NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2018

1.       What does the Preamble of the Indian Constitution explain about? 2
Ans.:- The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India.
2. Mention any two Legislative Powers of the Governor of a State. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.
1.       He is to summon the House or each House of the State Legislature, if it is a bicameral legislature, to meet at such time and place as he deems fit. Six months should not, however, elapse between its last sitting in one session and the first in the next session.
2.       He may prorogue the Houses or either House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
3.       How can a Gram Sabha ensure active participation of the people in democratically elected Panchayats? 2
Ans.:- Generally, two meetings of Gram Sabha are held every year. In these meetings, the Gram Sabha as the general body of the people hears annual statement of accounts, audit or administrative report of panchayats. It also recommends new development projects to be undertaken by panchayats. Ti also helps in identifying poor people of the village so that they may be given economic assistance.
4.       What is meant by behavioural approach in Political Science? 2
Ans.:- Instead of political institutions, Behavioural Approach stands for the study of human behaviour in politics. It places emphasis upon the study of both individual as well as group behaviour in politics.
5.       Why is Antarctica not considered as a State? 2
Ans.:- Technically Antarctica has no government or self-sufficiency, hardly a populace, and military operations are illegal. It is divided into sections like a pie chart in which multiple different states have claimed parts of the area, but the rules are pretty relaxed so it isn’t like a border and it’
S also not a big deal if the USA or another state decides they want to have a base on New Zealand or other state’s claimed territory.
6.       Assess any two initiatives taken by newly independent India to come close to China. 2
Ans.:- Two initiatives taken by newly independent India to come close to China:-
Firstly, stat negotiation on a China-India Treaty of Good Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation.
Secondly restart negotiation of China-India Free Trade Agreement.
7. Mention any two ill-effects of industrialization on environment. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Industrialization coupled with the development of the means of transport and communication has not only polluted the environment, but also has led to the shrinking of the natural resources. Both ways, the loss is really heavy.
8. How does the use of muscle power affect the Indian electoral system? 2
Ans.:- Muscle Power-Earlier the criminals used to support the candidates by intimidating the voter at a gunpoint to vote according to their direction. Now they themselves have come out openly by contesting the elections leading to criminalisation of politics. As a result violence during elections has also increased.
9. Highlight the purpose of Pakistani infiltration in Kargil in 1999. 2
Ans.:-Pakistan’s aggression in Kargil in 1999 brought the two countries even on the verge of a nuclear confrontation. The legacy of suspicion and mistrust predates the partition of India in 1947. During the freedom struggle the Muslim League, under the leadership of Mohammad Ali Jinnah propounded the two-nation theory, in support of a separate Muslim state.
10. Describe the various provisions of the Fundamental Right to Equality. 5
Ans.:- Right to equality is an important right provided for in Articles 14,15,16,17 and 18 of the constitution. It is the principal foundation of all other rights and liberties, and guarantees the following:
a)      Equality before law: Article 14 of the constitution guarantees that all citizens shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It means that the Sate cannot discriminate any of the Indian citizens on the basis of their caste, creed, colour, gender, religion or place of birth.
b)      Social equality and equal access to public areas: Article 15 of the constitution states that no person shall be discriminated on the basis of caste, colour, language etc. Every person shall have equal access to public places like public parks, museums, wells, and temples etc.
c)       Equality in matters of public employment: Article 16 of the constitution lays down that the state cannot discriminate against anyone in the matters of employment. All citizens can apply for government jobs.
d)      Abolition of untouchability: Article 17 of the constitution abolishes the practice of untouchability. Practice of untouchability is an offence and anyone doing so is punishable by law.
Article 18 of the constitution prohibits the State from conferring any titles. Citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign State.
11. Explain the original jurisdiction of High Courts. 5
Ans.:- Original Jurisdiction of the High Court are:-
1. (a) Disputes between the Government of India on the one side and one or more states on the other side.
(b) Disputes between the Government of India and one or more states on one side and one or more States on the other side.
2. The Supreme Court has been invested with special powers in the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. In this connection, it has the power to issue directions or writs.
3. CASES UNDER Public Interests Litigation (PIL) can also be heard directly. (This is an extra Constitutional practice; there is no mention of PIL in the Constitution).
12.   Bring out any five distinctions between the State and the Government. 1×5=5
Ans.:- Though the state speaks through the government, it is proper to differentiate between the two:-

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