisation of domestic investment by removing direct controls on private sector and adopted fiscal and monetary policies to promote growth. Besides, the New Economic Policy pursued since 1991 also liberalized foreign trade and investment. The growth strategy was made export-oriented. Not only quantitative restrictions on imports have been removed but also customs duties have been drastically reduced.
Thus efforts have been made to integrate the Indian economy with the global economy. Rupee was devalued in 1991 and from 1993 exchange rate of rupee was made market-determined. It is, therefore, important to know how India’s foreign trade sector has performed in response to these important changes in economic policy framework.
The performance of foreign trade since 1991 is shown in Table 27.6 which reveals that after a transition period of 2 years, merchandise exports grew at about 20 per cent a year in dollar terms for three successive years during 1993-94 to 1995-96. Then due to slowdown in world trade and recession in the USA which is India’s major trade partner, annual growth of exports slowed down from 1996-97 to 1999-2000.
However after 2000 up till 2007-08 with the exception of year 2001 -02 there was more than 20 per cent annual growth of exports on sustained basis for over eight years (2000 to 2008) and in 2007-08 average annual growth rate of our exports was around 29 per cent.

Despite the sluggish performance of exports from 1996-97 to 1998-99 deficit in trade balance remained below 4 per cent of GDP (See Col. IV of Table 27.8) due to the equally subdued growth in imports during this period. During the four-year period, 2004-05 to 2007-08, India’s imports grew at a much higher rate due to robust industrial growth relative to growth in our exports and as a result deficit in our trade balance greatly increased; as a percentage of GDP it was 4.8 per cent in 2004-05, 6.8 per cent in 2006-07, and 7.8 per cent in 2007-08.
Due to global financial crisis and consequent economic slowdown in the US and European countries, the growth rate of our exports fell to 13.6 per cent in 2008-09, whereas imports grew at 26.7 per cent. As a result deficit in our trade balance rose to 12 per cent of GDP.
Bolstered by the measures taken by the government to help exports in the aftermath of the world recession of 2008 and also the low base effect, India’s export growth of 40.5 per cent in 2010-11 reached an all time high since Independence. Though it decelerated in 2011 -12 to 21.3 per cent, it was still above 20 per cent and higher than the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.3 per cent for the period 2004-05 to 2011-12.
After registering very high growth of 56.5 per cent in July 2011, export growth started decelerating with a sudden fall to single digits in November 2011 as a result of the emerging global situation and then to negative figures from March 2012. Export growth rate in 2012-13 was negative and equal to – 1.8%. For three months in 2012-13, exports declined YOY by double digits with the largest decline recorded in July 2012 at – 15.1 per cent.
Export growth in dollar terms was negative at-1.8 per cent in 2012-13, compared to 21.3 percent growth in 2011-12 (full year). In rupee India’s export growth has almost continuously been above world export growth in the 2000s decade and in 2011. One issue that has been a topic of debate is whether India’s export growth rate is dependent on world growth/trade or exchange rate. There is a strong correspondence between India’s export growth and world export growth.
(b) Explain in detail the objectives of the foreign exchange control in India.                                                      11
Ans: Meaning of Exchange Control: Exchange control is one of the important means of achieving certain national objectives like an improvement in the balance of payments position, restriction of inessential imports and conspicuous consumption, facilitation of import of priority items, control of outflow of capital and maintenance of the external value of the currency. Under the exchange control, the whole foreign exchange resources of the nation, including those currently occurring to it, are usually brought directly under the control of the exchange control authority (the Central Bank, treasury or a specially constituted agency). Dealings and transactions in foreign exchange are regulated by the exchange control authority. Exporters have to surrender the foreign exchange earnings in exchange for home currency and the permission of the exchange control authority have to be obtained for making payments in foreign exchange. It is generally necessary to implement the overall regulations with a host of detailed provisions designed to eliminate evasion. The allocation of foreign exchange is made by the exchange control authority, on the basis of national priorities. Though the exchange control is administered by a central authority like the central bank, the day-to-day business of buying and selling foreign exchange ill ordinarily handled by private exchange dealers, largely the exchange department of commercial banks. For example, in India there are authorised dealers and money changers, entitled to conduct foreign exchange business.
Definition: Exchange control is a system in which the government of the country intervenes not only to maintain a rate of exchange which is quite different from what would have prevailed without such control and to require the home buyers and sellers of foreign currencies to dispose of their foreign funds in particular ways.
According to Crowther:
“When the Government of a country intervenes directly or indirectly in international payments and undertakes the authority of purchase and sale of foreign currencies it is called Foreign Exchange Control”.
Simply, Exchange Control means the control of the government in the purchase and sale of foreign currencies in order to restore the balance of payments equilibrium and disregard the market forces in the decision of monetary authority.
Objectives/Importance of Exchange Control are outlined below:
1.       To Conserve Foreign Exchange: The main objective of foreign exchange regulation in India, as laid dawn in the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), 1973, is the conservation of the foreign exchange resources of the country and the proper utilisation thereof in the interest of the national development. This is one of the important objectives .of foreign exchange regulation of many other countries too.
2.       To Check Capital Flight: Exchange control may be employed to prevent flight of capital from the country and to regulate the normal day-to-day capital movements. If adequately implemented and enforced, exchange control tends to be highly effective in curbing erratic outflows of capital.
3.       To Improve Balance of Payments: Exchange control is one of the measures available to improve the balance of payments position. This can be achieved by restricting imparts by means of exchange control.
4.       To make Possible Essential Imports: Due to the non-availability of or scarcity within the country, the developing countries generally have to import capital goods, know how and certain essential inputs and consumer goods. By giving priority to such imports in the allocation of foreign exchange, exchange control may ensure availability of foreign exchange for these imports.
5.       To Protect Domestic Industries: Exchange control may also be employed as a measure to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.
6.       To Check Recession-induced Exports into the Country: If foreign economies are undergoing recession when 'the domestic economy is free from it, the decline in prices of foreign goods, due to the recession, may encourage their exports into the country not yet affected by recession. Exchange control may be employed to check such recession-induced exports into the country.
7.       To regulate foreign companies: Exchange Control may also seek to regulate the business of foreign companies in the country. For instance, the FERA provided that non-residents, foreign national resident in India, companies (other than banking companies) incorporated abroad and having more than 40 per cent non-resident interest could not carry on in India, or establish a branch/office or other place of business in the country for carrying on any activity of a trading, commercial or industrial revenue, without the permission of the Reserve Bank of India.
8.       To regulate Export and Transfer of Securities: Exchange control may be employed also for the purpose of controlling the export and transfer of securities form the country. The FERA for instance, prohibited the sending or transferring of securities from the country to any place outside India, without the permission of the Reserve Bank of India.
9.       Facilitate Discrimination and Commercial Bargaining: Exchange control offers scope for discrimination between different countries. It would be used to accord exchange concessions, on a reciprocal basis, between different countries.
10.   Enable the Government to Repay Foreign Loans: The system of exchange control empowers the government to acquire foreign exchange from the residents of the country due to which it becomes easy for the government to repay foreign loans.

5. (a) Discuss the role of commercial banks in Indian foreign trade.                                                                         11
Ans: Ans: Role of Banks in Foreign Trade
Banking section plays important role in international business. Today almost all major banks have offices in major cities around the world. Many banks have formed collaboration with banks in other countries to better serve their international business community. Banks form a bond of trust between buying and selling transactions in international market. For individual banks offer services like foreign exchange, traveler’s check, electronics transfer. For businesses bank plays a role of trusty agent by offering services like ‘Documentary Collection’ and ‘Letter of Credit’. Significance of commercial banks in international trade are outlined below:
(a) Creating trust between international buyers and sellers by issuing letter of credit: One of the problems of international business houses doing business internationally is lack of trust. With the help financial devices commercial banks are able for a bond of trust between international buyers and sellers. In commercial methods like ‘Commercial Collection’ and ‘Letter of Credit’ banks act as agents to handle payments as well as relevant documents. Letter of Credit is most wide acceptable and used method of doing international transactions. Some banks and government agencies offer export credit insurance to businesses. In some cases, exporter has to forgo a letter of credit, in such cases banks offer export credit insurance. 
(b) Advising Bank: After the bank of the buyer approves the issuance of the letter of credit, the issued letter of credit is sent to the advising bank who establishes the authenticity of the instrument and informs the beneficiary of receipt.
(c) Final Payment: After all of the terms and conditions for shipment and quality standards have been checked via the presentation of proper documentation, the issuing bank pays the seller for the goods.
(d) Foreign exchange services: Foreign exchange market is another area where international commercial banks play vital role. Foreign exchange market serves two main functions, convert the currency of one country into the currency of another and provide some insurance against foreign exchange risk. Multinational corporations constantly need various currencies for their operations and to hedge against foreign exchange risk. International banks provide foreign exchange services to their commercial business clients to complete their business transactions. These banks act as a broker between commercial customer and foreign exchanges around the world. International businesses receive payments in foreign currencies for their export, the income it receives from foreign investments and income received from licensing agreements with foreign firms. International business use foreign exchange market to pay foreign firms for its products and services and when it makes direct investment in foreign country. International banks play major roles in these transactions.
(e) Short term and long term finance to the international trader: Many commercial banks offers short as well as long term loan financing to international businesses. Many countries have form banks backed by government funding to provide funds for exporters and importers. In India, Export-Import bank, an independent agency of the Indian government, provides financial aid to facilitate export and import of goods.
(f) Catalysts in international trade: Banking sector plays vital role of catalysts in international market. Due to technology advances in banking sector, communication gap and delays in international business have really narrow down a lot. 
(b) Discuss the export promotion policies adopted by the Government of India. What new measures do you suggest for export promotion in India?                                                         8+3=11
Ans: Export Promotion Policies Adopted by the Government of India
Details of various trade promotion measures and schemes available to business firms to facilitate their export and import operations are announced by the government in its export-import (EXIM) policy. Major trade promotion measures (especially those related to exports) are as follows:
(i) Duty drawback scheme: Since goods meant for exports are not consumed domestically, these are not subjected to payment of various excise and customs duties. Any such duties paid on export goods are, therefore, refunded to exporters on production of proof of exports of these goods to the concerned authorities. Such refunds are called duty draw backs. Some major duty draw backs include refund of excise duties paid on goods meant for exports, refund of customs duties paid on raw materials and machines imported for export production. The latter is also called customs drawback.
(ii) Export manufacturing under bond scheme: This facility entitles firms to produce goods without Usance draft: It is a type of bill of exchange wherein the drawer of the bill of exchange instructs the bank to hand over the relevant documents to the importer only against acceptance of the bill of exchange. Import general manifest. Import general manifest is a document that contains the details of the imported good. It is the document on the basis of which unloading of cargo takes place. Dock challan: Dock charges are to be paid when all the formalities of the customs are completed. While paying the dock dues, the importer or his clearing agent specifies the amount of dock dues in a challan or form which is known as dock challan.  The firms desirous of availing such facility have to give an undertaking (i.e., bond) that they are manufacturing goods for export purposes and will export such products on their production.
(iii) Exemption from payment of sales taxes: Goods meant for export purposes are not subject to sales tax. Even for a long time, income derived from export operations had been exempt from payment of income tax. Now this benefit of exemption from income tax is available only to 100 per cent Export Oriented Units (100 per cent EOUs) and units set up in Export Processing Zones (EPZs)/Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for select years.
(iv) Advance licence scheme: It is a scheme under which an exporter is allowed duty free supply of domestic as well as imported inputs required for the manufacture of export goods. As such the exporter is not required to pay customs duty on goods imported for use in the manufacture of export goods. The advance licences are available to both the types of exporters— those who export on a regular basis and also to those who export on an adhoc basis. The regular exporters can avail such licences against their production programmes. The firms exporting intermittently can also obtain these licences against specific export orders.
(v) Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme (EPCG): The main objective of this scheme is to encourage the import of capital goods for export production. This scheme allows export firms to import capital goods at negligible or lower rates of customs duties subject to actual user condition and fulfillment of specified export obligations. If the said conditions are fulfilled by the manufacturers, then they can import the capital goods either at zero or concessional rate of import duty. Supporting manufacturers and service providers are also eligible to import capital goods under this scheme. This scheme is especially beneficial to the industrial units interested in modernisation and upgradation of their existing plant and machinery. Now service export firms can also avail of this facility for importing items such as computer software systems required for developing softwares for purposes of exports.
(vi) Scheme of recognising export firms as export house, trading house and superstar trading house: With an objective to promote established exporters and assist them in marketing their products in international markets, the government grants the status of Export House, Trading House, Star Trading House to select export firms. This status is granted to a firm on its achieving a prescribed average export of performance in past select years. Besides attaining a minimum of past average export performance, such export firms have to also fulfill other conditions as laid down in the import-export policy.
Various categories of export houses have been recognised with a view to building marketing infrastructure and expertise required for export promotion. These houses are given national recognition for export promotion. They are required to operate as highly professional and dynamic institutions and act as an important instrument of export growth.
(vii) Export of Services: In order to boost the export of services, various categories of service houses have been recognised. These houses are recognised on the basis of the export performance of the service providers. They are referred to as Service Export House, International Service Export House, International Star Service Export House based on their export performance.
(viii) Export finance: Exporters require finance for the manufacture of goods. Finance is also needed after the shipment of the goods because it may take sometime to receive payment from the importers. Therefore, two types of export finances are made available to the exporters by authorised banks. They are termed as pre-shipment finance or packaging credit and post shipment finance. Under the pre-shipment finance, finance is provided to an exporter for financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing or packaging of goods for export purpose. Under the post-shipment finance scheme, finance is provided to the exporter from the date of extending the credit after the shipment of goods to the export country. The finance is available at concessional rates of interest to the exporters.
(ix) Export Processing Zones (EPZs): Export Processing Zones are industrial estates, which form enclaves from the Domestic Tariff Areas (DTA). These are usually situated near seaports or airports. They are intended to provide an internationally competitive duty free environment for export production at low cost. This enables the products of EPZs to be competitive, both quality wise and price-wise, in the international markets. These zones have been set up at various places in India which include: Kandla (Gujarat), Santa Cruz (Mumbai), Falta (West Bengal), Noida (Uttar Pradesh), Cochin (Kerala), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), and Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh). Santa Cruz zone is exclusively meant for electronic goods and gem and jewellery items. All other EPZs deal with multifarious items. Recently the EPZs have been converted to Special Economic Zones (SEZs) which are more advanced form of export processing zones. These SEZs are free from all rules and regulations governing imports and exports units except relating to labour and banking Government has also permitted development of EPZs by private, state or joint sector. The inter-ministerial committee on private EPZs has already cleared proposals for setting up of private EPZs in Mumbai, Surat and Kanchipuram.
(x) 100 per cent Export Oriented Units (100 per cent EOUs): The 100 per cent Export Oriented Units scheme, introduced in early 1981, is complementary to the EPZ scheme. It adopts the same production regime, but offers a wider option in location with reference to factors like source of raw materials, ports, hinterland facilities, availability of technological skills, existence of an industrial base and the need for a larger area of land for the project. EOUs have been established with a view to generating additional production capacity for exports by providing an appropriate policy framework, flexibility of operations and incentives.

6. (a) Discuss the role of export-oriented units in context of India’s export promotion.                                                 11
Ans: Export Oriented Units (EOU): The EOU scheme was introduced in the year 1980 vide Ministry of Commerce resolution dated 31st December 1980. The purpose of the scheme was basically to boost exports by creating additional production capacity. The EOU scheme is, at present, governed by the provisions of Export and Import (EXIM) Policy, 1997-2002. Under this scheme, the units undertaking to export their entire production of goods are allowed to be set up. The EOUs can export all products except prohibited items of exports in ITC (HS).
Under the EOU scheme, the units are allowed to import or procure locally without payment of duty all types of goods including capital goods, raw materials, components, packing materials, consumables, spares and various other specified categories of equipments including material handling equipments, required for export production or in connection therewith. However, the goods prohibited for import are not permitted. In the case of EOUs engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, horticulture, pisciculture, viticulture, poultry, sericulture and granite quarrying, only specified categories of goods mentioned in the relevant notification have been permitted to be imported duty-free.
Benefits under EOU Scheme
Ø  Units are exempted from payment of Income Tax
Ø  All the imports to units are customs duty free.
Ø  Exemption from Central Excise Duty for the procurement of Capital Goods and Raw Materials from domestic market.
Ø  Units are entitled to sell the product in local market upto 50% of the products exported in value terms.
Ø  100% of foreign equity is permissible.
Ø  Reimbursement of Central Sales Tax pad on domestic purchases.
Ø  Full Freedom for sub-contracting.
Ø  Exemption from the payment of Electricity duty.
Ø  EOU unit can be set up at any of over 300 places all over India
Ø  The unit can import capital goods, raw materials, consumables, packing material, spares etc. without payment of customs duty. Similarly, these can be procured indigenously without payment of excise duty. Second hand capital goods can also be imported.
Ø  They have to achieve positive NFE (Net Foreign Exchange Earnings).
Ø  Minimum investment in plant and machinery and building is Rs 100 lakhs for EOU. This should be before commencement of commercial production.
Ø  Fast Track Clearance Scheme (FTCS) for clearances of imported consignments for EOU.
Ø  Generally, all final production should be exported, except rejects upto prescribed limit.
Ø  Sale within India should be on payment of excise duty. The duty which will be equal to normal customs duty which would be payable on such goods, if imported. However, in certain cases, excise duty payable will be only 50%/30% of normal customs duty payable on such goods if imported into India.
Ø  Sub-contracting of production outside on job work basis is permissible after obtaining necessary permission on annual basis.
Ø  Job work for exports is permitted.
Ø  Samples can be sold / given free within prescribed limit.
Ø  Unutilized raw material can be disposed of on payment of applicable duties.
Ø  The unit can exit (de-bond) with permission of Development Commissioner, on payment of applicable duties.
Ø  Central Sales Tax (CST) paid on purchases is refundable (but not local tax).
Ø  Prescribed percentage of foreign exchange earnings can be retained in EEFC account in foreign exchange.
Ø  100% foreign equity is permissible, except in a few cases.
Ø  Supplies made to EOU by Indian supplier are ‘deemed exports’ and supplier is entitled to benefits of ‘deemed export’.
Ø  Restrictions under Companies Act on managerial remuneration are not applicable.
Ø  No restrictions on External Commercial Borrowings.
(b) What is Special Economic Zone (SEZ)? Discuss the advantages of SEZ.                                             3+8=11
Ans: Special Economic Zone- Introduction
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. The category 'SEZ' covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ), Industrial Estates (IE), Free Ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of an SEZ structure is to increase foreign investment.
One of the earliest and the most famous Special Economic Zones were founded by the government of the People's Republic of China under Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. The most successful Special Economic Zone in China, Shenzhen, has developed from a small village into a city with a population over 10 million within 20 years. Following the Chinese examples, Special Economic Zones have been established in several countries, including Brazil, India, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.
India was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000. 
This policy intended to make SEZs an engine for economic growth supported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the Centre and the State level, with the minimum possible regulations.
To instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to impart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through the establishment of SEZs, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions. The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005.
a)         Generation of additional economic activity across all the states 
b)         Promotion of exports of goods and services across all Indian sates according to their indigenous capabilities
c)          Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources 
d)         Creation of employment opportunities across India 
e)         Development of world class infrastructural facilities in these units 
f)          Simplified procedures for development, operation, and maintenance of the Special Economic Zones and for setting up units and conducting such business activities 
g)         Single window clearance cell for the establishment of Special Economic Zone 
h)         Single window clearance cell within each and every Special Economic Zones 
i)           Single window clearance cell relating to formal requirements of Central as well as all State Governments.
j)           Easy and simplified compliance procedures and documentations with stress on self certification.
Key Advantages of SEZ Units in India
Ø  10-year tax holiday in a block of the first 20 years
Ø  Exemption from duties on all imports for project development
Ø  Exemption from excise / VAT on domestic sourcing of capital goods for project development
Ø  No foreign ownership restrictions in developing zone infrastructure and no restrictions on repatriation
Ø  Freedom to develop township in to the SEZ with residential areas, markets, play grounds, clubs and recreation centers without any restrictions on foreign ownership
Ø  Income tax holidays on business income
Ø  Exemption from import duty, VAT and other Taxes
Ø  10% FDI allowed through the automatic route for all manufacturing activities
Ø  Procedural ease and efficiency for speedy approvals, clearances and customs procedures and dispute resolution
Ø  Simplification of procedures and self-certification in the labor acts
Ø  Artificial harbor and handling bulk containers made operational through out the year
Ø  Houses both domestic and international air terminals to facilitate transit, to and fro from major domestic and international destinations
Ø  Has host of Public and Private Bank chains to offer financial assistance for business houses
Ø  A vibrant industrial city with abundant supply of skilled manpower, covering the entire spectrum of industrial and business expertise
Ø  Well connected with network of public transport, local railways and cabs
Ø  Pollution free environment with proper drainage and sewage system
Ø  In-house Customs clearance facilities

7. (a) Discuss the importance of multilateral agreement in promoting foreign trade.                      11
(b) Write a note on ‘Indian joint ventures in foreign countries’.                                                               11

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