NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2016

1.       According to Karl Mark, What does Political Science study?               2
Ans.:- The term “political economy” initially referred to the study of the material conditions of economic production in the capitalist system. In Marxism, political economy is the study of the means of production, specifically of capital and how that manifests as economic activity.
2.       Why can’t a state exist without a government?                              2
Ans.:- The general understanding of the world ‘state’ is that it describes a defined territory where a government has legal and operational control over that territory, with the prospect of continuing to do so.
It’s just about possible to imagine a situation in which a territory was geographically defined and had armed civilians who end masse defended it spontaneously. But once they started organising themselves and having even the simplest rules about who did what, then they’d have a government.
3.       Mention the two major concerns of the framers of the Indian constitution.              2
Ans.:- The following are the two major concerns of the framers of the India constitution:-
a)      Zamindari system prevailing in society and exploitation of landless farmers by these zamindars du e to debt trap of years.
b)      Land reforms-equitable distribution of land so that peasants can get some land and have dignified life by self sufficiency.
4.       State any two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.                2
Ans.:- Two legislative powers of the Governor of a state.:
1.       He is to summon the House or each House of the State Legislature, if it is a bicameral legislature, to meet at such time and place as he deems fit. Six months should not, however, elapse between its last sitting in one session and the first in the next session.
2.       He may prorogue the Houses or either House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
5.       Illustrate with the help of any two examples that empowerment of weaker sections of society especially women, has been duly taken care of in local bodies.                             2
Ans.:  To empower women, reservation of one third of seats through the 73rd and 74th Amendment Act, 1991, 1992 for them has been made in the Panchayats and Municipalities. There is a similar proposal for reservation of seats for them in the Parliament and in the state Legislatures.
6.       Identify any two rights which make the people of India politically sovereign.              2
Ans.:- Two rights which make the people of India politically sovereign are:-
a)      Population, which implies a considerable group of human beings living together in a community.
b)      Territory, which is a defined portion of the earth’s surface upon which a population permanently resides. As pointed out by Harold Laski, “ the territories of a state are the regions over which it can exercise its sovereignty.”
7.       Explain the conditions required to get recognised as an All India National Party by the Election Commission.2                                                                                                                        
Ans.:- Conditions required to get recognised as an All India National Party by the Election Commission are:-
a)      Secure at least 6% of the valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election in any four or more states and won at least 4 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election form any State or States.
b)      Win at least 2% of the total Lok Sabha seats in a Lok Sabha General Election and these seats have to be qon from at least 3 states.
c)       The party is recognized as a State Party in at least four states.
8.       What was the two nation theory advocated by M.A.Jinnah?                     2
Ans.:- Two Nations theory is that Hindu and Muslims are completely two different nations from every perspective. We all Pakistanis, except some traitors who has the support of RAW, are thankful to Mr. Jinnah that due to his efforts we got an independent country Pakistan.
9.       Assess the impact of the nuclear explosions by India in 1998 on the Indo-Chins ties.    2
Ans.:- China’s perception of India as a nuclear weapons power is important not only for the future evolution of the international nuclear regime but also for the ongoing Sino-Indian security situation. This study shows how China’s perceptions of India as nuclear power have shaped China’s contingency plans for a nuclear-armed India.
10.   State any five points of distinction between state and the society.                        5
Ans.:-  The following are the five points of distinction between state and the society
1.       In point of time, society is prior to the state. The people lived in society much before the state emerged.
2.       State is organized, society may be organized or unorganized. The primitive society was unorganized, but the state is always organized.
3.       Society exercises authority largely through customs and persuasion. The state exercise authority through laws and coercion.
4.       State is a territorial organisation while a society does not occupy any definite territory. A society may extend to the whole world. It may be international like the Red Cross Society.
5.       A society embraces the whole life of man and all those ties which bind men together. But the state is concerned only with those social relationships that express themselves through government.
11.   Evaluate liberalism as a theory of reforms in social, economic and political fields.  5
Ans.:-  In the United States, current political usage of the term social liberalism describes progressivism or cultural liberalism as opposed to social conservatism or cultural conservatism. A social liberal in this sense may hold either more interventionist or liberal views on fiscal policy.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations. Although economic liberals can also be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition.
12.   Describe the Fundamental Right to Freedom of Religion.                                                    5
Ans.:- Right to Freedom- The articles 19,20,21A and 22 contain the provisions of the right to freedom. As per 19, the following six freedoms are guaranteed to every person of the country:
1.       Freedom of speech and expression:- Every person has freedom of speech and expression. However, the state can inflict a restriction on this freedom in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of the country, for the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, in relation to the contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense.
2.       Freedom to assemble:- Every person has the freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. However, the State can leave restrictions in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.
3.       Freedom to form associations or unions or co-operative societies:- The State can enforce restrictions  on such freedom in the interest of public order, morality and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.
4.       Freedom to move freely:- An Indian citizen has the freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. But the government can impose restrictions on this right only in the interest of the general public.
5.       Freedom to reside and settle:- Citizens of India have the freedom to reside anywhere in the country. However, in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the scheduled tribes the State may impose certain restrictions.
6.       Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any business, occupation or trade:- Every person can carry any business or practice any profession provided it is not dangerous or immoral. Also, professional or technical qualifications must be acquired before practicing any profession or carrying on any trade.
13.   Explain the composition of the state Legislature in India. Which states in India have a Bicameral Legislature?5
Ans.:- The Legislative Council should be constituted in the following manner:-

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