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Wednesday, September 18, 2019

M.Com Previous Year Solved Papers: Organisational Behaviour' 2011(August - Incomplete)

2011 (August)
Paper: 102
Full Marks: 80
Time: 3 hours
1. (a) Explain the various linkages that need to be examined in studying organisational – environmental interface. 16
(b) What is the contingency view of organisation? Does it adequately help in designing structure? 10+6=16

2. (a) Describe the important elements of bureaucracy. What are its unintended consequences? How would you reduce these dysfunctions?  6+5+5=16

(b) Define span of management. What is the optimum number of subordinates that should be under the superior, as suggested by various experts?  6+10=16
Ans: SPAN OF MANAGEMENT: In the words of Spriegal, "Span of control means the number of people reporting directly to an authority. The principle of span of control implies that no single executive should have more people looking to him for guidance and leadership than he can reasonably be expected to serve. The span of supervision is also known as span of control, span of management, span of responsibility, span of authority and span of direction.
Factors influencing the span of Management
                There are number of factors that influence or determine the span of Management in a particular organisation, the most important of these are as follows:
a)      The capacity and ability of the executive: The characteristics and abilities such as leadership, administrative capabilities; ability to communicate, to judge, to listen, to guide and inspire, physical vigour, etc. differ from person to person. A person having better abilities can manage effectively a large number of subordinates as compared to the one who has lesser capabilities.
b)      Competence and training of subordinates: Subordinates who are skilled, efficient, knowledgeable, trained and competent require less supervision, and therefore, the supervisor may have a wider span in such cases as compared to inexperienced and untrained subordinates who requires greater supervision.
c)       Nature of Work: Nature and importance of work to be supervised is another factor that influences the span of supervision. The work involving routine, repetitive, unskilled and standardized operations will not call much attention and time on the part of the supervisor.
d)      Time available for supervision: The capacity of a person to supervise and control a large number of persons is also limited on account of time available at his disposal to supervise them. The span of control would be generally narrow at the higher level of management because top manager have to spend their major time on planning, organising, directing and controlling and the time available at their disposal for supervision will be less.
e)      Degree of Decentralization and Extent of Delegation: If a manager clearly delegates authority to undertake a well-defined task, a well trained subordinate can do it with a minimum of supervisor's time and attention.
f)       Effectiveness of communication system: Faulty communication puts a heavy burden on manager's time and reduces the span of control.
g)      Quality of Planning: Effective planning helps to reduce frequent calls on the superior for explanation, instructions and guidance and thereby saves in time available at the disposal of the superior enabling him to have a wider span.
h)      Degree of Physical Dispersion: If all persons to be supervised are located at the same place and within the direct supervision of the manager, he can supervise relatively more people as compared to the one who has to supervise people located at different places.
i)        Assistance of Experts: the span of supervision may be wide where the services of experts are available to the subordinate on various aspects of work. In case such services are not provided in the organisation, the supervisor has to spend a lot of time in providing assistance to the workers himself and a such the span of control would be narrow.
Type of span of supervision: Broadly speaking there are two types, of span of supervision:
(a)    Wider Span of Supervision: In this type of span, the supervisor controls and guides the activities of subordinates directly under his control. Wider span or supervision is favoured where workers are competent and trained.
(b)   Narrow Span of Supervision: under this type of supervision, there are many levels and more supervisors are required to perform the job of guidance and control for different activities. It increases the efficiency of supervision but the cost of supervision is very high as compared to wider span of supervision. This type of supervision is favored at higher levels of management where all the other activities of planning, organising, directing, and controlling are also to be performed. But more the levels of supervision, more difficult are the task of coordinating the activities of various groups of people.

3. (a) Bring out the role of groups in an organisation. Substantiate the claims that group task influences group performance and satisfaction.  8+8=16
(b)What are the fundamental concepts that determine behaviour in an organisation?  16
4. (a)Why control is necessary? Mention the guidelines for dealing with the controlling process.  6+10=16
(b)Explain the nature and functions of leadership based on the following formula: L = f (l, f, s). Also suggest measures of effective leadership.  10+6=16
5. (a) Analyse the concept of organisational effectiveness. What, according to Resins Likert, are the determinants of organisational effectiveness?  8+8=16
(b) Why do people tend to resist change in organisation? Discuss the various approaches for reducing resistance to change.  7+9=16

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