Wednesday, September 18, 2019

M.Com Previous Year Solved Papers: Organisational Behaviour' 2016 (August - Incomplete)


2016 (September)
COMMERCE
Paper: 102
(Organisational Behaviour and Theory)
Full Marks – 80
Time – Three Hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.
1. (a) What are the features of organisations as a system? Why should organisations be studies from the perspective of systems approach?                                         8+8=16
Ans: The term 'Organisation' can be used in different senses. It can be used as a group of person working together to as a structure of relationships or as a process of management.  When it is used to refer to a group of person working together, it means a concern, an undertaking or as enterprise.
When it is used to refer to a structure of relationships, it means the structural relationships among the positions and jobs and person (i.e., the framework of responsibility and authority) through which the enterprise functions, and it is called organisation structure.

On the other hand, Organising or Organizing in management refers to the relationship between people, work and resources used to achieve the common objectives (goals).
Nature or characteristics of organisation
From the study of the various definitions given by different management experts we get the following information about the characteristics or nature of organization:
1)      Division of Labour: Every organisation is characterized by the division of work.  The total efforts of the group are divided into different functions and each function is assigned the function for which he is observed to be suited best.
2)      Co-ordination: As different persona are assigned different functions and all these functions aim at achieving organisational goals, hence necessary relationships are established between them so as to co-ordinate all the activities of all the people of the organisation.
3)      Objectives: Organisations exist to achieve objectives. Without objectives organisations cannot exist for a long period.
4)      Authority and Responsibility structure: In an organisation the positions are so ranked that each of them is subordinate to the one above it and is superior to the one below it.  Each position is delegated necessary authority and responsibility so as to enable it functions effectively.
5)      Communication: Every organisation has its own channels or methods of communication.  Effective communication is vital for success of management.
6)      Organisation is a Machine of Management: Organisation is considered to be a machine of management because the efficiency of all the functions depends on an effective organisation. In the absence of organisation no function can be performed in a planned manner.
7)      Organisation is a Universal Process: Organisation is needed both in business and non business organisations. Not only this, organisation will be needed where two or mom than two people work jointly. Therefore, organisation has the quality of universality.
8)      Organisation is a Dynamic Process: Organisation is related to people and the knowledge and experience of the people undergo a change. The impact of this change affects the various functions of the organisations.
System Approach
The systems approach focuses on understanding the organisation as an open system that transforms inputs into outputs. The systems approach began to have a strong impact on management thought in the 1960s as a way of thinking about managing techniques that would allow managers to relate different specialties and parts of the company to one another, as well as to external environmental factors. The systems approach focuses on the organisation as a whole, its interaction with the environment, and its need to achieve equilibrium.
In simple words, a system may be defined as a set a interrelated and interdependent parts forming an organized unit or entity. These parts are known as sub-systems which interact with each other and are subject to change. They are interrelated as well as interdependent. Hence, changes in any sub-system lead to changes in others. Any working organisation may be said to have three sub-systems as follows:
1. Technical Sub-System It represents the formal relationships among the members of an organisation.
2. Social Sub-System: It provides social satisfaction to members through informal group relations.
3. Power Sub-System: It reflects the exercise of power or influence by individuals and groups.
Critical Evaluation of system approach of management
Systems theory has made the following advantages
1. It provides a manager a way of thinking about the job he has to managed and finds an opportunity to him for looking it the organization as a whole and for achieving overall effectiveness.
2. It provides main focus to organizational efforts towards a direction which people should move.
3. It draws attention of managers to an important factor and that is the environment in which an organization works. The interaction with the environment is dynamic.
4. It includes within it focus both micro and macro aspects of the organizations. Hence it serves a multi-level and multi-dimensional approach.
5. It implies that the modern manager should have analytical orientation should be expert in motivating to achieve goals and open mandate to receive and respect new ideas, i.e. creativity and innovation.
6. It also implies that management education must seek to develop the ability to work with and motivate others.
7. The feed back mechanism provides and opportunity to rearrange organizations part according to the change in the environment.
The system theories have been criticized on the following grounds.
1. Systems theory is not a complete explanation of the whole organizational system. It does not explain how the sub-system of the specific organization is uniquely related in a given environment.
2. The conceptional framework for understanding organization provided by system theory is too abstract.
3. It does not really offer any new thing. Managers do understand interrelationship between different parts and the influence of environment on organization and it sub-systems.
Or
(b) Discuss about the Classical Organisation Theory and Neo classical Approach in organisational behaviour.     8+8=16
Ans: The practice of management is as old as human civilization. The ancient civilizations of Egypt (the great pyramids), Greece (leadership and war tactics of Alexander the great) and Rome displayed the marvelous results of good management practices. The origin of management as a discipline was developed in the late 19th century. Over time, management thinkers have sought ways to organize and classify the voluminous information about management that has been collected and disseminated. These attempts at classification have resulted in the identification of management approaches. The approaches of management are theoretical frameworks for the study of management. Each of the approaches of management are based on somewhat different assumptions about human beings and the organisations for which they work. The different approaches of management are:
a) Early management approaches represented by scientific management (Classical approach or Theories)
b) Modern management approaches represented by behavioral science movement, quantitative approach, systems approach and Contingency approach (Neo-classical approach or theories)
a) THE CLASSICAL APPROACH: The classical approach is the oldest formal approach of management thought. Its roots pre-date the twentieth century. The classical approach of thought generally concerns ways to manage work and organisations more efficiently. Three areas of study that can be grouped under the classical approach are scientific management, administrative management, and bureaucratic management.
(i) Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor is known as the father of scientific management. Scientific management (also called Taylorism or the Taylor system) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labor productivity. In other words, Traditional rules of thumb are replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work.
(ii) Administrative Management: Administrative management focuses on the management process and principles of management. In contrast to scientific management, which deals largely with jobs and work at the individual level of analysis, administrative management provides a more general theory of management. Henri Fayol is the major contributor to this approach of management thought.
(iii) Bureaucratic Management: Bureaucratic management focuses on the ideal form of organisation. Max Weber was the major contributor to bureaucratic management. Based on observation, Weber concluded that many early organisations were inefficiently managed, with decisions based on personal relationships and loyalty. He proposed that a form of organisation, called a bureaucracy, characterized by division of labor, hierarchy, formalized rules, impersonality, and the selection and promotion of employees based on ability, would lead to more efficient management. Weber also contended that managers' authority in an organisation should be based not on tradition or charisma but on the position held by managers in the organisational hierarchy.
b) Neo-classical approach: It can be studied under the following headings:
a) THE BEHAVIORAL Or SITUATIONAL APPROACH: The behavioral approach of management thought developed, in part, because of perceived weaknesses in the assumptions of the classical approach. The classical approach emphasized efficiency, process, and principles. Some felt that this emphasis disregarded important aspects of organisational life, particularly as it related to human behavior. Thus, the behavioral approach focused on trying to understand the factors that affect human behavior at work.
(i) Human Relations: The Hawthorne Experiments began in 1924 and continued through the early 1930s. A variety of researchers participated in the studies, including Elton Mayo. One of the major conclusions of the Hawthorne studies was that workers' attitudes are associated with productivity. Another was that the workplace is a social system and informal group influence could exert a powerful effect on individual behavior. A third was that the style of supervision is an important factor in increasing workers' job satisfaction.
(ii) Behavioral Science: Behavioral science and the study of organisational behavior emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. The behavioral science approach was a natural progression of the human relations movement. It focused on applying conceptual and analytical tools to the problem of understanding and predicting behavior in the workplace. The behavioral science approach has contributed to the study of management through its focus on personality, attitudes, values, motivation, group behavior, leadership, communication, and conflict, among other issues.
b) THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH: The quantitative approach focuses on improving decision making via the application of quantitative techniques. Its roots can be traced back to scientific management.
(i) Management Science: Management science (also called operations research) uses mathematical and statistical approaches to solve management problems. It developed during World War II as strategists tried to apply scientific knowledge and methods to the complex problems of war. Industry began to apply management science after the war. The advent of the computer made many management science tools and concepts more practical for industry
 (ii) Production And Operations Management: This approach focuses on the operation and control of the production process that transforms resources into finished goods and services. It has its roots in scientific management but became an identifiable area of management study after World War II. It uses many of the tools of management science. Operations management emphasizes productivity and quality of both manufacturing and service organisations. W. Edwards Deming exerted a tremendous influence in shaping modern ideas about improving productivity and quality. Major areas of study within operations management include capacity planning, facilities location, facilities layout, materials requirement planning, scheduling, purchasing and inventory control, quality control, computer integrated manufacturing, just-in-time inventory systems, and flexible manufacturing systems.
c) SYSTEMS APPROACH: The systems approach focuses on understanding the organisation as an open system that transforms inputs into outputs. The systems approach began to have a strong impact on management thought in the 1960s as a way of thinking about managing techniques that would allow managers to relate different specialties and parts of the company to one another, as well as to external environmental factors. The systems approach focuses on the organisation as a whole, its interaction with the environment, and its need to achieve equilibrium.
d) CONTINGENCY APPROACH: The contingency approach focuses on applying management principles and processes as dictated by the unique characteristics of each situation. It emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage and that it depends on various situational factors, such as the external environment, technology, organisational characteristics, characteristics of the manager, and characteristics of the subordinates. Contingency theorists often implicitly or explicitly criticize the classical approach for its emphasis on the universality of management principles; however, most classical writers recognized the need to consider aspects of the situation when applying management principles.
2. (a) How do some peoples in organisation acquire and exercise greater power than others? Explain the nature and significance of power relations in a large manufacturing concern.                                              8+8=16
Or
(b) “Weber suggested that to be effective and efficient as an organisational instrument, modern organisations required bureaucratic authority.” Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons.                                            16
3. (a) What do you mean by organisation behaviour? Discuss in brief the nature of organisation behaviour.      6+10=16
Ans: Meaning of Organisational Behaviour
Organisational behaviour is concerned with people's thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions in setting up a work. Understanding an individual behaviour is in itself a challenge, but understanding group behaviour in an organisational environment is a monumental managerial task.
As Nadler and Tushman put it, "Understanding one individual's behaviour is challenging in and of itself; understanding a group that is made up of different individuals and comprehending the many relationships among those individuals is even more complex. Ultimately, the organisation's work gets done through people, individually or collectively, on their, own or in collaboration with technology. Therefore, the management of organisational behaviour is central to the management task—a task that involves the capacity to "understand" the behaviour patterns of individuals, groups and organisations, to ''predict'" what behavioural responses will be elicited by various managerial actions and finally to use this understanding and these predictions to achieve "control".
Organisational behaviour can then be defined as: "The study of human behaviour in organisational settings, the interface between human behaviour and the organisational context, and the organisation itself."
The above definition has three parts—the individual behaviour, the organisation and the (interface between the two. Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of beliefs, values, attitudes and other personal characteristics and these characteristics of all individuals must interact with each other in order to create organisational settings. The organisational behaviour is specifically concerned with work-related behaviour, which takes place in organisations.
In addition to understanding; the on-going behavioural processes involved, in 'their own jobs, managers must understand the basic human element of their work. Organisational behaviour offers three major ways of understanding this context; people as organisations, people as resources and people as people.
Above all, organisations are people; and without people there would be no organisations. Thus, if managers are to understand the organisations in which they work, they must first understand the people who make up the organisations.
As resources, people are one of the organisation's most valuable assets. People create the organisation, guide and direct its course, and vitalise and revitalise it. People make the decisions, solve the problems, and answer the questions. As managers increasingly recognise the value of potential contributions by their employees, it will become more and more important for managers and employees to grasp the complexities of organisational behaviour.
Finally, there is people as people - an argument derived from the simple notion of humanistic management. People spend a large part of their lives in; organisational settings, mostly as employees. They have a right to expect something in return beyond wages and benefits. They have a right to expect satisfaction and to learn new skills. An understanding of organisational behaviour can help the manager better appreciate the variety of individual needs and' expectations.
Organisational behaviour is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation; the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself; 'and the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the structure of the organisation. One cannot understand an individual’s behaviour completely without learning something about that individual's organisation. Similarly, he cannot understand how the organisation operates without; studying the people who-make it up. Thus, the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals.
The nature of an organisation can be understood with the help of the description of following two points:
a)      Social System: A system is a group of independent and interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. In context with an organisation, the individuals of a society are considered as a system organised by a characteristic pattern of relationships having a distinctive culture and values. It is also called social organisation or social structure. It can be further divided into following categories:
b)      Feudal system: This is a social system, which is developed in Europe in the 8th Century. A political and economic system based on the holding of. land and relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
c)       Patriarchate: This is social system, in which a male is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through his chain. In other words, power lies in his hands.
d)      Matriarchate: This is social system, in which a female is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through her chain. In other words, power lies in her hands.
e)      Meritocracy: This is a social system, in which power vests in the hands of the person with superior intellects.
f)       Class Structure: This is a social system of different classes with in a society.
g)      Segregation: This is a social system, which provides separate facilities for minority groups of a society.
h)      Mutual Interest: Organisational relationships are most likely to be strong if different groups can negotiate strategies. This can be defined as the interests that are common to both the parties and are related to the accomplishment of their respective goals. This space for sharing ideas builds trust. Individuals who have shared mutual interests are likely to make their organisation the strongest, because even though the views are different they have a shared concern for similar objectives. It is important for the individuals to think about their issues openly, and to incorporate the perspectives of their colleagues. This helps to build sustainable and harmonious activities that can operate in the mutual direct interests of the organisation.
i)        Holistic Organisational Behaviour: When the above six concepts of organi­sational behaviour are considered together, they provide a holistic concept of the subject. Holistic organisational behaviour interprets people-organisation relation­ships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organisation and whole social system.
Thus, the blending of nature of people and organisation results in an holistic organisational behaviour.
Or
(b) Discuss autocratic, custodial, supportive and collegial models of organisation behaviour. What are the situations under which these can be effective?                                   16
4. (a) Explain Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory with examples.                                16
Ans: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. This theory, popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization needs. The figure 9.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance, starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. When these needs are satisfied, he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level.
a)      Physiological needs: Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food, sex, water and air. In organisational settings, most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself, which provides employees with rest rooms, adequate lighting, comfortable temperatures and ventilation.
b)      Security or safety needs: Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing, the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity, a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package.
c)       Social needs: Belonging or social needs are related to the, social aspect of human life. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group.
d)      Esteem needs: Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs:
i.         The need for a positive self-image and self-respect.
ii.       The need for recognition and respect from others.
Organisations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. At a more fundamental level, organisations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment.
e)      Self-actualization needs: At the top of the hierarchy are those needs, which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal, self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. Therefore, an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end.
However, an organisation can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. For instance, an organisation can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organisation. This process of contributing to actual organisational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing.
Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Theory
A number of research studies have been undertaken to see the validity of hierarchy of needs. Lawler and Suttle collected data on 187 Managers in two different organisations for a period of six months to one year. No evidence was found to support Maslow's theory. They found there were two levels of needs-biological and other needs- and that other needs would emerge only when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. A survey conducted in India of 200 factory worker revealed that they give top priority to job security, earnings and personal benefits-all lower other needs.
It is generally seen that needs do not follow Maslow's hierarchy. The hierarchy is determined by individuals differently. They proceed to follow their own pattern of needs satisfaction. Some people may try for self-actuating needs rather than lower needs. For some persons esteem needs are more important than social needs.
There is no cause effect relation between and need and behavior. A particular need may cause behavior in different ways in different person. Similarly, one particular behavior may result due to different needs. It is said that higher needs motivate a person when lower needs are reasonably satisfied. The word 'reasonably satisfied' is a subjective matter. The level of satisfaction may be different for persons.
Or
(b) What do you mean by leadership style? How can leadership style be decided based on the use of power and authority?                           6+10=16
Ans: Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and deal among people and to create an urge in them to be led. To be a successful leader, a manager must possess the qualities of foresight, drive, initiative, self-confidence and personal integrity. Different situations may demand different types of leadership.
Leadership means influencing the behaviour of the people at work towards realizing the specified goals. It is the ability to use non-coercive (no force) influence on the motivation, activities and goals (MAG) of others in order to achieve the objectives of the organisation.
Koontz and 0' Donnel “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal”.
George R Terry “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives”.
Nature and Characteristics of Leadership:
                An analysis of the definitions cited above reveals the following important characteristics of leadership.
a)      Leadership is a personal quality.
b)      It exists only with followers. If there are no followers, there is no leadership?
c)       It is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader.
d)      Leadership is a process of influence. A leader must be able to influence the behaviour, attitude and beliefs of his subordinates.
e)      It exists only for the realization of common goals.
f)       It involves readiness to accept complete responsibility in all situations.
g)      Leadership is the function of stimulating the followers to strive willingly to attain organisational objectives.
h)      Leadership styles do change under different circumstances.
i)        Leadership is neither bossism nor synonymous with management.
Leadership Styles and how it is decided
1.       Autocratic or Authoritarian Style leader: An autocratic also known as authoritarian style of leadership implies wielding absolute power. Under this style, the leader expects complete obedience from his subordinates and all decision-making power is centralized in the leader. No suggestions or initiative from subordinates is entertained. The leader forces the subordinates to obey him without questioning. An autocratic leader is, in fact, no leader. He is merely the formal head of the organisation and is generally disliked by the subordinates who feel comfortable to depend completely on the leader.
Advantages:
a)      Reduced stress due to increased control
b)      A more productive group ‘while the leader is watching’
c)       Improved logistics of operations
d)      Faster decision making
Disadvantages:
a)      Short-termistic approach to management.
b)      Manager perceived as having poor leadership skills
c)       Increased workload for the manager
d)      People dislike being ordered around
e)      Teams become dependent upon their leader
2.       Laissez-faire or Free-rein Style Leader: Under this type of leadership, maximum freedom is allowed to subordinates. They are given free hand in deciding their own policies and methods and to make independent decisions. The leader provides help only when required by his subordinates otherwise he does not interfere in their work. The style of leadership creates self-confidence in the workers and provides them an opportunity to develop their talents. But it may not work under all situations with all the workers, may bring problems of indiscipline. Such leadership can be employed with success where workers are competent, sincere and self-disciplined.
Advantages:
a)      No work for the leader
b)      Frustration may force others into leadership roles
c)       Allows the visionary worker the opportunity to do what they want, free from interference
d)      Empowers the group
Disadvantages:
a)         It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.
b)         The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.
c)          Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work.
d)         The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her.
3.       Democratic or Participative Style leader: The democratic or participative style of leadership implies compromise between the two extremes of autocratic and laissez-fair style of leadership. Under this style, the supervisor acts according to the mutual consent and the decisions reached after consulting the subordinates. Subordinates are encouraged to make suggestions and take initiative. It provides necessary motivation to the workers by ensuring their participation and acceptance of work methods. Mutual trust and confidence is also created resulting in job satisfaction and improved morale of workers. It reduces the number of complaints, employee's grievances, industrial unrest and strikes. But this style of leadership may sometimes cause delay in decisions and lead to indiscipline in workers.
Advantages
a)      Positive work environment
b)      Successful initiatives
c)       Creative thinking
d)      Reduction of friction and office politics
e)      Reduced employee turnover
Disadvantages:
a)      Takes long time to take decisions
b)      Danger of pseudo participation
c)       Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful
d)      when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.
4.       Paternalistic Style leader: This style of leadership is based upon sentiments and emotions of people. A paternalistic leader is like a father to these subordinates. He looks after the subordinates like a father looks after his family. He helps guides and protects all of his subordinates but under him no one grows. The subordinates become dependent upon the leader.

5. (a) Define communication as a process. Discuss the steps for making communication effective.          6+10=16
Ans: Process of Communication
The process of communication is the inter relationship between several independent components. It consists of a chain of related actions and reaction which together result in exchange of information. In order to understand the process of communication, it is necessary to describe each of these components. A model of communication process is as follows:
a)      Sender: The sender is the first component of the process of c communication. The sender may be a speaker, a writer or any other person. He is the one who has a message and wants it to share it for some purpose.
b)      Ideation: Ideation is the preliminary step in communication where sender creates an idea to communicate. This idea is the content and basis of the message to be communicated. Several ideas may generate in the sender’s mind. The sender must identify, analyze and arrange the ideas sequentially before transmitting them to the receiver.
c)       Message: Message is the heart of communication. It is what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. It may be verbal i.e. written or spoken or non verbal i.e. body language, space language, etc.
d)      Encoding: To encode is to put an idea into words. In this step the communicator organizes his ideas into a series of symbols or words which will be communicated to the intended receiver. Thus the ideas are converted into words or symbols. The words and the symbols should be selected carefully, it should be understandable and most of all it should be suitable for transmission and reception.
e)      Transmission: Next in the process of communication is transmission of the message as encoded messages are transmitted through various media and channels of communication connects the sender and the receiver. The channel and media should be selected keeping in mind the requirement of the receiver, the communication to be effective and efficient the channel should be appropriate.
f)       Receiver: Receiver is the person or group for whom the message is meant. He may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Any neglect on the part of the receiver may make the communication ineffective. Receiver is thus the ultimate destination of the message. It the message does not reach the receiver the communication is said to be incomplete.
g)      Decoding: Decoding means translation of symbols encoded by the sender into ideas for understanding. Understanding the message by receiver is the key to the decoding process. The message should be accurately reproduced in the receiver’s mind. If the receiver is unable to understand the message correctly the communication is ineffective.
h)      Behaviour of the receiver: It refers to the response by the receiver of the communication received from the sender. He may like to ignore the message or to store the information received or to perform the task assigned by the sender. Thus communication is complete as soon as the receiver responses.
i)        Feedback: Feedback indicates the result of communication. It is the key element in the communication and is the only way of judging the effectiveness of communication. It enables the sender to know whether his message has been properly interpreted or not. Systematic use of feedback helps to improve future message. Feedback, like the message could be oral, written or non verbal. It has to be collected from the receiver.
Meaning of Effective Communication
Communication becomes effective when the receiver understands the meaning of the message as the sender intends. All communication attempts may not be effective. Certain barriers and problems may cause communication failure. When information is received timely, exact meaning of the message is understood and proper feedback is given, communication becomes effective. Consequently, to make an effective communication, the following qualities of communication are needed:
1. Timely receiving.
2. Understanding exact meaning of the message.
3. Proper feedback is given by the receiver to the sender.
R.W. Griffin mentioned about Effective Communication, "Effective communication is the process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended."
How Communication is made effective?
Communication becomes effective when the receiver understands the meaning of the message as the sender intends. To make communication effective, the following rules should be involved:
1. Specific Purpose: The sender must be clear about the specific purpose that he wants to communicate to the receiver.
2. Study the Listener: The sender must study the interest and attitude of the receiver to make communication effective more.
3.  Organization of Idea or Thought: The communicator must make up a plan about how he is going to communicate. He must organize his thoughts and ideas in advance.
4. Proper Transmission of Message: The message must be transmitted in such a way that it is accepted by the listener or reader with interest.
5. Personal Touch: The personal element is the keynote of communication. Sender's sincerity & sympathy influence the listener a lot. 
6. Mutual Understanding: A mutual understanding should be established between the sender and receiver of the message.
7. Awareness of the Need for Effective Communication: The sender and receiver of communication must be aware to make communication meaningful.
8. Provision for Feedback: When message is sent to the receiver, there must be a feedback to the sender. Two way communications creates the best possible feedback.
9. Selection of a Good Channel: The sender of message must select an effective and formal channel to communicate with the receiver.
10. Active Listening: This provides proper feedback to the sender to complete the communication process.
Or
(b) “There seems to be little agreement on the components or criteria of organisational effectiveness.” Do you agree? Discuss.                                                16

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