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Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Business Environment Solved Papers: November' 2013

2013 (November)
Commerce (General/Speciality)
1. Answer as directed:                                   1x8=8
(a) Human resource is an Internal factor of business environment. (Fill in the blank)
(b) Mention one drawback of Privatization.                         Ans: Concentration of Economic Power
(c) Economic growth always increases welfare.                  (Write True/ False)
(d) Coexistence of Public sector and Private sector is one of the main features of Indian business environment. (Write True / False)
(e) Write the full form of MRTP.                                Ans: Monopolistic and Restrictive Trade Practices
(f) Mention one objective of IMF.            Ans: International Monetary Fund
(g) Write the full form of GATT.                 Ans: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(h) In which year the SEBI was set up?   Ans: 1992
2. Write short notes on the following:                   4x4=16

(a) SWOT analysis
Ans: SWOT analysis: SWOT analysis is a simple framework for generating strategic alternatives from a situation analysis. It is applicable to either the corporate level or the business unit level and frequently appears in marketing plans.
 SWOT (sometimes referred to as TOWS) stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. A SWOT analysis consists of the following two activities: 
a)      An assessment of the organization’s internal Strengths and Weaknesses and
b)      An assessment of the Opportunities and Threats posed by its external environment
a)      Assessing the Internal Environment
Internal scan or assessment of the internal environment of the organization involves identification of its strengths and weaknesses i.e., those aspects that help or hinder accomplishment of the organization’s mission and fulfillment of its mandate with respect to the following Four Ps:
1)      People (Human Resources)
2)      Properties (Buildings, Equipments and other facilities)
3)      Processes (Such as student placement services, M.I.S etc.)
4)      Products (Students, Publications etc.)
b)      Assessing the External Environment
External scan refers to exploring the environment outside the organisation in order to identify the opportunities and threats it faces. This involves considering the following:
1)      Events, trends and forces in the Social, Technological, Economical, Environmental and Political areas (STEEP).
2)      Identifying the shifts in the needs of customers and potential clients and
3)      Identification of competitors and collaborators.
(b) Government of India’s Industrial Policy, 2007 for the North-East India.
Ans: North East Industrial and Investment Promotion Policy (NEIIP, 2007)
Important Provisions of NEIIPP, 2007
a)      Sikkim will be included under NEIIPP, 2007 and the ‘New Industrial Policy and other concessions for the State of Sikkim’ announced earlier in December, 2002 will be discontinued from the date of notification of NEIIPP, 2007.
b)      Under NEIIPP, 2007, all new units as well as existing units which go in for substantial expansion, unless otherwise specified and which commence commercial production within the 10 year period from the date of notification of NEIIPP, 2007 will be eligible for incentives for a period of 10 years from the date of commencement of production.
c)       The incentives under the NEIIPP, 2007 will be available to all industrial units, new as well as existing units on their substantial expansion, located anywhere in the North Eastern Region.  Consequently, the distinction between ‘thrust’ and ‘non thrust’ industries made in NEIP, 97 will be discontinued from the date of notification of NEIIPP, 2007.
d)      Under NEIIPP, 2007 incentives on substantial expansion will be given to units effecting ‘an increase by not less than 25% in the value of fixed capital investment in plant and machinery for the purpose of expansion of capacity/modernization and diversification’ as against an increase by 33 ½  % prescribed at present.
e)      Under NEIIPP, 2007, 100% excise duty exemption will be continued as at present on finished products made in the North Eastern Region.  However, in cases, where the CENVAT paid on the raw materials and intermediate products going into the production of finished products (other than the products which are otherwise exempt or subject to nil rate of duty) is higher than the excise duties payable on the finished products, ways and means to refund such overflow of CENVAT credit will be separately notified by the M/O Finance.
f)       100% income tax exemption will continue under NEIIPP, 2007 as at present.
g)      Capital investment subsidy will be enhanced from 15% of the investment in plant and machinery to 30% and the limit for automatic approval of subsidy at this rate will be Rs. 1.5 crore per unit as against Rs. 30 lakhs at present.  Such subsidy will be applicable to units in the private sector, joint sector, cooperative sector as well as the units set up by the State Governments of the North Eastern Region.  For grant of capital investment subsidy higher than Rs. 1.5 crore but upto a maximum of Rs.30 crore, there will be an Empowered Committee.
h)      Interest subsidy will be made available @ 3% on working capital loan under NEIIPP, 2007 as at present.
i)        Under NEIIPP, 2007, new industrial units as well as the existing units on their substantial expansion will be eligible for reimbursement of 100% insurance premium under the Comprehensive Insurance Scheme.
j)        To include tobacco and tobacco products, pan masala, plastics carry bags and goods produced by refineries, in a host of industries which would not be eligible for incentives under NEIIPP, 2007.
(c) Distinctions between money and capital market
(d) Major achievements of the World Bank
Ans: Achievements of World Bank
a)      It facilitates the implementation, administration and operation of the objectives of the Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements.
b)      It provides the framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the multilateral Trade Agreements relating to trade in civil aircraft, government procurement, trade in diary products and bovine meat.
c)       It provides the forum for negotiations among its members.
d)      It administers the Understanding on Rules and Procedures governing the Settlement of Disputes of the Agreement.
e)      It cooperates with the IMF and the World Bank and its affiliated agencies with a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making.
3. (a) Explain the micro and macro environment of business.                     4+8=12
Ans: External Environment: The external environment is made up of micro and macro environment.
Micro Environment: This refers to the factors which influence the prospects of a particular firm; the firm can influence them with certain efforts. They are as follows:
a) Customers: The type and the nature of the customers influence the rate of growth of any firm. The firm has to be very particular about choosing the inputs and transforming them in to the output. The cost factor is subsidiary if the firm is dealing with such customers. If the customers are more commoners the quality of the commodity if less important than the cost of production. The customers want the commodity at a lower price so the firm will have to conscious about the cost in purchasing the inputs, in employment of labour, in packing and such other factors influencing the cost.
b) Competitors:  In modern age an absolute monopoly is a very rare thing. Most of the FIRMS have to work in some type of competition such as Monopolistic Competition or Oligopoly. A Firm has to be particular about the intensity of the competition. If the competition is severe the firm will have to be very particular about keeping the costs at the lowest level so that it can sell the commodity at a competitive price.
c) Suppliers:  The quality of the commodity and the cost of production are considerably influenced by the supplies of the inputs. If the inputs are supplied at economical prices, are of standard quality and if the supply is uninterrupted and timely the firm can produce a standard quality of a commodity and sell it at reasonable prices. Often the firms employ more than one supplier so as to ensure an uninterrupted supply of inputs. If the supplies of inputs are regular, consistent and reliable there is no need to keep a larger quantity in stock.
d) Channel Intermediaries: They refer to the different levels in the chain from the production unit to the final customer. The chain incorporates the stockists, the wholesalers, the distributors, the retailer etc. If there is a high level of efficiency maintained at every part of the chain the commodity can reach the final consumer in good condition and at a reasonable price. So the Firm has to select and maintain efficient intermediaries. The firm has to offer them proper terms
e) Society: The prospects of a firm depend upon the society in which it has to work and sell its products. In a homogenous society the job of the firm is easy. The people have almost the same habits likes and dislikes, values and ethical norms. In a heterogeneous society the job of the firm is difficult. A particular product may be acceptable to a particular section of the society but not acceptable to some other sections. In a country like India a firm has to into consideration all types of sections of the community such as the religious sections, the caste, the sect, language, region etc.
Conclusion: All these forces influence the chances available to a firm to survive and develop.
Macro Environment: The macro environment comprises of those forces which influence all business firms operating in an economy. They can be studied under the following categories: economic environment, political and regulatory environment, social/ cultural environment, demographic environment and technological. The components of these environments are discussed as below:
a) Economic Environment:  The survival and success of each and every business enterprise depend fully on its economic environment. The main factors that affect the economic environment are:
(i) Economic Conditions: The economic conditions of a nation refer to a set of economic factors that have great influence on business organisations and their operations. These include gross domestic product, per capita income, markets for goods and services, availability of capital, foreign exchange reserve, growth of foreign trade, strength of capital market etc. All these help in improving the pace of economic growth.
(ii) Economic Policies: All business activities and operations are directly influenced by the economic policies framed by the government from time to time. Some of the important economic policies are: Industrial policy, Fiscal policy, monetary policy, foreign investment policy and Export –Import policy. The government keeps on changing these policies from time to time in view of the developments taking place in the economic scenario.
(ii) Economic System: The world economy is primarily governed by three types of economic systems, viz. Capitalist economy; Socialist economy; and Mixed economy. India has adopted the mixed economy system which implies co-existence of public sector and private sector.
b) Political Environment: This includes the political system, the government policies and attitude towards the business community and the unionism. All these aspects have a bearing on the strategies adopted by the business firms. The stability of the government also influences business and related activities to a great extent. It sends a signal of strength, confidence to various interest groups and investors.
c) Legal Environment:  This refers to set of laws, regulations, which influence the business organisations and their operations. Every business organisation has to obey, and work within the framework of the law. The important legislations that concern the business enterprises include: Companies Act, 1956, Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, The Factories Act, 1948, Industrial Disputes Act, 19112, Payment of Gratuity Act, 19112, Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 etc. Besides, the above legislations, the following are also form part of the legal environment of business:
(i) Provisions of the Constitution
(ii) Judicial Decisions.
d)  Social Environment: The social environment of business includes social factors like customs, traditions, values, beliefs, poverty, literacy, life expectancy rate etc. The social structure and the values that a society cherishes have a considerable influence on the functioning of business firms. For example, during festive seasons there is an increase in the demand for new clothes, sweets, fruits, flower, etc.
e) Technological Environment:  Technological environment include the methods, techniques and approaches adopted for production of goods and services and its distribution. The varying technological environments of different countries affect the designing of products. In the modern competitive age, the pace of technological changes is very fast. Hence, in order to survive and grow in the market, a business has to adopt the technological changes from time to time.
f) Demographic Environment:  This refers to the size, density, distribution and growth rate of population. All these factors have a direct bearing on the demand for various goods and services.
g) Natural Environment:  The natural environment includes geographical and ecological factors that influence the business operations. These factors include the availability of natural resources, weather and climatic condition, location aspect, topographical factors, etc. Business is greatly influenced by the nature of natural environment. For example, sugar factories are set up only at those places where sugarcane can be grown. It is always considered better to establish manufacturing unit near the sources of input.
Or
(b) Discuss the changing dimensions of business environment in India since 1991.          12
Ans: Changing Dimensions of Indian Business
Business Environment is the world around a company over which it has no direct control. It covers many dimensions impacting a company's activities & performance. It is an aggregate of all forces & factors external to the business enterprise, but which influence it's functioning. There is a mutual inter-dependence between business and its environment. A business enterprise is an open system and it continuously interacts with its environment. Businesses take inputs like raw material, capital, labour, energy, etc. from the environment, and transform them into goods & services, and then send them back into the environment. Interaction between business and environment is in various ways such as: exchange of information, resources, influence & power.
There are several layers of influences surrounding a business. The outermost layer, called the macro-environment, consists of dimensions that impact almost all companies in an economy. These factors are the six aspects of business environment - Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental, & Legal.
Political environment: Political environment includes factors like a country's political system, type of government, centre-state relations, public opinion, law & order, nature of government policies towards business - particularly those related to taxation, industrial relations, regulation of business & industry, and foreign trade regulations. It also relates to the stability of the government in power, the risk of major political disturbances, or threats from anti-social elements, terrorists or other countries.
In the period prior to liberalisation, India's annual growth rate was low at around 3.5%, only a few licenses were given out for important sectors like steel, electrical power, energy and communication, and these licence owners built up powerful corporate empires. India at that time was a socialistic economy with excessive govt. control. Core industries were directly managed by the govt. as public sector enterprises and banking and airline industries were nationalised. A huge public sector emerged and state-owned enterprises made large losses. There was public sector monopoly and investment in infrastructure was poor. Licence Raj established the self-perpetuating bureaucracy that still exists in India and corruption flourished under this system.
GOI began the process of privatisation in 1991. Privatisation means having private ownership, management and control into public sector undertakings. The purpose of privatisation is to improve the efficiency of public undertakings and to raise funds for public investment. As a result financial institutions have become more active, working culture is improving and management is being professionalised, there is improvement in technology, better investment behaviour of Indian entrepreneurs and companies are aware of the significance of human capital. The banking, financial services & insurance (BFSI) and airline sectors have become extremely competitive, but are in need of reforms. There have been some negative effects like curtailed growth in some industries, reduced employment opportunities due to adoption of capital intensive technology, sell-outs & takeovers by foreign companies, losing markets and declining capacity utilisation.
Economic Factors: Economic factors relate to the general condition of the economy within which a business operates. It comprises of the factors and forces concerned with means of production and distribution of wealth. It refers to the nature of economic system, economic policies of the country, organisation of capital & money markets, GDP, income level, growth rate, inflation rate, interest rates, money supply, and unemployment rate. The Indian economy is currently the 9th largest in the world by nominal GDP and the 4th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Economic growth rates are projected at around 7.5%-8% for the financial year 2011-2012.
Economic Liberalisation was when India adopted free market principles and it included opening India for international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatisation, tax reforms and inflation-controlling measures. The fruits of liberalisation reached their peak in the year 2007 as India reached its highest GDP growth rate of 9%. With this India became the 2nd fastest growing economy in the world, next only to China.
However dealing with powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies, are some areas that still need economic reforms. India will soon allow foreign direct investment (FDI) in the retail industry, as it has been passed by the cabinet.
Globalisation is a process of integration of business activities and growing economic inter-dependence between countries in the world economy. Growing similarities of countries in terms of availability of infrastructure led to globalisation. It has exposed firms to international competition, resulting in an increase in employment opportunities and widening of competition.
The impact of these economic reforms was that total foreign investment in India grew manifold and cities like Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, NOIDA, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Jaipur and Indore have risen in prominence and economic importance. They have become centres of rising industries and destination for foreign investment and firms. With GDP growth predicted to be around 8% over this decade, India is set to reap the benefits of development.
Socio-cultural environment: Socio-cultural environment covers factors such as social customs, traditions, culture, lifestyle, attitude of people, saving & spending patterns, size of population, demographic profile, education level, occupational structure, trade unions, and other factors that influence and describe the behavioural characteristics typical of the people. It would also include the Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives undertaken by companies.
CSR in India is in a nascent stage. It is still one of the least understood initiatives in the Indian development sector. A lack of understanding, inadequately trained personnel, non-availability of authentic data and specific information on the kinds of CSR activities, coverage, policy etc. further adds to the reach and effectiveness of CSR programmes. However the situation is changing as CSR is coming out of the purview of 'doing social good' and is becoming a 'business necessity'. The business case for CSR is gaining ground and corporate houses are realising that what is good for workers – their community, health and environment is also good for business.
Technological Environment: Technological dimension covers the nature of technology available and used by an economy. It also covers the extent to which development in technologies are likely to take place. This may be reflected in factors like expenditure on R&D and rate of obsolescence. Technical obsolescence occurs when a new product or technology supersedes the old, and it becomes preferred to utilize the new technology in place of the old. Some examples of technological obsolescence are telephone replacing the telegraph, and DVD replacing VCR. Products are becoming obsolete and getting replaced by newer versions. Not many people will remember the days of the floppy disk. Computers are becoming smaller but faster, and TVs are becoming sleeker with more features.
Environmental factor: Environmental factor refers to the physical or geographical environment affecting the business. It also includes the considerations like environmental pollution, climate change, carbon footprint, etc. Carbon footprint is the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production & consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as carbon offsetting.
Carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, and the emissions of other GHGs, are often associated with the burning of fossil fuels like natural gas, crude oil and coal. The Kyoto Protocol defines legally binding targets and timetables for cutting the GHG emissions of industrialized countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Nations which have failed to deliver their Kyoto emissions reductions obligations can enter Emissions Trading to purchase instruments like Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) and Emissions Reduction Units (ERUs) to be sold on international markets, in order to cover their treaty shortfalls. Within the next few years China, India and the United States are some of the nations scheduled to start participating in Emissions Trading Schemes.
Legal Environment: Legal or regulatory dimension describes the framework of legislation impacting business. It includes all the laws, legal system and judicial system of the country. A business has to work within the framework of a country's laws and regulations. Laws important to business relate to areas like monopolies & restrictive trade, consumer protection, employment, industrial relations, health & safety, and joint stock companies. Even today industry is subjected to harassment by at least 35-40 various inspectors of the GOI. Every city in Maharashtra has Octroi duty, which leads to long queues at the city borders causing delays of over 24 hours in deliveries. Excise & Customs duty is another area of concern. There is practically no internal mechanism to control corruption in govt. depts. which are manned by high-handed bureaucrats. There also exists massive political patronage & influence leading to corruption on unprecedented scale.
Inspite of dismantling licence raj, for every small thing corporates still need to use middlemen to lobby the govt. depts. setting up manufacturing units in excise-free zones has been a popular option for business houses in India. However there has been random creation of excise-free zones as sops to backward states. Most of these states (with the exception of Uttarakhand) have not bothered to create any infrastructure. Baddi in Himachal Pradesh has no infrastructure to support industries and no sanitation either.
4. (a) What is business Cycle? Describe business environment of a country during different phases of a business cycle. 5+6=11
Ans: The business cycle is an alternate expansion and contraction in overall business activity, as evidenced by fluctuations in aggregate economic activity such as GNP, industrial production, employment and income.
According to J. M. Keynes “A Business cycle is composed of periods of good trade characterized by rising prices and low unemployment percentages, alternating with periods of bad trade characterized by fall in prices and high unemployment percentages.”
Characteristics of Business Cycle
A business cycle must possess the following characteristics:
1. Fluctuation of Aggregate Economic Activity: Business cycles refer to the fluctuations in aggregate economic activity rather than as fluctuations in a single specific economic variable such as GDP.
2. Alteration of expansion and contraction in economic activity: A trade cycle is characterized by alteration of expansion (Prosperity) and contraction (Depression) in economic activity. They are repetitive and rhythmic. The period of prosperity is followed by depression and which again is followed by a period of prosperity. This indicates that the movement is wave like in character; it is not an erratic fluctuation.
3. Co-movement: Business cycles do not take place in just a few sectors or in just a few economic variables. Instead, expansions or contractions take place at the same time in a number of economic activities. Thus, although some industries are more sensitive to the business cycle than the rest, the level of output and employment in most industries tends to fall in recessions and rise in expansions. Many other economic variables like prices, productivity, investment and government purchases also have regular and predictable patterns of behaviors over the course of the business cycle. The tendency of many economic variables to move together in a predictable way over the business cycle is called co-movement.
4. Self- Reinforcing: A trade cycle is a self- reinforcing in nature. It means that the process of expansion and contraction is a cumulative self- reinforcing nature. Each upswing or downswing feeds on itself and generates further movement (change) in the same direction until its direction is reversed by external forces.
5. The degree of regularity: A trade cycle has a degree of regularity. It is possible that the upswing of a trade cycle is longer than the downswing or vice versa, but it maintains regularity.
6. The presence of crisis: A trade cycle is characterized by the presence of a crisis, i.e. peak and the trough are not symmetrical. In the words, the change from upward to downward may be more sudden and violent than is the change from downward to upward movement. Consequently, the peak of the trade cycle is pointed with steep bends on either side whereas trough has a gently sloping swing of 16 – 22 years’ duration.
7. International in character: When business fluctuations occur in a country, it will be spread all over the countries.
Phases of a Business Cycle: A business cycle will have 5 different phases or stages. They are
(1) Depression: During this period business activity in the country will be much below normal level. It is characterized by a short fall in production, mass unemployment, and fall in prices, low wages, and contraction of credit, a high rate of business failures and an atmosphere of all round pessimism.
(2) Recovery: During this period business activity increases. The industrial production and volume of employment steadily increases. The prices and wages increases. The recovery may take place due to the following reasons:
•New government expenditure
•Exploitation of new sources of energy
•Innovations
•Investment in new areas
•Changes in the techniques of production
(3) Prosperity: This stage is characterized by high capital investment in basic industries, expansion of bank credit, high prices, high profits, high rate of formation of new business enterprises and the full employment.
 (4) Boom: It is the stage of rapid expansion in business activity resulting in high stocks and commodity prices, high profits and over-full employment. A situation develops in which the no. of jobs exceeds the no. of workers in the market. Such a situation is known as over-full employment. Profits will further increase. This will lead to more investment and in turn further rise in price level and inflation.
(5) Recession: In this stage more business enterprises fail, prices collapse and confidence is shaken. Building construction slows down and unemployment increases. There is fall in income during recession.
Or
(b) What do you mean by economic environment of business? Explain the elements of economic environment of business.                             4+7=11
Ans: Various environmental factors such as economic environment, socio-cultural environment, political, technological, demographic and international, affect the business and its working. Out of these factors economic environment is the most important factor.
Meaning of Economic Environment: Those Economic factors which have their affect on the working of the business are known as economic environment. It includes system, policies and nature of an economy, trade cycles, economic resources, level of income, distribution of income and wealth etc. Economic environment is very dynamic and complex in nature. It does not remain the same. It keeps on changing from time to time with the changes in an economy like change in Govt. policies, political situations.
Elements of Economic Environment: - It has mainly five main components:-
(a) Economic Conditions
(b) Economic System
(c)Economic Policies
(d) Economic Planning and
(e) Regional Economic Group
(a) Economic Conditions: The economic conditions of a nation refer to a set of economic factors that have great influence on business organisations and their operations. These include gross domestic product, per capita income, markets for goods and services, availability of capital, foreign exchange reserve, growth of foreign trade, strength of capital market etc. All these help in improving the pace of economic growth.
(b) Economic Policies: All business activities and operations are directly influenced by the economic policies framed by the government from time to time. Some of the important economic policies are:
(i) Licensing policy
(ii) Fiscal policy
(iii) Monetary policy
(iv) Foreign Trade policy
(v) Price Policy
(vi) Technology Policy
Since the days of independence, India adopted licensing policy, which in effect made the government control the growth of independence in accordance with the national priorities. Till 1985, liberalization was never accepted as a part of growth strategy. But after 1985, the situation slowly changed that by 1991 India adopted a policy of liberalization.  Consequently, the business scope and prospects of the Indian business organization changed since 1991.
By fiscal policy we mean, the government's tax efforts, public expenditure and public borrowing. Through these the government can effectively encourage consumption, investment and savings habits and also restrict them.
Monetary policy refers to the set of policies determined and implemented by the central bank of a country to control the economic condition. The central bank of a country has the basic responsibility to maintain the price level and money supply in a country. This is possible only when the central bank has certain instruments. These instruments available with the central bank to control the money supply and price level are called monetary policy instruments. They are called Credit control policy.
The foreign trade policy determines the scope for trade between countries. It would directly affect the business prospects of the business organizations. A liberal policy would extend the scope for exports and imports, while a restrictive policy would narrow the scope. Similarly, if protectionism is favored, then the business organizations will have lesser market threats from multinational corporations.
This refers to the controls that government has on the price in a country. This is necessary, because, unless price is controlled, there is bound to be inflation and then economic instability. Further in Indian context, nearly 35% of the population is living below the poverty line. They do not have any permanent employment. Especially the rural poverty is very serious. To overcome this situation, the government resorts to price control policy.
One of the most important economic policies is the technology policy.  Improvement in technology is a condition for growth and survival in any organization.
The government keeps on changing these policies from time to time in view of the developments taking place in the economic scenario, political expediency and the changing requirement. Every business firm has to function strictly within the policy framework and respond to the changes therein.
(c) Economic System: The world economy is primarily governed by three types of economic systems, viz.
i)        Capitalism economy;
ii)       Socialist economy; and
iii)     Mixed economy.
Capitalism is an economic system based on the principle of free enterprise. Individual ownership of resources is an important feature.   With control and command over resources, individuals can conduct any type of business. The object in such a system is to maximize private gains. Any type of enterprise or production of any commodity or service is permitted, so long it is wanted by the society.   In such a system the market forces determine the resource allocation and price.
In a socialist country, government can adopt licensing system and other types of regulations to prevent the emergence of monopolist and exploitative tendencies. Maximization of Community welfare is the objective than profit maximization. The resources are owned by the State or state owned institutions. Government decides the type of productive efforts to be permitted.
In a mixed economy, one will find the existence of both the private and public sectors. In such a system, the government will undertake the responsibility to build and develop certain sector activities and leave the other activities for the private initiative.
(d) Economic Planning: The management of national economy must begin with national level economic planning within the framework provided by the general economic policy of the government. An economic planning is a mechanism for allocation of available resources and encourages efficient decision making process in an economy to achieve pre determined objectives of plans like increasing growth rate, reducing inflation, creating employment , obtaining self sufficiency etc. A government plays an important role as it has the authority of drafting and implementing financial plans keeping in mind the interest of various business industries and social welfare.
(e) Regional economic groups: They promote cooperation and free trade among members by removing tariff and other restrictions. They provide opportunities to member countries and threats to non-member counties. Examples are: SA ARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. ASIAN: Association of South East Asian Nations. EU: European Union.

5. (a) Explain the concept of “Special Economic Zone”. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.                           4+7=11
Ans: Special Economic Zone- Introduction
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. The category 'SEZ' covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ), Industrial Estates (IE), Free Ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of an SEZ structure is to increase foreign investment.
One of the earliest and the most famous Special Economic Zones were founded by the government of the People's Republic of China under Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. The most successful Special Economic Zone in China, Shenzhen, has developed from a small village into a city with a population over 10 million within 20 years. Following the Chinese examples, Special Economic Zones have been established in several countries, including Brazil, India, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.
SEZ AT INDIA
India was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000. 
This policy intended to make SEZs an engine for economic growth supported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the Centre and the State level, with the minimum possible regulations.
To instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to impart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through the establishment of SEZs, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions. The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005.
The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:
(a) Generation of additional economic activity 
(b) Promotion of exports of goods and services; 
(c) Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources; 
(d) Creation of employment opportunities; 
(e) Development of infrastructure facilities;
Key Advantages of SEZ Units in India
Ø  10-year tax holiday in a block of the first 20 years
Ø  Exemption from duties on all imports for project development
Ø  Exemption from excise / VAT on domestic sourcing of capital goods for project development
Ø  No foreign ownership restrictions in developing zone infrastructure and no restrictions on repatriation
Ø  Freedom to develop township in to the SEZ with residential areas, markets, play grounds, clubs and recreation centers without any restrictions on foreign ownership
Ø  Income tax holidays on business income
Ø  Exemption from import duty, VAT and other Taxes
Ø  10% FDI allowed through the automatic route for all manufacturing activities
Ø  Procedural ease and efficiency for speedy approvals, clearances and customs procedures and dispute resolution
Ø  Simplification of procedures and self-certification in the labor acts
Ø  Artificial harbor and handling bulk containers made operational through out the year
Ø  Houses both domestic and international air terminals to facilitate transit, to and fro from major domestic and international destinations
Ø  Has host of Public and Private Bank chains to offer financial assistance for business houses
Ø  A vibrant industrial city with abundant supply of skilled manpower, covering the entire spectrum of industrial and business expertise
Ø  Well connected with network of public transport, local railways and cabs
Ø  Pollution free environment with proper drainage and sewage system
Ø  In-house Customs clearance facilities
Disadvantages of SEZ
Ø  Revenue losses because of the various tax exemptions and incentives.
Ø  Many traders are interested in SEZ, so that they can acquire at cheap rates and create a land bank for themselves.
Ø  The number of units applying for setting up EOU's is not commensurate to the number of applications for setting up SEZ's leading to a belief that this project may not match up to expectations.
Or
(b) Discuss the salient features of New Industrial Policy of India, 1991.                 11
Ans: New Industrial Policy, 1991
In order to solve economic problems of our country, the government took several steps including control by the State of certain industries, central planning and reduced importance of the private sector. The main objectives of India’s development plans were:
a)      Initiate rapid economic growth to raise the standard of living, reduce unemployment and poverty;
b)      Become self-reliant and set up a strong industrial base with emphasis on heavy and basic industries;
c)       Reduce inequalities of income and wealth;
d)      Adopt a socialist pattern of development based on equality and prevent exploitation of man by man.
e)      As a part of economic reforms, the Government of India announced a new industrial policy in July 1991. The broad features of this policy were as follows:
f)       The Government reduced the number of industries under compulsory licensing to six.
g)      Policy towards foreign capital was liberalized. The share of foreign equity participation was increased to 51% and in many activities 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was permitted.
h)      Government will encourage foreign trad­ing companies to assist Indian exporters in export activities.
i)        Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) was set up to promote and channelise foreign investment in India.
j)        Automatic permission was now granted for technology agreements with foreign companies.
k)      Relaxation of MRTP Act (Monopolies and Restrictive Practices Act) which has almost been rendered non-functional.
l)        Dilution of foreign exchange regulation act (FERA) making rupee fully convertible on trade account.
m)    Disinvestment was carried out in case of many public sector industrial enterprises incurring heavy losses.
n)      Abolition of wealth tax on shares.
o)      General reduction in customs duties.
p)      Provide strength to those public sector enterprises which fall in reserved areas of operation or in high priority areas.
q)      Constitution of special boards to negoti­ate with foreign firms for large investments in the development of industries and import of technol­ogy.
Impact of Government Policy Changes (New Industrial Policy, 1991) on Business and Industry
1)   Increasing competition: As a result of changes in the rules of industrial licensing and entry of foreign firms, competition for Indian firms has increased especially in service industries like telecommunications, airlines, banking, insurance, etc. which were earlier in the public sector.
2)   More demanding customers: Customers today have become more demanding because they are well-informed. Increased competition in the market gives the customers wider choice in purchasing better quality of goods and services.
3)   Rapidly changing technological environment: Increased competition forces the firms to develop new ways to survive and grow in the market. New technologies make it possible to improve machines, process, products and services. The rapidly changing technological environment creates tough challenges before smaller firms.
4)   Necessity for change: In a regulated environment of pre-1991 era, the firms could have relatively stable policies and practices. After 1991, the market forces have become turbulent as a result of which the enterprises have to continuously modify their operations.
5)   Threat from MNC Massive entry of multi nationals in Indian marker constitutes new challenge. The Indian subsidiaries of multi-nationals gained strategic advantage. Many of these companies could get limited support in technology from their foreign partners due to restrictions in ownerships. Once these restrictions have been limited to reasonable levels, there is increased technology transfer from the foreign partners
6. (a) Discuss the main objectives of monetary policy. Explain the role of monetary policy in promoting savings and investment in developing countries.                     11
Or
(b) What is meant by monetary policy? Explain the tools of credit control.                          2+9=11
7. (a) Explain the concept of “International economic grouping”. Discuss its influence on the economic development of member nations.                             4+7=11
Ans: International Economic Grouping
After the Second World War, when the entire economy of the world was destroyed and a transformation was going on from the wartime economy to peacetime economy, the world leaders have started to give thought on the line of increasing the world trade. After the two world wars the countries of the world erected tariff wall to reduce import. This ultimately resulted in fall in trade. Secondly, the need was felt for an international institution which will monitor and act as the regulator of the world trade. All these come out in the form of General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Later on it was replaced by world Trade Organization (WTO). At the regional level also several groups emerges to promote cooperation and trade at the regional level. Some of these are ASEAN and SAARC. After the World War II, in order to revive the international monetary system a necessity was felt for an international financial institution to support the economies which were damaged due to the war and also to help the countries to run their economy efficiently. So, two international financial institutions came out which are International Monetary Fund and World Bank.
GATT / World Trade Organisation and its Impact on Indian economy
The first half of the 20th century was marked by a major worldwide economic depression that occurred between the two world wars and that all but destroyed most of the industrialized nations. International trade got a setback when after the First World War countries erected high tariff walls and raised other tariff barriers to intolerable heights. All this resulted in to the great depression. This was also one of the fundamental reasons of the World War II.
After the Second World War leaders creates General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GTTO), to avoid the repletion of the same. GATT was a forum for the member countries to negotiate a reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade. Countries including India signed the GATT. The original agreement provides a process to reduce tariffs and created an agency to serve as a watchdog over world trade.
GATT came into existence with effect from 1st January 1948 and remained in force till December 1994. Various rounds of negotiations have taken place under the auspices of GATT to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers. The last one, known as the Uruguay Round, was the most comprehensive one in terms of coverage of issues, and also the lengthiest one from the point of view of duration of negotiations which lasted over a period of seven years from 1986 to 1994.
One of the key achievements of the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations was the decision to set up a permanent institution for looking after the promotion of free and fair trade amongst nations. Consequent to this decision, the GATT was transformed into World Trade Organisation (WTO) with effect from 1st January 1995. The head quarters of WTO are situated at Geneva, Switzerland. Establishment of WTO, thus, represents the implementation of the original proposal of setting up of the ITO as evolved almost five decades back.
Though, WTO is a successor to GATT, it is a much more powerful body than GATT. It governs trade not only in goods, but also in services and intellectual property rights. Unlike GATT, the WTO is a permanent organisation created by an international treaty ratified by the governments and legislatures of member states. It is, moreover, a member driven rule-based organisation in the sense that all the decisions are taken by the member governments on the basis of a general consensus. As the principal international body concerned with solving trade problems between countries and providing a forum for multilateral trade negotiations, it has a global status similar to that of the IMF and the World Bank. India is a founding member of WTO. As on 11th December 2005, there were 149 members in WTO.
Objectives of WTO: WTO lays down the following objectives:
a)      Relation in the field of trade shall be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production and trade in goods and services.
b)      To allow for the optimal use of the world’s resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development.
c)       To make positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries especially the least developed among them, secure a share in the growth in international trade.
d)      To achieve these objectives by entering into reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements directed towards substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade and the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations.
e)      To develop an integrated, more viable and durable multilateral trading system.
f)       To ensure linkages between trade policies, environment policies and sustainable development.
Functions of WTO: The following are the functions of the WTO:
a)      It facilitates the implementation, administration and operation of the objectives of the Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements.
b)      It provides the framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the multilateral Trade Agreements relating to trade in civil aircraft, government procurement, trade in diary products and bovine meat.
c)       It provides the forum for negotiations among its members.
d)      It administers the Understanding on Rules and Procedures governing the Settlement of Disputes of the Agreement.
e)      It cooperates with the IMF and the World Bank and its affiliated agencies with a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making.
Implications for India: After the Uruguay Round, India was one of the first 76 Governments that became member of the WTO on its first day. Different views have been expressed in support and against our country becoming a member of the WTO.
Favourable Factors
a)      Benefits from reduction of tariffs on exports.
b)      Improved prospects for agricultural exports because the prices of agricultural products in the world market will increase due to reduction in domestic subsidies and barriers to trade.
c)       Likely increase in the exports of textiles and clothing due to the phasing out of MFA by 2005.
d)      Advantages from greater security and predictability of the international trading system.
e)      Compulsions imposed on India to be competitive in the world market.
Unfavourable Factors
a)      Tariff reductions on goods of export interest to India are very small.
b)      Less prospects of increase in agricultural exports due to the limited extent of agricultural liberalisation.
c)       There will be hardly any liberalisation of our textile exports during the next 10 years.
d)      India will be under pressure to liberalize the services industries.
e)      There will be only marginal liberalisation to the movement of labour services in which it is competitive.
f)       Increased outflows of foreign exchange due to commitments undertaken in the fields of TRIPS, TRIMS and services.
g)      Technological dependence on foreign firms will increase.
h)      Only a few large firms or transnational corporations may benefit and smaller firms may disappear.
IMF and Its Contribution in Indian Economy
Introduction to IMF: The IMF was established on December 27, 1945 in Washington on the recommendations of Bretton Woods Conference. But it started working on March 1, 1947. The fund has 185 member countries accounting for more than 80 per cent of total world production and 90 per cent of world trade. The purpose of the Fund is to promote international monetary cooperation, to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, to promote exchange stability and to prevent unnecessary exchange depreciations, to remove all exchange controls and restrictions and to establish multi-convertibility of all currencies and lastly to help member countries with funds to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments. The fund of the IMF is SDRs 216.75 billion and to replenish its resources it borrows from the world financial markets and member countries. IMF’s own fund is contributed by member countries.
IMF and INDIA
IMF has played an importance role in Indian economy. IMF had provided economic assistance from time to time to India and has also provided appropriate consultancy in determination of various policies in the country. India is the founder member of IMF. It played a significant role in the formulation of Fund Policies. The Finance Minister is ex-officio Governor in IMF Board of Governors. Till 1970, India was among the first five nations having the highest quota with IMF and due to this status India was allotted a permanent place in Executive Board of Directors.
India has taken loans in foreign currencies from IMF or improving its balance of payments imbalances. India has also taken technical consultancy for solving its internal economic problems. The expert groups of the IMF have visited India on various occasions.
Objective of IMF: The objective for which IMF was established has been described as following:
1)         Promote International Monetary Co-operation: The main objective of the fund was to promote international monetary co-operation through a permanent institution which provides that machinery for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems.
2)         Balanced Growth of International Trade: The one of the main objective of the Fund was to facilities the expansion and balanced growth of international trade and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income and to the development productive resources of all members.
3)         Stability of Exchange Rates: Another important objective of IMF was to promote exchange stability, to maintain orderly exchange arrangements among members and to avoid competitive exchange depreciation.
4)         Establishment of Multilateral trade and payment system: Another objective of the establishment of IMF was to assist the establishment of the multilateral system of payments in respect of current transactions between members and in the elimination of foreign exchange restrictions which hamper the growth of world trade.
5)         To develop confidence to member: Another objective of IMF was to give confidence to members by making the funds, resources available to them under adequate safeguards, thus providing with opportunity to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments without resorting to measures destructive of national or international prosperity.
6)         Removing Deficit of balance of Payments: Another objective of the establishment of IMF was removal of the deficit of balance of payments also. IMF makes arrangement of necessary loans from foreign exchange reserves for removing the deficit of balance of payments.
In addition to this India also got the following benefits of becoming the IMF members:
1. Independence of the Indian Rupee: Before the establishment of the IMF, the Indian rupee was linked with the British Pound Sterling. But Indian rupee has become independent after the establishment of IMF. Its value is expressed in terms of gold. It is not determined by the Pound Sterling. It means that Indian rupee is easily convertible into the currency of any other country.
2. Membership of the World Bank: India has become a member of the World Bank also by virtue of its membership of the Fund. As a result, India got several loan facilities from the World Bank for the development purposes.
3. Availability of Foreign Currencies: The Government of India has been purchasing foreign currencies from the Fund from time to time to meet the requirements of development activities. The large amount of availability of foreign currencies has greatly promoted the economic development of the country.
4. Reputation in International Circle: India is one of those six countries which have occupied a special place in the Board of Directors of the Fund. Thus, India had played a creditable role in determining the policies of the Fund. This has increased India’s prestige in the international circles. India takes keen interest in the formulation of Fund’s policies.
5. Guidance and Advice: Being member of the Fund, India got the expert opinion from the Fund for solving its economic problems. The attitude of the Fund towards India has always remained sympathetic. The Fund has given valuable advice to the Government of India with regard to the financing of the Five-Year Plans.
6. Timely Help: India has received timely help from the Fund to eliminate the deficit on its balance of payments. The Fund granted loans to meet the financial difficult is arising out of the Indo-Pak conflict of 1965 and 1971. Thus, the fund has given timely help to solve economic crisis.
7. Freedom from Sterling: Indian rupee was convertible into other currencies through the medium of sterling before becoming the member of the fund. With the fixation of paper value of the rupee in gold, Indian currency is now freely convertible into any other currency.
8. Sale and Purchase of Foreign Exchange: Fund has entrusted the sale and purchase of foreign exchange worth more than Rs. 2 lakh to Reserve Bank of India. The latter cannot enter into any transaction of foreign exchange that is of the value of less than Rs. 2 lakh.
9. Economic Consultation: In the financial management of Five- Year Plans, IMF has given valuable advice to Government of India and to suggest measures for its economic development.
10. Help during Emergency: India got a large amount of financial assistance from the Fund to solve its economic crisis arising due to natural calamities like flood, earthquakes, famines etc.
World Bank and Its Impact on Indian Economy
Introduction: A need arises to finance various projects in various countries to promote the development of economically backward regions. The United States and other countries have established a variety of development banks whose lending is directed to investments that would not otherwise be funded by private capital. The investments include dams, roads, communication systems, and other infrastructural projects whose economic benefits cannot be computed and/or captured by private investors, as well as projects, such as steel mills or chemical plants, whose value lies not only in the economic terms but also, significantly in the political and social advantages to the nation.
The loans generally are medium-term to long-term and carry concessional rates. Even though most lending is done directly to a government, this type of financing has two implications for the private sector. First, the projects require goods and services which corporations can produce. Secondly, by establishing an infrastructure, new investment opportunities become available for multinational corporations.
The World Bank or the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was established in 1945 under the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944. An International Monetary and Financial Conference was held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire during July 1-22, 1944. The main purpose of the conference was finalisation of the Articles of Association of IMF and establishment of an institution for the reconstruction of the war shattered world economies. Thus, the conference has given birth to World Bank or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). World Bank was established to provide long-term assistance for the reconstruction and development of the economies of the member countries while IMF was established to provide short term assistance to correct the balance of payment disequilibrium.
There are the four basic objectives of the World Bank’s funding strategy:
a)      To make sure availability of funds in the market.
b)      To provide the funds at the lowest possible cost to the borrowers through appropriate currency mix of its borrowing and opting to borrow when interest rates are expected to rise.
c)       To control volatility in net income and overall loan changes.
d)      To provide an appropriate degree of maturity transformation between its lending and the borrowing. Maturity transformation depicts the Bank’s capacity to lend for longer period than it borrows.
Functions and objectives of World Bank
a)      To assist in the reconstruction and development of the territories of its members by facilitating the investment of capital for productive purposes.
b)      To promote private foreign investment by means of guarantee of participation in loans and other investments made by private investors and, when private capital is not available on reasonable terms, to make loans for productive purposes out of its own resources or from funds borrowed by it.
c)       To promote the long term balanced growth of international trade and the maintenance of equilibrium in balance of payments by encouraging international investment for the development of the productive resources of members.
d)      To arrange loans made or guaranteed by it in relation to international loans through other channels so that more useful and urgent projects, large and small alike, will be dealt first.
India and the World Bank
India is the founder member of the Bank and held a permanent seat for number of years on its Board of Executive Directors. India is one of the largest receivers of assistance since 1949. Upto June 2002, cumulative lending’s of the World Bank to India amounted to $ 26.69 billion in 187 loans. The total amount borrowed by India from the World Bank and the IDA till June 2002 amounted to $ 58.54 billion in 434 loans. This amounted to 11.6 per cent of the total loans and credits approved by the World Bank groups. During 2001-02, India received $ 893 million from the World Bank accounting for 11.22 per cent of its total loans. India is helped by the World Bank in its planned economic development through granting loans, conducting field surveys, sending study terms and missions and through rendering expert advice. The Bank also provides training to Indian personnel at EDI. It also helped India to solve its river water dispute with Pakistan.
The benefits desired by India from the World Bank are:
a)      India has received a lot of assistance from the World Bank for its development projects.
b)      Aid India Club was founded in 1950 by the efforts of the World Bank with a view to help India. This club is now called India Development Forum. This Forum had decided to give loans amounting to $ 600 crore to India for implementing its structural adjustment.
c)       The bank’s role in solving the Indus water dispute between India and Pakistan has been invaluable.
d)      General loans have also been granted by the World Bank to India, to be utilised as per its own discretion.
e)      As a member of the World Bank, India has become the members of International Finance Corporation, International Development Association and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency also.
f)       India has received technical assistance from time to time from the World Bank for its various projects. The Expert Team of the Bank has visited India and given valuable suggestions also.
g)      The massive population of India has always created problems in the economic development of the country. World Bank has been helping India in the population control programmes and urban development. For this purpose loans amounting to $ 495 crore have also been given to India.
h)      World Bank has been giving financial assistance to NGOs operating in India e.g. Leprosy Elimination, Education Projects, Child development service projects etc.
On the other hand, critics argue that the World Bank have endangered the economic freedom of India. The basic points of criticism are as follows:
a)      The World Bank has laid a great deal of emphasis on measures of economic liberalisation and more free play of market forces.
b)      A lot of stress has been laid on going very slow on the setting up of public sector enterprises including financial intermediaries and encouraging private sector.
c)       India’s dependence on World Bank has been increasing which is adversely affecting its economic freedom.
d)      The attitude of World Bank reflects the preference for free enterprise and a market oriented economy. It shows dissatisfaction with the general performance of economies which are based on planning and regulation. At different occasions the Bank has tried to undermine the Significance of our Planning Commission.
e)      The devaluation of Indian rupee in 1966 and 1991 was done at the insistence of the World Bank only.
India’s main problem till now has been the government’s incapacity to act rightly, firmly and effectively in time, on account of being more emotional to set ideologies and compromising attitude to safeguard the political party’s interest more than the national interest.
Or
(b) Explain the role of World Trade organisation in developing world trade. How has India gained from world trade organization?                    7+4=11
Ans: World Bank and Its Impact on Indian Economy
Introduction: A need arises to finance various projects in various countries to promote the development of economically backward regions. The United States and other countries have established a variety of development banks whose lending is directed to investments that would not otherwise be funded by private capital. The investments include dams, roads, communication systems, and other infrastructural projects whose economic benefits cannot be computed and/or captured by private investors, as well as projects, such as steel mills or chemical plants, whose value lies not only in the economic terms but also, significantly in the political and social advantages to the nation.
The loans generally are medium-term to long-term and carry concessional rates. Even though most lending is done directly to a government, this type of financing has two implications for the private sector. First, the projects require goods and services which corporations can produce. Secondly, by establishing an infrastructure, new investment opportunities become available for multinational corporations.
The World Bank or the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) was established in 1945 under the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944. An International Monetary and Financial Conference was held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire during July 1-22, 1944. The main purpose of the conference was finalisation of the Articles of Association of IMF and establishment of an institution for the reconstruction of the war shattered world economies. Thus, the conference has given birth to World Bank or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). World Bank was established to provide long-term assistance for the reconstruction and development of the economies of the member countries while IMF was established to provide short term assistance to correct the balance of payment disequilibrium.
There are the four basic objectives of the World Bank’s funding strategy:
e)      To make sure availability of funds in the market.
f)       To provide the funds at the lowest possible cost to the borrowers through appropriate currency mix of its borrowing and opting to borrow when interest rates are expected to rise.
g)      To control volatility in net income and overall loan changes.
h)      To provide an appropriate degree of maturity transformation between its lending and the borrowing. Maturity transformation depicts the Bank’s capacity to lend for longer period than it borrows.
Functions and objectives of World Bank
e)      To assist in the reconstruction and development of the territories of its members by facilitating the investment of capital for productive purposes.
f)       To promote private foreign investment by means of guarantee of participation in loans and other investments made by private investors and, when private capital is not available on reasonable terms, to make loans for productive purposes out of its own resources or from funds borrowed by it.
g)      To promote the long term balanced growth of international trade and the maintenance of equilibrium in balance of payments by encouraging international investment for the development of the productive resources of members.
h)      To arrange loans made or guaranteed by it in relation to international loans through other channels so that more useful and urgent projects, large and small alike, will be dealt first.
India and the World Bank
India is the founder member of the Bank and held a permanent seat for number of years on its Board of Executive Directors. India is one of the largest receivers of assistance since 1949. Upto June 2002, cumulative lending’s of the World Bank to India amounted to $ 26.69 billion in 187 loans. The total amount borrowed by India from the World Bank and the IDA till June 2002 amounted to $ 58.54 billion in 434 loans. This amounted to 11.6 per cent of the total loans and credits approved by the World Bank groups. During 2001-02, India received $ 893 million from the World Bank accounting for 11.22 per cent of its total loans. India is helped by the World Bank in its planned economic development through granting loans, conducting field surveys, sending study terms and missions and through rendering expert advice. The Bank also provides training to Indian personnel at EDI. It also helped India to solve its river water dispute with Pakistan.
The benefits desired by India from the World Bank are:
i)        India has received a lot of assistance from the World Bank for its development projects.
j)        Aid India Club was founded in 1950 by the efforts of the World Bank with a view to help India. This club is now called India Development Forum. This Forum had decided to give loans amounting to $ 600 crore to India for implementing its structural adjustment.
k)      The bank’s role in solving the Indus water dispute between India and Pakistan has been invaluable.
l)        General loans have also been granted by the World Bank to India, to be utilised as per its own discretion.
m)    As a member of the World Bank, India has become the members of International Finance Corporation, International Development Association and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency also.
n)      India has received technical assistance from time to time from the World Bank for its various projects. The Expert Team of the Bank has visited India and given valuable suggestions also.
o)      The massive population of India has always created problems in the economic development of the country. World Bank has been helping India in the population control programmes and urban development. For this purpose loans amounting to $ 495 crore have also been given to India.
p)      World Bank has been giving financial assistance to NGOs operating in India e.g. Leprosy Elimination, Education Projects, Child development service projects etc.
On the other hand, critics argue that the World Bank have endangered the economic freedom of India. The basic points of criticism are as follows:
f)       The World Bank has laid a great deal of emphasis on measures of economic liberalisation and more free play of market forces.
g)      A lot of stress has been laid on going very slow on the setting up of public sector enterprises including financial intermediaries and encouraging private sector.
h)      India’s dependence on World Bank has been increasing which is adversely affecting its economic freedom.
i)        The attitude of World Bank reflects the preference for free enterprise and a market oriented economy. It shows dissatisfaction with the general performance of economies which are based on planning and regulation. At different occasions the Bank has tried to undermine the Significance of our Planning Commission.
j)        The devaluation of Indian rupee in 1966 and 1991 was done at the insistence of the World Bank only.
India’s main problem till now has been the government’s incapacity to act rightly, firmly and effectively in time, on account of being more emotional to set ideologies and compromising attitude to safeguard the political party’s interest more than the national interest.

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