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Wednesday, September 18, 2019

M.Com Previous Year Solved Papers: Organisational Behaviour' 2010 (August - Incomplete)

2010 (August)
Paper: 102
Full Marks: 80
Time: 3 hours
1. (a) Discuss some important typologies of organisation. Classify organisations on the basis of prime beneficiary and point out what problems such organisations are faced with.  8+8=16
Some scholars based on size, ownership, legal status and the area of operation have classified organisation. Another set of scholars has classified the organisation based on function or purpose, primary beneficiary, consumer and authority. Now we will be discussing about the classification based on the latter set of scholars.

a) Typologies by Goal or Function or Purpose
Talcott Parsons has classified organisations into four types on the basis of their functions or goal served by the organisation. The four types of organisations are:
i) Production/Economic Organisation: these types of organisations produce goods or make things which are consumed by the society.
ii) Political Organisation: these types of organisations are concerned with the attainment of political goals. They generate and allocate power within the society and also maintain peace and stability in the society. Legislature and government departments are examples of such organisations.
iii) Integrative Organisations: These organisations try to settle conflicts, integrate and coordinate various segments of the society to work together and provide stability in the society. Judicial courts, police, and social agencies are examples of this type of organisation.
iv) Pattern Maintenance Organisation:  These organisations are concerned with the societal continuity with a focus on long-term issues such as of society’s values, patterns, knowledge, culture, etc. through the educational, cultural and religious institutions.
Katz and Kahn have also classified organisations into four types based on the functions or goals served by the organisation. The four types of organisations are:
(i) Production or Economic Organisation: These organisations are concerned with the manufacture of goods, provision of essential services to the people and also building up of infrastructure. Their focus is on creation of wealth.
(ii) Managerial or Political Organisation: These organisations are concerned with adjudication; coordination and control of resources; people; and sub-systems.
(iii) Adaptive Organisation: These organisations provide opportunities for creation of knowledge, testing and development of theories and also provide information and solutions to the existing problems. Universities and research institutions are examples of these organisations.
(iv) Maintenance Organisation: These organisations give space and scope and devote to the socialization of people for their roles in other organisations and in the larger society. Schools, church, and health and welfare institutions are examples of this type of organisation.
b) Typologies on the Bases of the Consumer or Primary Beneficiary Blau and Scott
They classified the organisation based on the primary recipient of the output or who benefits. The main basis for this classification is who the direct consumer of the output of the organisation is, or who the prime beneficiary is. Four types of organisation are derived on this basis:
(i) Mutual Benefit Association: In this type of organisation the primary beneficiaries are the members themselves. Political parties, trade unions, professional associations and religious bodies are examples of these organisations.
(ii) Business Organisations or Business Concerns: In this type of organisation the owners of properties are the prime beneficiaries of the organisation. They are mostly concerned about the return on investment in the organisation than with the nature of output of the organisation. The other main concern is that of operating efficiently to make the maximum profit at minimum cost. In order to survive they have to compete with other organisations.
(iii) Service Organisations: In this type of organisation the clients who are served are the prime beneficiaries. Hospitals, educational institutions, social work agencies legal aid societies, etc. are examples of these organisations.
The clients who are supposed to be the primary beneficiaries do not have usually control over these organisations.
(iv) Commonwealth Organisations: In this type of organisation the public at large is its primary beneficiary. Post office, police service, fire department, military service are examples of these types of organisations. They perform mostly protective services or serve as its administrative arm.
c) Typologies on the Basis of Compliance A. Etzioni: He differentiates organisation on the basis of compliance. Compliance involves one party telling or directing another party to do something. It refers to the manner in which the lower participants in an organisation respond to the authority system of the organisation. In this context, Etzioni identifies three types of power: coercive, utilitarian and normative. Coercive power is based on the application or the threat of physical sanction. Here compliance is alienated. Utilitarian power is based on control over material resources. Here compliance takes a calculative or utilitarian approach. Normative power based on the allocation of symbolic rewards. Here the compliance is moral. Almost all the organisations would follow the three types of authority, which combine three types of compliance.
d) Typologies on the Basis of Authority: Max Weber identifies three types of organisation on the basis of exercise of authority. They are explained below:
(i) Charismatic Authority: In this type of organisation there will be a leader and set of disciples or followers. Because of charisma or an exceptional quality of the followers accept his authority or repose their faith in the person. In this type of organisation the administrative apparatus is very loose and unstable that is a built in instability.
(ii) Traditional Authority: In this type of organisation the followers or employees accept the authority of a person who occupies the traditionally sanctioned position of authority. The administrative apparatus in this kind of domination would consist of personal servants, relatives and feudal lords.
(iii) Legal or Rational Authority: In this type of organisation people or followers accept the authority of a leader, which is based on the belief in the rightness of law. It is legal because authority is exercised by means of a system of rules and procedures by reason of the office, which an individual holds. The administrative apparatus corresponding to this kind of authority is bureaucracy.
(b) In what respect system approach to organisation is superior to the traditional approach?  16
Ans: The systems approach focuses on understanding the organisation as an open system that transforms inputs into outputs. The systems approach began to have a strong impact on management thought in the 1960s as a way of thinking about managing techniques that would allow managers to relate different specialties and parts of the company to one another, as well as to external environmental factors. The systems approach focuses on the organisation as a whole, its interaction with the environment, and its need to achieve equilibrium.
In simple words, a system may be defined as a set a interrelated and interdependent parts forming an organized unit or entity. These parts are known as sub-systems which interact with each other and are subject to change. They are interrelated as well as interdependent. Hence, changes in any sub-system lead to changes in others. Any working organisation may be said to have three sub-systems as follows:
System approach is superior to Traditional Method
A common drawback of the classical, behavioural and quantitative schools is that they weigh down one characteristic of the organisation at the expense of others. While the classical approach emphasizes the ‘task’ and ‘structure’, the behavioural approach emphasizes ‘people’ and the quantitative approach emphasizes ‘mathematical' decision making’.
The whole system faces functional inability in the absence of proper knowledge of the respective parts. Every part bears a relation of interdependence to every other part. In other words, rather than individually dealing with the various parts of one organisation, the systems approach aims to give enables the manager to perceive the organisation as a whole.
The employees of the research and development, manufacturing or the marketing division of a company, should perceive the company en bloc since the activities of either part of the company influence the activities of other parts.
If the business has managed to grow beyond the start-up stage, it will certainly demand new things you may not provide. Hence, there will surely come a time, when you distance yourself from the chain of command, put a management team in command and, as per requirements bring in external consultants for assisting in development of the systems approach, necessary for ensuring the company is in good shape in the long run.
People need order, structure and predictability; they need to know their agenda for the day when they come to the office each day. Business should be predictable and organised. A business eventually attains a state when it has sufficient funds to sustain itself and, when it attains that state, it drifts from that critical stage of its inception with all the problem-solving challenges and initiates development of a whole new set of needs - management, stability and structure.
In other words, it is delegation. However, delegating authority is not devoid of complications: it is very complicated to alter the way you run business your business – going from one-person rule to professional management.
The first challenge may well be to find someone else to manage the transition to professional management for you. This does not signify you have to seek out a new CEO, but a new management system. If your strengths do not lie in convening or facilitating meetings - for instance, presiding over a staff-meeting with 10 people discussing how things should be done - then it would be advisable to appoint someone else to lead the process like a manager type, or a consultant type who specialize in such transitions. In the end, if you are an entrepreneur, a long-range plan is a week; for a manager, a short-range plan is a year.
Another challenge you could face over this transition is to redefine your role in the business. Identify your strengths and work on them. If you are good at sales be the face of the business to the key customers. If it is product development, be ready to be involved in identifying market opportunities and analysing customer base for its needs. Perhaps there is an export market that needs some investigation? Get on a plane and speak to the key people.
If you aim to hand over 100 % of your authority to the management team, monitor this turning point. In some businesses, the decision-making can shift from 100 % to zero i.e. wherein you do not have to make any decisions at all. This does necessitate a certain approach such as: 'As long as the managers stay within the budget and meet the financial goals, why should I care how they do it?'
Feedback is an important mechanism that enables a system to adapt and fine-tune according to the changing conditions of its environment and to control its operations. The operations of the system should be initiated and feedback must be given to the appropriate people so that their work can be assessed and if required corrected.
1. An organisation comprises of many sub-systems.
2. All the sub-systems are interred- related.
3. The sub-parts should be studied in their inter-relationships rather than in isolation.
4. The organisation provides a demarcating line that separates it from other systems. It determines the internal and external parts.
5. The organisation is responsive to environmental effect. It is vulnerable is the changes in environment.
6. An organsation is a system consisting of many interrelated and interdependent parts or sub-systems. These elements are then arranged in an orderly fashion.
7. As a system, an organisation draws inputs (energy. Information, materials, etc) from its environment. It transforms these inputs and returns the output into the environment in the form of goods and services.
8. Every system is a part of a super system.
9. Organisation is an open system and it interacts with its environment. It is also a dynamic system as the equilibrium in it is always changing.
10. Management is expected to regulate and adjust the system to secure better performance.
11. Management is multidisciplinary as it draws and integrates knowledge from various disciplines.
Systems theory has made the following advantages as compared to traditional theories:
1. It provides a manager a way of thinking about the job he has to managed and finds an opportunity to him for looking it the organization as a whole and for achieving overall effectiveness.
2. It provides main focus to organizational efforts towards a direction which people should move.
3. It draws attention of managers to an important factor and that is the environment in which an organization works. The interaction with the environment is dynamic.
4. It includes within it focus both micro and macro aspects of the organizations. Hence it serves a multi-level and multi-dimensional approach.
5. It implies that the modern manager should have analytical orientation should be expert in motivating to achieve goals and open mandate to receive and respect new ideas, i.e. creativity and innovation.
6. It also implies that management education must seek to develop the ability to work with and motivate others.
7. The feed back mechanism provides and opportunity to rearrange organizations part according to the change in the environment.
The system theories have been criticized on the following grounds.
1. Systems theory is not a complete explanation of the whole organizational system. It does not explain how the sub-system of the specific organization is uniquely related in a given environment.
2. The conceptional framework for understanding organization provided by system theory is too abstract.
3. It does not really offer any new thing. Managers do understand interrelationship between different parts and the influence of environment on organization and it sub-systems.
2. (a) Define the term “Span of management”. How would you determine the optimum span in a given situation?  6+10=16
Ans: SPAN OF MANAGEMENT: In the words of Spriegal, "Span of control means the number of people reporting directly to an authority. The principle of span of control implies that no single executive should have more people looking to him for guidance and leadership than he can reasonably be expected to serve. The span of supervision is also known as span of control, span of management, span of responsibility, span of authority and span of direction.
Factors influencing the span of Management
                There are number of factors that influence or determine the span of Management in a particular organisation, the most important of these are as follows:
1.       The capacity and ability of the executive: The characteristics and abilities such as leadership, administrative capabilities; ability to communicate, to judge, to listen, to guide and inspire, physical vigour, etc. differ from person to person. A person having better abilities can manage effectively a large number of subordinates as compared to the one who has lesser capabilities.
2.       Competence and training of subordinates: Subordinates who are skilled, efficient, knowledgeable, trained and competent require less supervision, and therefore, the supervisor may have a wider span in such cases as compared to inexperienced and untrained subordinates who requires greater supervision.
3.       Nature of Work: Nature and importance of work to be supervised is another factor that influences the span of supervision. The work involving routine, repetitive, unskilled and standardized operations will not call much attention and time on the part of the supervisor.
4.       Time available for supervision: The capacity of a person to supervise and control a large number of persons is also limited on account of time available at his disposal to supervise them. The span of control would be generally narrow at the higher level of management because top manager have to spend their major time on planning, organising, directing and controlling and the time available at their disposal for supervision will be less.
5.       Degree of Decentralization and Extent of Delegation: If a manager clearly delegates authority to undertake a well-defined task, a well trained subordinate can do it with a minimum of supervisor's time and attention.
6.       Effectiveness of communication system: Faulty communication puts a heavy burden on manager's time and reduces the span of control.
7.       Quality of Planning: Effective planning helps to reduce frequent calls on the superior for explanation, instructions and guidance and thereby saves in time available at the disposal of the superior enabling him to have a wider span.
8.       Degree of Physical Dispersion: If all persons to be supervised are located at the same place and within the direct supervision of the manager, he can supervise relatively more people as compared to the one who has to supervise people located at different places.
9.       Assistance of Experts: the span of supervision may be wide where the services of experts are available to the subordinate on various aspects of work. In case such services are not provided in the organisation, the supervisor has to spend a lot of time in providing assistance to the workers himself and a such the span of control would be narrow.

(b) Critically discuss the necessity of decentralization of authority in an organisation, so as to make delegation more meaningful and effective.  16
Ans: Decentralisation: According to Allen,” Decentralization implies consistent and systematic efforts to delegate to the lowest levels all authority except that which can only be exercised at Central points.”  Koontz and O’Donnell have stated that, “Authority delegations may be extensive or limited. Much authority delegated through the echelons of an organization is referred to decentralization of authority, where as authority is said to be centralized wherever a manager delegates little of it.”
Thus decentralization implies delegation of formal authority, the pushing of decision making down the chain of command.  Decentralization is the tendency to delegate formal authority to the lower organizational units while centralization is exactly opposite of it. Hence it may be stated that,” everything that goes to increase the importance of the role of a subordinate is decentralization, and everything that goes to reduce it is centralization.
Advantages of Decentralization: The main advantages of decentralization are as discussed below
1)      It reduces the burden of top management so that he can concentrate on other important functions like planning control etc.
2)      It makes growth and diversification easy.  Under decentralization each product line is treated as a separate division, hence it can respond quickly to the changes in demands of its special market.
3)      It enables the organization to survive and grow under the conditions of keen competition.
4)      It helps in promoting development of executives.  Decentralization provides opportunity to subordinate managers to take decision and take initiative so as to acquire leadership qualities.  Decentralization tends to promote autonomy, initiative and creativity on the part of subordinates.  It helps the organization to maintain stability and continuity effectively.
5)      It improves motivation and morale of subordinates.  As opportunity to take decisions is given to them, it helps in developing belongingness and satisfies the need of power, prestige, status and independence.  When motivation and morale improves, productivity increases and healthy working relationship also develops.  It helps in maximum utilization of talents of lower levels in the organization.
6)      It results in effective supervision because lower level managers are given complete authority to make changes in work assignment, to take disciplinary action, to recommend promotions and even to change production  schedule.
7)      Decentralization is useful in promoting effective control through comparative evaluation of performance and clear-cut accountability of results.
8)      It promotes democratic management and flexibility of operations.  Necessary changes can be quickly made without disturbing the organizational structure.
9)      It helps in saving time as all the paper work relating to the basic operations of business can be significantly reduced, work can be completed early without wasting time.
Disadvantages of Decentralization: The main weaknesses of decentralization are as discussed below:
1)      Decentralization may create problems of co-ordination among different departments in the organization.  Semi autonomous division may concentrate on their own goals at the cost of the organizational objectives.  There may be loss effective control and it may lead to disintegration of the organization.
2)      There may be lack of uniformity as all the decentralized units may not follow uniform policies and procedures.  Thus inconsistencies may arise in the activities of the organization.
3)      Decentralization may result into heavy overheads on account of higher administrative expenses, duplication of staff and facilities trained persons may not be fully utilized.
4)    It is not suitable for small scale units as decentralization needs broad product lines which are not available in small scale units.
5)    Decentralization may restrict timely action during emergencies.
6)    Some of the organizational activities cannot be decentralized such as handling government authorities, trade union negotiations etc.
7)    Decentralization may not be possible due to external constraints, such as increase in competition, growing power of trade unions, government interventions, development of computerized information system, rising cost of executives etc tend to reduce decentralization in several cases.
3. (a) Bring out the role of groups in an organisation. Substantiate the claims that group task influences group performance and satisfaction.  8+8=16
(b)Discuss with examples, why perception is the key factor in management.  16
Ans: Perception
Perception is an important mediating cognitive process. Through this complex process, people make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with. Both selectivity and organization go 'into perceptual, interpretations. Externally, selectivity is affected by intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion and novelty and familiarity. Internally, perceptual selectivity is influenced by the individual's motivation, learning and personality. After the selective process filters the stimulus situation, the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole.
Individual differences and uniqueness are largely the result of the cognitive processes. Although there arc a number of cognitive processes, it is generally recognized that the perceptual process is a very important one. It is a process that takes place between the situation and the behaviour and is most relevant to the study of organizational behaviour. For example, the observation that a department head and a subordinate may react quite differently to the same top management directive can be better understood and explained by the perceptual process.
In the process of perception, people receive many different kinds of information through all five senses, assimilate them and then interpret them. Different people perceive the same information differently.
Perception plays a key role in determining individual behaviour in organizations. Organizations send messages in a variety of forms to their members regarding what they are expected to do and not to do. In spite of organizations sending clear messages, those messages are subject to distortion in the process of being perceived by organizational members. Hence, managers need to have a general understanding of the basic perceptual process.
Basic Perceptual Process
Perception is influenced by characteristics of the object being perceived, by the characteristics of the person and by the situational processes.
a)      Characteristics   of the   object   include   contrast, intensity, movement, repetition and novelty.  
b)      Characteristics of the person include attitude, self-concept and personality.
The details of a particular situation affect the way a person perceives an object; the same person may perceive the same object very differently in different situations. The processes through which a person's perceptions are altered by the situation include selection, organization, attribution, projection, stereotyping process, and the halo effect process. Among these, selective perception and stereotyping are particularly relevant to organizations.
a) Selective Perception: Selective perception is the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. For example, a manager has a very positive attitude about a particular worker and one day he notices that the worker seems to be goofing up. Selective perception may make the manager to quickly disregard what he observed. For example, a manager who has formed a very negative attitude about a particular worker and he happens to observe a high performance from the same worker. In this case influenced by the selective perception process he too will disregard it. In one sense, selective perception is beneficial because it allows us to disregard minor bits of information. But if selective perception causes managers to ignore important information, it can become quite detrimental.
b) Stereotyping: Stereotyping is the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. Perceptions based on stereotypes about people's sex exist more or less in all work places. Typically, these perceptions lead to the belief that an individual's sex determines which tasks he or she will be able to perform. For example, if a woman is sitting behind the table in the office, she will be very often, perceived as a clerk and not an executive at first. But it would induce holding an exactly opposite assumption about a man. Stereotyping consists of three steps: identifying categories of people (like women, politician), associating certain characteristics with those categories (like passivity, dishonesty respectively) and then assuming that any one who fits a certain category must have those characteristics. For example, if dishonesty is associated with politicians, we are likely to assume that all politicians are dishonest.

4. (a) Point out in brief, some behavioural implications of control. Suggest some suitable measures to minimise behavioural disfunctions of control.  16
(b) Discuss between hygiene factors and motivation factors. What is the significance of Herzberg’s theory in actual life?  9+7=16
Ans: Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. For instance, an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. Instead, several other factors, such as recognition or accomplishment, were cited as causing satisfaction.
This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. Employees would, therefore, be satisfied, dissatisfied or somewhere in between. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction.
Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators, which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction, are called hygiene factors, which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed.
a)      Achievement
b)      Recognition
c)       Advancement
d)      The work itself
e)      The possibility of personal growth
f)       Responsibility       
Hygiene or Maintenance Factors
a)      Company policies
b)      Technical supervision
c)       Interpersonal relations with supervisor
d)      Interpersonal relations with peers
e)      Interpersonal relations with subordinates
f)       Salary
g)      Job security
h)      Personal life
i)        Work conditions
j)        Status
Based on these findings, Herzberg recommended that managers seeking to motivate employees should first make sure that hygiene factors are taken care of and that employees are not dissatisfied with pay, security and working conditions. Once a manager has eliminated employee dissatisfaction, Hertzberg recommends focusing on a different set of factors to increase motivation, by improving opportunities for advancement, recognition, advancement and growth. Specifically, he recommends job enrichment as a means of enhancing the availability of motivation factors.
                Although widely accepted by managers, Hertzberg’s dual structure approach however suffers from certain drawbacks. Other researchers who measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on different aspects reached very different conclusions. They have also criticized Herzberg's theory for its inability to define the relationship between satisfaction and motivation and to pay enough attention to differences between individuals. Hence, at present Herzberg's theory is not held in high esteem by researchers in the field of motivation. The theory, however, had a major impact on managers and has played a key role in increasing their awareness of motivation and its importance in type work place.

5. (a) How does distortion in communication take place? What are the barriers of effective communication? 8+8=16
Ans: Distortion of Communication
a)      Tendency to Evaluate: This can cause communication distortions, when we listen to others we tend to evaluate them on the basis of their statements and hence we interpret the remainder accordingly to our first impressions. For example, if a person makes a few initial unfavorable remarks about religion, we tend to brand him as an agnostic and will view the rest of the message in that light.
b)      Advance Information: Advance information can cause us to favour certain interpretations and reject others information. When we receive information that we believe to be accurate, we may tend to structure subsequent information in a way that is consistent with our prior knowledge.
c)       Lack of Interest: This reason will cause communication distortions even many messages may be received because the message never interpreted consciously by the receiver.
d)      Distrust: If someone distrusts the sender, he or she will likely to distort or change the message negatively to accommodate his or her personal feelings.
e)      Encourage Feedback: Sender must make sure they receive feedback cues from receivers in order to know how well they can transmit the accuracy of message.
f)       Developing Trust: Information should be perceived to be informative, rather than manipulative in order to develop trust and prevent distortion.
g)      Repetition: If we think something is particularly important, it might be worth while to say the same thing in two or three ways even if it proves redundant.
h)      Listening with Understanding: It means to see from the other person's point of view. For example, a third party, who is able to lay aside his own feelings and evaluations, can assist greatly by listening with understanding to each person and clarifying the views and issues.
i)        Use the problem- solving approach: The problem solving approach is effective in that it creates an atmosphere of trust and openness, by inviting subordinates to contribute ideas and engaging in two way communication.
j)        Use many channels: The chances of successful transmitting information are greater when we appeal to the maximum number of senses. Example, the use of television is better than the radio in order to transmit informations.
Barriers of Communication:
Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, anything that obstructs the free flow of communication is referred to us Barrier of communication. E.g. Problem in encoding and decoding, wrong or defective communication channel, noise in the channel etc. Barrier may arise at any of the following level:
a)      Sender oriented,
b)      Receiver oriented
Sender-oriented barriers could be voluntary or involuntary. At any cost, efforts should be made on the part of the sender to identify and remove them. As the sender is the originator of communication, he should be extremely careful not to erect barriers. If his interaction gives rise to or indicates that there are barriers, the communication comes to a grinding halt. Some of the barriers that are sender-oriented are as follows:
Receiver can also have some barriers in the course of the interaction. Although his role in the initial phase is passive, he becomes active when he starts assimilating and absorbing the information. He is equally to blame if the situation goes awry and communication comes to a stop, or there is miscommunication. Some of the barriers emanating from the side of the receiver are as follows:
Types of Barriers in communication: The barriers to communication in an organization may be broadly categorized into following groups:
1. Physical barriers (RECEIVER’S ORIENTED)
2. Socio- psychological or personal barriers (RECEIVER’S ORIENTED)
3. Organizational barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)
4. Semantic barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)
5. Mechanical barriers (SENDER’S ORIENTED)
However, such a classification does not suggest that these are mutually exclusive. Rather, it is helpful in understanding the nature of communication barriers.
1. Physical Barriers: There are the environmental factors that also obstruct or reduces the sending and receiving of communication, such as physical distance distracting noises and other interferences difficulty arises in communicating a message, when the physical distance increases:-
Noise: Noise is first and foremost barrier to effective communication. Noise may be caused by machines, equipment, communication device, disturbances in the time of transmission etc. noise also encompasses many other factors such as the sender may use ambiguous or confusing signal. The receiver may misinterpret the message. Thus communication is likely to be spoilt due to noise.
Time and distance: Time and distance also acts as a barrier in smooth flow of communication. Distance between the sender and receiver acts as a hurdle. Although this barrier can be overcome by technology but still in case of breakdown, this exists. Different timing of shifts at workplace also act as barriers in imparting on vital information.
2. Socio-psychological or personal Barriers: There are certain socio psychological factors which restrict the free flow of communication. They are the attitude and opinions, status consciousness, ones relations with fellow workers, seniors, and junior’s etc. family background. These restrict participative communication:
I. Motives, attitudes, judgments, emotions, and social values of people from the part of the personal barriers. Psychological distance is also developed with this.
II. Individual Differences: There are differences in the motives, attitudes and sentiments of the people. So this causes problems in encoding and decoding other’s sentiments, attitudes and motives.
III. Differences in interest: The interest of people also differs. A problem may be important for one person but may not carry weight for another. The ideas, question, attitudes, feelings etc of other party may represent an obstacle to one’s own personal goal.
IV. Division of People: Communication is ideas and viewpoint also gets affected by the division of people into classes, castes and communities.
V. Difference of viewpoints: Communication suffers when there are differences in view point of the different people.
VI. Lack of planning: Good communication never happens but has to be planned. When people take it lightly and communicate without planning it turns into miscommunication or mal communication.
VII. Cultural barriers: Due to difference in the cultural background the same word, phrases, symbols, actions etc. may mean different to different group of people. Mis understanding may take place due to this.
3. Organizational Barriers: Organisational barriers arise due to defects in the organization structure and the communication system of an organization:
I. Hierarchical distance: Downward communication promotes hierarchical distance. The chances of information being filtered are more at this structure, because there are several layers. Information received from the top may not reach at bottom in the same shape. The information gets coloured which brings hierarchical distance.
II. Diversion: Diversion of information is also one of the causes which brings barrier to communication process. For example sometimes a manager diverts the information meant for one person or group to another.
III. Colouring: Information are also coloured by the manager intentionally with a view to twist the situation in their favour. For example, an office may quote his subordinate wrongly, to spoil his career or his chance of promotion or his image in the eyes of the boss.
IV. Status barriers: Status is a barrier of communication in a formal organization. Organizational interaction and communication are influenced by the status and the expectations.
V. Goal conflicts: Goal conflict acts as communication reducers. Different goal lead to bifurcation of interest. Due to this communication suffers.
4. Semantic Barriers: Semantic means the relationships of signs of their reference. Semantic barrier arises from the disadvantages of the symbolic system. Symbols have got number of meaning and one has to choose any one of them according to the requirement of communication. Symbol or the language is the most important tool of communication which has to be used very carefully:-
I. Words with different meaning: Some words convey more than one meaning. When the receiver assigns a different meaning to a word than what the sender intended, there occurs miscommunication.
II. Denotation and connotation: Words have two types of meaning = Denotation and connotation. Denotation is the literal meaning of the words connotation are the suggestive meaning of the words. Connotation is the suggestive meanings of the words. Connotation may be positive or negative.
III. Offensive style of communication: Badly expressed messages lose their impact. Offensive style of communication leads to communication breakdown causing loss of time and money.
IV. Wrong assumptions: Communication should not be based on assumption as it may lead to wrong interpretation. All possible efforts should be made to clarify assumptions.
V. Selective perception: many a time the message is decoded by the receiver in a way which may be selective. In other words most of the receivers protect their own interest and expectations leading to a particular type of feedback which becomes a communication problem.
5. Mechanical Barriers: Mechanical barriers include inadequate arrangement for transmission of news, facts and figures. Example poor office layout and defective procedure and the use of wrong media led to poor communication.
I. Information overload: Excess of communication is called information overload. Brevity is the soul of communication. The receiver cannot comprehend and absorb beyond his mental capacity. His mind will remain closed for the excess part of the communication. Therefore one should be brief and to the point.
II. Loss of transmission: When messages are transmitted from person to person they are filtered. In other words they are diluted and distorted on the way. In oral communication about 30% of the information is lost in each transmission.
(b) Why is organisational change often resisted by individuals and groups within the organisation? How can such resistance be prevented or overcome?  8+8=16

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