Political Science (317) - April' 2018 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       What does the Preamble of the Indian Constitution explain about? 2
Ans.:- The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India.
2. Mention any two Legislative Powers of the Governor of a State. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.
1.       He is to summon the House or each House of the State Legislature, if it is a bicameral legislature, to meet at such time and place as he deems fit. Six months should not, however, elapse between its last sitting in one session and the first in the next session.
2.       He may prorogue the Houses or either House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
3.       How can a Gram Sabha ensure active participation of the people in democratically elected Panchayats? 2
Ans.:- Generally, two meetings of Gram Sabha are held every year. In these meetings, the Gram Sabha as the general body of the people hears annual statement of accounts, audit or administrative report of panchayats. It also recommends new development projects to be undertaken by panchayats. Ti also helps in identifying poor people of the village so that they may be given economic assistance.
4.       What is meant by behavioural approach in Political Science? 2
Ans.:- Instead of political institutions, Behavioural Approach stands for the study of human behaviour in politics. It places emphasis upon the study of both individual as well as group behaviour in politics.
5.       Why is Antarctica not considered as a State? 2
Ans.:- Technically Antarctica has no government or self-sufficiency, hardly a populace, and military operations are illegal. It is divided into sections like a pie chart in which multiple different states have claimed parts of the area, but the rules are pretty relaxed so it isn’t like a border and it’
S also not a big deal if the USA or another state decides they want to have a base on New Zealand or other state’s claimed territory.
6.       Assess any two initiatives taken by newly independent India to come close to China. 2
Ans.:- Two initiatives taken by newly independent India to come close to China:-
Firstly, stat negotiation on a China-India Treaty of Good Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation.
Secondly restart negotiation of China-India Free Trade Agreement.
7. Mention any two ill-effects of industrialization on environment. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Industrialization coupled with the development of the means of transport and communication has not only polluted the environment, but also has led to the shrinking of the natural resources. Both ways, the loss is really heavy.
8. How does the use of muscle power affect the Indian electoral system? 2
Ans.:- Muscle Power-Earlier the criminals used to support the candidates by intimidating the voter at a gunpoint to vote according to their direction. Now they themselves have come out openly by contesting the elections leading to criminalisation of politics. As a result violence during elections has also increased.
9. Highlight the purpose of Pakistani infiltration in Kargil in 1999. 2
Ans.:-Pakistan’s aggression in Kargil in 1999 brought the two countries even on the verge of a nuclear confrontation. The legacy of suspicion and mistrust predates the partition of India in 1947. During the freedom struggle the Muslim League, under the leadership of Mohammad Ali Jinnah propounded the two-nation theory, in support of a separate Muslim state.
10. Describe the various provisions of the Fundamental Right to Equality. 5
Ans.:- Right to equality is an important right provided for in Articles 14,15,16,17 and 18 of the constitution. It is the principal foundation of all other rights and liberties, and guarantees the following:
a)      Equality before law: Article 14 of the constitution guarantees that all citizens shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It means that the Sate cannot discriminate any of the Indian citizens on the basis of their caste, creed, colour, gender, religion or place of birth.
b)      Social equality and equal access to public areas: Article 15 of the constitution states that no person shall be discriminated on the basis of caste, colour, language etc. Every person shall have equal access to public places like public parks, museums, wells, and temples etc.
c)       Equality in matters of public employment: Article 16 of the constitution lays down that the state cannot discriminate against anyone in the matters of employment. All citizens can apply for government jobs.
d)      Abolition of untouchability: Article 17 of the constitution abolishes the practice of untouchability. Practice of untouchability is an offence and anyone doing so is punishable by law.
Article 18 of the constitution prohibits the State from conferring any titles. Citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign State.
11. Explain the original jurisdiction of High Courts. 5
Ans.:- Original Jurisdiction of the High Court are:-
1. (a) Disputes between the Government of India on the one side and one or more states on the other side.
(b) Disputes between the Government of India and one or more states on one side and one or more States on the other side.
2. The Supreme Court has been invested with special powers in the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. In this connection, it has the power to issue directions or writs.
3. CASES UNDER Public Interests Litigation (PIL) can also be heard directly. (This is an extra Constitutional practice; there is no mention of PIL in the Constitution).

12.   Bring out any five distinctions between the State and the Government. 1×5=5

Ans.:- Though the state speaks through the government, it is proper to differentiate between the two:-

a.       The state has authority inherent in itself whereas the government has no inherent powers. The government gets its structure; authority and power form the Constitution of the State.

b.      The state is a larger entity that includes all the citizens, the government is, relatively a smaller unit that includes only those who are employed to perform its functions.

c.       The idea of state is quite abstract. The government is the concretization of the idea of the state. We see the government, not the state.

d.      The state is a near permanent institution, it is so because it does not die unless it is attacked and made a part of the other state. The government is temporary; it is so because it may change, today’s rulers may not be tomorrow’s rulers.

e.      The sovereign powers lay with the state; it is the state which is sovereign. The government only exercises power. The government’s powers are delegated and derivative, the state’s powers are real and original.

13.   Analyze the inherent defects/weaknesses of liberalism. 5

Ans.:- Liberalism has its own inherent defects. It is a philosophy full of tensions. On the one hand, it unfurls the flag of liberty, and on the other, it argues for equality. On the one hand, it works, within the framework of market society, it promises equal opportunities to all. On the one hand, it asks for unlimited rights to acquire property, and on the other, it seeks to demand a share of profit for the welfare of those who are unemployed and the needy. On the one hand, it builds a capitalistic economy, ending up ultimately in inequalities, and on the other, it endeavours to establish an egalitarian society.

14. Describe any five factors responsible for the growth of regionalism in India.1×5=5

Ans.:- Some of the most important causes of regionalism in India are as follows:-

(i)     Geographical Factor: - The territorial orientation based on geographical boundaries relate to the inhabitants of a particular region which are symbolic, at least in the Indian context. This is more so because of the linguistic distribution along geographical boundaries. The topographic and climatic variations along with differences in the settlement pattern induce in people the concept of regionalism.

(ii)   Historical and Cultural Factors: - In Indian scenario the historical or cultural factors may be considered the prime components of the phenomenon of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism by way of cultural heritage, folklore, myths, symbolism and historical traditions. People of a particular cultural group also derive inspirations from the noble deeds and glorious achievements of the local heroes. Nevertheless there are sudden political and economic realities which can be covered under the gamut of historical and cultural factors.

(iii) Cast and Region: - Caste system and religion in Indian society play only a marginal roll in causing regionalism. Only when caste is combined with linguistic preponderance or religion it may cause regional feeling. In the like manner religion is not so significant except when it is combined with linguistic homogeneity or based on dogmatism and orthodoxy or lined with economic deprivation. However, regionalism is usually a secular phenomenon in a relative sense and it can cross-cut the caste affiliation or religious loyalties.

(iv)  Economic Factors: - In the present times, uneven developments in different parts of the country may be construed as the prime reason for regionalism and separatism. There are certain regions in the country where industries and factories have been concentrated, educational and health facilities are sufficiently provided, communication net work has been developed, rapid agricultural development has been made possible. But there are also certain areas where the worth of independence is yet to be realized in terms of socio-economic development.

(v)    Political Administrative Factors: - Political parties, especially the regional political parties as well as local leaders exploit the regional sentiments, regional deprivation and convert them to solidify their factional support bases. They give place to the regional problems in their election manifesto and promise for political and regional development.

15. How do national parties differ from regional parties? Give at least two examples of each type of parties. 3+2=5

Ans.:- India has two types of political parties- national parties and regional parties, and are differ from each other:

a)      National parties are those which generally have influence all over the country. It is not necessary that a national party will have equal strength in all the states; it varies form State to State. A party is recognised as a national party by the Election Commission on the basis of a formula. The political party which has secured not less than four percent of the total valid votes in the previous general elections at least in four states is given the status of a national party. Example of national parties’ are- Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata party

b)      However, there are other parties in India, which do not enjoy national influence. Their activities and influence are restricted to particular states or regions. Sometimes these parties are formed to voice demands of a specific region. These parties are neither weak nor short-lived. Sometimes they prove to be very powerful in their respective regions. These are known as regional parties. Example of Regional parties are – AIADMK and DMK in Tamil Nadu, Telgu Desam in Andhra Pradesh.

16. Analyze the two political factors which have specially brought the issue of caste in Indian politics into sharp focus. 2½×2=5

Ans.:- Since independence two factors have especially brought the issue of caste in Indian politics into sharp focus. These are:

1.       the introduction of universal adult franchise and

2.       the constitutional provisions for protective discrimination in favour of the backward classes.

The introduction of universal adult franchise brought a very large section of the populace, who had been hitherto excluded on account of property qualification to vote, into the arena of electoral politics. This made the task of mobilizing votes enormously difficult for the political parties. This made the task of mobilizing votes enormously difficult for the political parties. This made the task of mobilizing vote enormously difficult for the political parties. The daunting task was, however, made easy when political parties relied upon castes to get their votes. In the process castes’ involvement in politics deepened with every election in India.

In addition to the enlarged arena of electoral politics, the constitutional provisions for protective discrimination also provided the ground for castes to play a significant role in politics.

17. Explain the constitutional provisions related to the removal of the President of India. What happens when the office of the President falls vacant? 6+2=8

Ans.:- The President can only be removed from office through a process called impeachment. The Constitution lays down a detailed procedure for the impeachment of the President. He can only be impeached ‘for violation of the Constitution’. The following procedure if intentionally kept very difficult so that no President should be removed on flimsy ground.

The resolution to impeach the President can be moved in either House of Parliament. Such a resolution can be moved only after a notice has been given by at least one-fourth of the total number of members of the House. Such a resolution charging the President for violation of the Constitution must be passed by a majority of not less than two-third of the total membership of that House before it goes to the other House for investigation.

The charges levelled against the President are investigated by the second House.  President has the right to be heard or defended when the charges against him are being investigated. The President may defend himself in person or through his counsel. If the charges are accepted by a two-third majority of the total membership of the second House, the impeachment succeeds. The President thus stands removed form the office from the date on which the resolution is passed.

When the office of the President falls vacant either due to death or resignation or impeachment, the Vice-President officiates for a period not more than six months. The Constitution has made it obligatory that in cush cases election for a new President must be held within six months. 


Which House of the Indian Parliament is more powerful and how? Explain with arguments. 8

Ans.:- Indian parliament consist of two houses: Lok Sabha (House of the people) and Rajya Sabha (council of state). Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Saba because:

1.       It have more members than that of Rajya Sabha.

2.       Any Ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses, but if there is any difference between the two houses, the final decision is taken in a joint session of both the houses. Because of the large number of members, the view of the Lok Sabha is preferred.

3.       Lok Sabha exercises more power in any money matter. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or and other money related law, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.

4.       The Lok Sabha controls the council of ministers, only a person who enjous the support of the majority of the Lok Sabha members is appointed as prime Minister. If the majority of Lok Sabha member say they have ‘no Confidence’ in the council of ministers. All ministers including Prime Minister have to resign. The Rajya Sabha doesn’t have this power.

18. Examine the three-fold division of Legislative Powers between the Centre and the States as per the Constitution of India. 8

Ans.: Regarding legislative relations, there is a threefold division of powers in the Constitution:

1.       The Union List which consists of 97 subjects of national interest is the largest of the three lists. Some of the important subjects included in this list are: Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, Income Tax, Custom Duties, etc. the Parliament has the exclusive power to enact laws on the subjects included in the Union List for the entire country.

2.       The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest. Some of the important subjects included in this List are Trade and Commerce within the State, Police, Fisheries, Forests, Industries, etc. the State Legislatures have been empowered to make laws on the subjects included in the State List.

3.       The Concurrent List consists of 47 subjects of common interest to both the Union and the States. Some of the subjects included in this list are: Stamp Duties, Drugs and Poison, Electricity, Newspapers etc. Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures can make laws on the subjects included in this list. But in case of a conflict between the Union and the State saw relating to the same subject, the Union law prevails over the State law. Power to legislate on all subjects not included in any of the three lists vests with the Parliament.

Under certain circumstances, the Parliament can legislate on the subjects mentioned in the State List.


Assess the far reaching effects of the National Emergency both on the rights of the individuals as well as the autonomy of the States. 2+6=8,

ans.:- The declaration of National Emergency has far-reaching effects both on the rights of individuals and the autonomy of the states in the following manner:

a.       The most significant effect is that the federal form of the Constitution changes into unitary. The authority of the Centre increases and the Parliament assumes the power to make laws for the entire country or any part therefore, even  in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List.

b.      The President of India can issue directions to the states as to the manner in which the executive power of the states is to be exercised.

c.       During this period, the Lok Sabha can extend its tenure by a period of one year at a time. But the same cannot be extended beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. The tenure of State Assemblies can also be extended in the same manner.

d.      During emergency, the President is empowered to modify the provisions regarding distribution of revenues between the Union and the States.

e.      The Fundamental Rights under Article 19 about which you have already learnt are automatically suspended and this suspension continues till the end of the emergency. But according to the 44th Amendment, Freedoms listed in Article 19 can be suspended only in case of proclamation on the ground of war or external aggression.

19. Explain any four major concerns in India’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War period.8

Ans.:- The end of cold war in 1989 has brought about significant changes in the international scene and hence new policy problems for the various states in the developing world including India. The new situation is made by greater uncertainty and complexity.

a.       For India, disintegration of the Soviet Union has meant uncertainty on several aspects viz., supply of weapons system, supply of spare parts, diplomatic support on Kashmir and other politico-strategic issues in and outside the United Nations and as a counter weight to US in South Asia.

b.      Militancy in Kashmir has emerged as the for most challenge to our foreign policy. Pakistan and the Western countries blamed India for violating human rights and denial or rights to self determination. Gradually, India brought the situation under control.

c.       Because of the Kashmir dispute, India’s relations with Pakistan sharply deteriorated. India accused Pakistan of fanning trouble through cross border terrorism in Kashmir and other parts of our country. India conducted nuclear weapon tests in 1998, followed by  Pakistan’s tests. Pakistan resorted to further mischief by secretly sending its soldiers into Kargil in order to cut off the Kashmir valley from the rest of India.

d.      Spread of terrorism to corners beyond Kashmir is a challenge as well as opportunity for our foreign policy now a days. India is interested in forging anti-terrorism coalition with as many countries as possible.


Explain any four significant features of the Indo-Soviet relations before the disintegration of the Soviet Union. 2×4=8

Ans.:- Both Soviet Union and India shared a cordial relationship during the cold war era. The multi-dimensional proximity can be proved from the following points.

(a)    Political:- Soviet Union always supported India’s stance on Kashmir in UNO. Likewise, it supported India in all major conflicts including the 1971 war with Pakistan when USA had threatened to send its seventh fleet in the Indian Ocean. India also has supported the Soviet  Foreign policy in indirect ways.

(b)   Economic:- Soviet Union aided India’s public sector companies like the steel plants at Bokaro, Vishakhapatnam and Bhilai and machinery plants like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. It even accepted Indian currency when India was short of foreign exchange.

(c)    Military:- Soviet Union has been the principal supplier of military equipment and arms to India when very few states wanted to part with their military technology. It even launched several joint military ventures with India.

(d)   Cultural:- Indian culture and Hindi films were popular in USSR. A number of Indian artists went to Soviet Union.

20. Analyze the four features of good governance advocated by Kautilya. Assess the extent to which these features are present in the governance in India. 4+4=8

Ans.:- Four features of good governance advocated by Kautilya

(i)      Law and order

(ii)    People caring administration

(iii)   Justice and rationality as the basis of decision

(iv)  Corruption free governance

These concerns of good governance have been very clearly voiced in Asian Development Basic report in the shape of the following questions:-

a.       Do people fully participate in governance?

b.      Are people fully informed?

c.       Do people make decisions or can they at least hold the decision makers accountable?

d.      Are the women equal partners with men in Governance?

e.      Are the needs of the poor and disadvantaged met?

f.        Are peoples’ human rights guaranteed?

g.       Are the needs of the future generation taken into account in current policies?

h.      Do people own their structures of governance?


Identify any four parts of the Indian Constitution which recognize the importance of Human Rights. Illustrate with the help of examples. 2×4=8

Ans.:- The Constitution of India duly recognizes the importance of human rights and guarantees certain Fundamental Rights

1.       Part-III which include the right of equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights and the right to constitutional remedies. Article 32 gives the right to constitutional remedy in the form of original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India for the enforcement of these Fundamental Rights. This is the protection of individuals against invasion of their human rights.

2.       Part-IV of the Indian Constitution contains Directive Principles of State Policy which are the principles fundamental in governance, to be observed by the State in the formulation of its policies. These include the duty of the State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people, social justice, right to work, to education and social security, provision for just and humane condition of work, promotion of interests of the weaker sections, duty to raise the level of nutrition and the standards of living and to improve public health, protection and improvement of environment, ecology and wild life etc.

3.       In addition, the Fundamental Duties of every citizen covering a wide range to strengthen the guarantee of Fundamental Rights are in Article 51A (Part IVA of the Constitution). In addition to Article 32 empowering the Supreme Court to enforce the Fundamental Rights, the High Court is empowered by Article 226 for the same purpose to exercise its powers.

4.       The role of the Supreme Court of India is commendable in expanding the human rights and it has found Article 21 of the Constitution as the most fruitful article. In several cases the India Supreme Court has said that compensation is to be given for violation of rights under the article, such as, right to human dignity, right to healthy environment, right to social security, right to protection of childhood etc.



( World Order and the United Nations )

21. Evaluate the role of the World Health Organization in preventing and curing diseases. 2

Ans.:- WHO’s aims are (i) preventing the spread of disease (ii) curing disease and (iii) preventing the outbreak of disease. The means adopted to prevent the spread of disease include Conventions providing international standards for public health. WHO’s has been a clearing house for scientific knowledge and a exchange of information for curing disease.

22. Explain the role of the United Nations as a mediator with the help of any two suitable examples.2½×2=5

Ans.:- The United Nations has played the role of mediator in dozens of conflicts, sometimes successfully and at other times not so successfully.

The UN Security Council sent mediators in 1950s to solve the Kashmir problem amicably but the efforts were not fruitful. The Cuban Missile crisis of 1962 is a good example where the Secretary General U Thant’s mediation helped to avoid direct military confrontation between the United States and the former Soviet Union. In 1987, United Nations successfully, mediated to get an accord signed for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Similar mediation was undertaken successfully on Cambodia problem in 1991. There are nearly two dozen UN Mediators presently helping resolution of problems in Somalia, Cyprus, Western Sahara etc.

23. State the circumstances that led to a unipolar world. Mention the major changes visible in the present-day unipolar world order. 3+5=8

Ans.:- To many observers, the dominance of one single country-unipolarity-aptly describes the world order since the time the Cold War ended 15 years ago. The United States has no challenger in claiming the top slot. The erstwhile enemy, the Soviet Union, is now an ally, a partner of the United Sates in matters of arms control, international security, settlement of regional conflicts, trade and investment.

The new power realities are aptly brought to bear in the functioning of the United Nations a body designed to work for democratic and just world order. The United Nations began playing “activist” role in restoring peace and security. The important security-related organ, the Security Council earlier known for disagreements between the two super powers, is transformed into an active agent of the US while other permanent members either collaborated or looked the other way. Transparency and democratic functioning of the UN suffered. The role of the United Nations during the first Gulf war to vacate the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in the early 1990s stand s out as the best example of the new trend. Nearly a decade later, an impatient US invaded Iraq in 2003 unilaterally without caring for the United Nations. The functioning of the General Assembly and the Secretary-General too suffered due to the domineering attitude of the United States. 


Describe the composition and functions of the United Nations General Assembly. 2+6=8

Ans.:- General Assembly is the central body. The principles of sovereign equality and universality are embodied in its composition. All members of the United Nations (presently191) are members of the General Assembly. Irrespective of size or strength, every member has one vote in the Assembly.

Functions of the United Nations General Assembly:-

The Assembly discusses problems brought to it, Makes recommendations on peace and security questions, Admits new members and adopts UN budget. On important matters, it adopts resolutions with the support of two-third majority. Procedural decisions require only a simple majority. The Assembly meets in regular session every year. It has convened 59 such sessions so far. The Assembly also meets, when need arises, in special sessions and emergency special. The General Assembly is sometimes called as the world parliament. It can discuss any matter. It discusses matters which include peace and security questions, environmental protection, economic development, problems of colonial administration, disarmament, refugees, population explosion, use of global commons like outer space and deep seaboard. It can only make recommendations.


(Administrative System in India)

21. Analyze the factors that make the role of the Central Vigilance Commission Limited. 2

Ans.:- Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is an apex Indian governmental body created in 1964 to address governmental corruption, monitoring all vigilance under the central government, and advising various authorities in central government organization in planning, executing, reviewing their vigilance work.

22. Explain any five advisory functions of the Union Public Service Commission.1×5=5

Ans.:- The functions of the UPSC as described in the Constitution are:-

(i)      To advise the government on all matters relating to the methods of recruitment and norms to be followed in making appointments to civil services either directly or by promotion.

(ii)    To advise on the suitability of candidates for appointment, promotion and transfer.

(iii)   To conduct examinations for appointment to All India services.

(iv)  To advise on disciplinary matters affecting government servants.

(v)    To advise on claims of legal proceedings instituted against a government servant and on the claims in respect of injuries sustained by a government  servant while on duty.

23. Describe any four major functions of the Chief Secretary in a State. 2×4=8

Ans.:- Chief Secretary discharges a number of functions. Some major functions are as follows:-

(I)     Adviser to the CM:- The chief secretary acts as the principal advisor to the chief minister on all matters of state administration. The chief minster consults him on all policy issues related to the governance of state.

(II)   Secretary to the Cabinet:- The chief secretary acts as a secretary to the state cabinet. He is the administrative head of the cabinet secretariat and attends the meeting of the cabinet and its sub-committees. He prepares the agenda for cabinet meetings and keeps records of its proceedings.

(III) Head of State Cabinet Secretariat:- The functions of the cabinet secretariat are prescribed by the Rules of Business of each state.

(IV) Resource Person of State Government:- The chief secretary is often asked to express his views on important matters. His information and advice as secretary to the council facilitate political decision making.


Describe any four instruments of redressal of grievances in India. 2×4=8

Ans.:- Indian Instrumentation:-

1.       In India, it has been observed by many committees and commissions that special machinery should be set up to deal with public complaints against the administration. Various institutions exist to redress public grievances. Many kinds of administrative tribunals have been set up to provide cheap and speedy justice to the complainant. The Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Labour Tribunal etc, are instances of this type of institution.

2.       Secondly, Parliamentary procedure provides for opportunities to raise questions in Parliament by the elected representatives concerning their constituencies. Also, there is a Parliamentary Committee called the Committee on Petitions. A citizen may submit petitions to secure redress against an act of injustice. So, even though a distant body, Parliament or State Legislature can take up the cause of an aggrieved citizen.

3.       Thirdly, under the provisions of the Public Servants (Enquiries) Act, departmental as well as public agencies can be instituted against a public servant for  his misconduct. Not day-to-day dealing but more serious matter of maladministration come under the purview of this Act.

4.       Fourthly, complaint forums have been set up at different levels to deal with public complaints. For example in a public bus or in a railway station, there are complaint boxes to receive complaints from public. Consumers’ Fora are now available to deal with complaints against any suppler of goods and services such as telephone services. Within large public organization such as Railways and Telecommunication etc. there are complaint cells to deal with public complaints.


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