Political Science (317) - April' 2016 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

POLITICAL SCIENCE (April’ 2016)
(317)
NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1.       State the meaning of ‘Political Science’.                       2

Ans.:- Political Science is that part of social science which deals with the foundations of the state and the principles of the government. According to J W Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the state,”.

2.       Describe the term ‘State’.                                                   2

Ans.:- We can define state as a society of people politically organized within a definite territory, having its own government with coercive power to enforce obedience and which is free from external control.

3.       For how many days had Constituent Assembly met to prepare the constitution of India? In which year was the constitution enforced?                                                                 2

Ans.:-  The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Constitution enforced from 26, January 1950.

4.       State any two sources of income of Gram Panchayat.             2

Ans.:- Money comes from different sources and is deposited in this fune. The taxes imposed by the Village Panchayats  are important source of income of Gram Panchayats, such as :- the toll tax, license fees on transport and communication etc.

5.       Assess the powers of the speaker of the Vidhan Sabha.        2

Ans.:-  The Speaker is responsible for enforcing the Rules of the Legislative Assembly, presiding over the conduct of House business and maintaining order and decorum.

6.       Evaluate the’ simple majority system’ prevalent in India.                    2

Ans.:- Simple majority may refer to :

Majority, a voting requirement of more than half of all ballots cast.

Plurality (voting), a voting requirement of more ballots cast for a proposition than for any other option.

First-past-the-post voting, shifts the winner of the election from an absolute majority outcome to a simple majority outcome.

7.       Describe any two functions of the ‘Returning Officer’.                          2

Ans.:- The returning officer is responsible for handling the electoral process in the riding, and updating the National Register of Electors with current information about voters in the electoral district to which they are appointed.

8.       Explain the meaning of good governance.                                                   2

Ans.:- In international development, good governance is a subjective term that describes how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in the preferred way. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented.”

9.       Analyze any two issues of conflict between India and Pakistan.        2

Ans.:- Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir conflict ant the numerous military conflicts.

10.   Explain any five differences between State and Government.          2

Ans.:- Some of the main differences between state and government are as follows:-

1.       Government is only an element of the state:- A State has four essential elements-Population, Territory, Government is only one element of State. It is just one part of the State which acts for the state.

2.       Government is an Agency or Agent of the State:- Government is an agency of the state. It acts for the state. It is that agency of the state which formulates the will of the state into laws, implements the laws of the state and ensures conformity to the laws of the state. Government exercises power and authority on behalf of the state.

3.       State is Abstract, Government is Concrete:- State is a concept, an idea or a name used to denote a community of persons living on a definite territory and organised for the exercise of sovereignty. State cannot be seen. Government is made by the people of the state. It is formed by the representatives of the people. It has a definite and defined organisation and form. It can be seen as a team of people exercising the power of the State.

4.       Government is organised only by a portion of the population of state:-  The whole population is a part of the State. All the people are citizens of the State. However, government is made by the representatives of the people. Only some people, who get elected act as representatives of the people, form the government of the State.  Their number is limited to few hundred only.

5.       Membership of a State is compulsory but not of Government:- All people are citizens of the State. They together constitute the population of the State. Each one normally gets the membership (citizenship) of a state automatically right at the time of one’s birth and continues to live life as such. However, membership of the government is not automatic. No one can be forced to become its part. Anyone can voluntarily seek an election, get elected as a representative of the people and become a part of the government. Only some persons form the government.

11.   Analyze the weaknesses of liberalism.         2

Ans.:- The weaknesses of liberalism:-

1.       It was classical liberalism ideals were first developed. A variety of different forms of liberalism emerged, and over time these developed into what is termed as modern liberalism.

2.       It is evident that liberalism can be regarded as individualistic. However there are many other qualities that make up this ideology and the importance of these should also be considered.

12.   “Rights to Constitutional Remedies are the soul of the Fundamental Rights”.  Justify the statement.2

Ans.:- It is possible that sometimes our rights maybe violated by fellow citizens on by the government.  when any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy though courts if it is a Fundamental rights we can directly approach the supreme court, on the high court of a state.  There can be on law or action that violated the fundamental rights.

 

13.   Explain the original Jurisdiction of the High Court.  5

Ans.:- Original Jurisdiction of the High Court are:-

(i)      (a) Disputes between the Government of India on the one side and one or more states on the other side.

(b) Disputes between the Government of India and one or more states on  one side and one or more States on the other side.

(ii)   The Supreme Court has been invested with special powers in the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. In this connection, it has the power to issue directions or writs.

(ii)    CASES UNDER Public Interests Litigation (PIL) can also be heard directly. (This is an extra Constitutional practice, there is no mention of PIL in the Constitution).

14.   Explain any five features of ‘communalism’.                              5

Ans.:- Five features of ‘Communalism’

1.       In Communism, Community ownership is the real sense of understanding. This can be visualized as we go back to the days of class less society. But in the real world, Public ownership is the main feature of communism.

2.       Freedom of people is surrendered to the community leadership/public owner like Government. In case of capitalism, one can have more freedom.

3.       Communism is the expectation of the worker class even though they themselves have the mind of a capitalist. Hence it is a utopian concept, i.e. cannot be realized.

4.       It is the final result of worker class revolution. Therefore it is not a natural process but it is a human induced revolutionary process as per the actual theories.

5.       Equitable distribution of resources and benefits is another salient feature of communism. Current international politics on climatic change even adopts the ideology of communism even though it is too late. This should have dome form the industrial revolution phase at least.

15.   Describe any two major concerns of India’s foreign policy after the cold War period.             5

Ans.:- .:- The end of cold war in 1989 has brought about significant changes in the international scene and hence new policy problems for the various states in the developing world including India. The new situation is made by greater uncertainty and complexity.

a.       For India, disintegration of the Soviet Union has meant uncertainty on several aspects viz., supply of weapons system, supply of spare parts, diplomatic support on Kashmir and other politico-strategic issues in and outside the United Nations and as a counter weight to US in South Asia.

b.      Militancy in Kashmir has emerged as the for most challenge to our foreign policy. Pakistan and the Western countries blamed India for violating human rights and denial or rights to self determination. Gradually, India brought the situation under control.

16.   Explain any two factors which determined the relations between. India and united states of America during the cold war years.                                           5

Ans.:- So far as the debate in Lok Sabha on the Indo- US agreement, on nuclear energy, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says that recent time, India’s impressive economic development rate has made the country and alternative partner for a number of countries concerning USA. International politics largely in terms of military energy are fearful of the growing closeness between India and USA. The growing closeness of interest between the USA and India creates a welfare for India. At the recent phase of global hegemony, India has needed a good partnership with the USA. Dr. Manmohan Sing believes that it is in the welfare of our country to have a good and pivotal relation with all the major countries, but interest on the relationship with USA. Hence, he advocate a strategy that would allowed India to take opportunity of US hegemony and the mutual relations to set up the best possible for itself. The highlighting factors shows the Indo-US relationship and its importance.

(a)    15% of all high-tech starts up are by Indo- Americans.

(b)   The USA absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sectors.

(c)    35% of the technical staff of doing is estimated to be of India.

 

 

17.   Explain any four types of equalities that have been included in the ‘Right to Equality’.         5

Ans.:- Right to Equality:-

a)      The Constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person in India equality before the saw or the equal protection of the laws. It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. This is called the rule of law. Rule of law is the foundation of any democracy. It means that no person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and an ordinary citizen. Every citizen, from the Prime Minister to a small farmer in a remote village, is subjected to the same laws.

b)      The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, caste, ethnicity, sex or place of birth. Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels, and cinema halls. Similarly, there shall be no restriction with regard to the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads, playgrounds and places of public resorts maintained by government or dedicated to the use of general public.

c)       The government of India has provided reservations for scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Various governments have different schemes for giving preference to women, poor or physically handicapped in some kinds of jobs.

d)      The principle of non-discrimination extends to social life as well. The Constitution mentions one extreme form of social discrimination, the practice of untouchability, and clearly directs the government to put an end to it. The practice of untouchability has been forbidden in any form.

18.   Describe any eight executive powers of the President of India.                        8

Ans.:- The president of India is nominal head of executive and all contracts and assurances of the property are made by the government of India in President’s name. The following discussion deals with important aspects of executive powers of President of India.

President appoints the important members of the union government. They are as follows:-

1.       Prime Minister and Council of Ministers on advice of Prime Minister.

2.       Chief justice of India and Other Judge of Supreme Court on advice of the Chief Justice.

3.       Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission.

4.       Other members of the Union Public Service Commission.

5.       Chief Justice of High courts after consulting with chief Justice of India and other Judges of the High Court’s on advice of Chief Justice of High Court.

6.       Attorney General of India.

7.       Comptroller and Auditor General of India

8.       Chief Election Commissioner.

(or)

Describe any eight functions of Lok Sabha.                                                                          8

Ans.:- The Lok Sabha which is the more representative chamber of the Parliament performs a number of useful functions. These functions are described below:-

a)      Legislative:- Lawmaking is the main function of the Parliament and in this field the Lok Sabha plays an important role. All types of bills can originate in the Lok Sabha and if a bill is moved in and passed by the Rajya Sabha, it has to come to the Lok Sabha for its approval.

b)      Financial:- Control over purse makes one powerful. In financial matters, the Lok Sabha has a distinct superiority over the Rajya Sabha. The Money Bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha. It cannot be moved in the Rajya Sabha.

c)       Control over Executive:- The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lower House of the Parliament. Thus, the government is accountable to the Lok Sabha for its acts of omission and commission.

d)      Constitutional:- The Lok Sabha shares with the Rajya Sabha the power to amend the constitution.

e)      Electoral:- (a) The Lok Sabha takes part in the election of the President and the Vice-President. (b) It elects the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker. (c) Its members are elected to different Committees of the Parliament.

f)       Judicial:- (a) The Lok Sabha has power to punish a person on the ground of breach of privilege, (b) It takes part in the impeachment proceedings against the President of India, (c) It shares power with the Rajya Sabha to remove the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Judges of High Courts.

g)      Ventilation of Grievances:- The members of the Lok Sabha are elected from different parts of India. They try to remove the difficulties of their respective constituencies by stating their grievances on the floor of the Lok Sabha.

h)      Imparting Education on Democracy:- The Lok Sabha discussions would help in raising the political consciousness of people. As the discussions in the Lok Sabha on no-confidence motions and confidence motions are directly telecast, the people are able to learn of different aspects of Indian politics.

19.   Analyze any four factors that have contributed to the growth of regionalism.            8

Ans.:- .:- Some of the most important causes of regionalism in India are as follows:-

(i)     Geographical Factor:- The territorial orientation based on geographical boundaries relate to the inhabitants of a particular region which are symbolic, at least in the Indian context. This is more so because of the linguistic distribution along geographical boundaries. The topographic and climatic variations along with differences in the settlement pattern induce in people the concept of regionalism.

(ii)   Historical and Cultural Factors:- In Indian scenario the historical or cultural factors may be considered the prime components of the phenomenon of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism by way of cultural heritage, folklore, myths, symbolism and historical traditions. People of a particular cultural group also derive inspirations from the noble deeds and glorious achievements of the local heroes. Nevertheless there are sudden political and economic realities which can be covered under the gamut of historical and cultural factors.

(iii) Cast and Region:- Caste system and religion in Indian society play only a marginal roll in causing regionalism. Only when caste is combined with linguistic preponderance or religion it may cause regional feeling. In the like manner religion is not so significant except when it is combined with linguistic homogeneity or based on dogmatism and orthodoxy or lined with economic deprivation. However, regionalism is usually a secular phenomenon in a relative sense and it can cross-cut the caste affiliation or religious loyalties.

(iv)  Economic Factors:- In the present times, uneven developments in different parts of the country may be construed as the prime reason for regionalism and separatism. There are certain regions in the country where industries and factories have been concentrated, educational and health facilities are sufficiently provided, communication net work has been developed, rapid agricultural development has been made possible. But there are also certain areas where the worth of independence is yet to be realized in terms of socio-economic development.

(or)

Analyze any four hindrance in the path of forming a sound public opinion.         8

Ans.:- Some of the major hindrance in the path of healthy public opinion are as follows:-

1)      Illiteracy and Ignorance:- Illiteracy is the biggest obstacle. An illiterate person has a very limited knowledge and he cannot fully understand politics and its allied complex problems. He is also incapable of making independent decisions and follows others blindly in the formation of his opinion. Along with ignorance, the inability and unwillingness to participate in the political process due to ignorance is also big hindrance in the way of formulation of healthy public opinion.

2)      Poverty & Backwardness:-  A poor person remains engrossed in his own economic problems and his efforts are directed to their solution. He is tempted by the lust of money and sells off his free will. As such he remains incapable of making or taking any independent decision and genuine public opinion cannot be formulated.

3)      Unsound Party System:- The parties formed on wrong basis are also an obstacle in the formation of public opinion. The parties organised on the basis of narrow factors like language, religion, region etc. make wrong propaganda and remain involved in grinding their own axes. These often ignore the demands of national interest for the sake of their selfish interests. In this way they make the thinking of the people parochial.

4)      Unreality of Rights and Duties:- The formation of the right type of public opinion is not possible in the absence of rights and liberties. The rights and liberties create such an environment in which the individual can think freely and express his views rightly. In the absence of rights and liberties wrong views get formed and circulated. The ratio of ill-founded opinion is in direct proportion to the number of wrong views or notions projected by vested interests.

20.   Explain the concept of ‘sustainable development’. Highlight any four methods to achieve sustainability.     4+4=8                                                                                      

Ans.:- Sustainable Development:- “Sustainable Development means that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The concept of sustainable development was introduced in early 1980’s (in particular through the publication of the World Conservation Strategy by IUCN, UNEP and WWF, 1980), in order to reconcile conservation and development objectives. Since then, it has evoked much discussion. The aim of sustainable development is to balance our economic, environmental and social needs, allowing prosperity for now and future generations. Sustainable development consists of a long-term, integrated approach to developing and achieving a healthy community by jointly addressing economic, environmental, and social issues, whilst avoiding the over consumption of key natural resources.

Four methods to achieve sustainability are

1.       Human sustainability:- Human sustainability aims to maintain and improve the human capital in society. Investments in the health and education systems, access to services, nutrition, knowledge and skills are all programs under the umbrella of human sustainability.

2.       Social sustainability:- Social sustainability aims to preserve social capital by investing and creating services that constitute the framework of our society. The concept accommodates a larger view of the world in relation to communities, cultures and globalisation.

3.       Economic sustainability:- Economic sustainability aims to maintain the capital intact. If social sustainability focuses on improving social equality, economic sustainability aims to improve the standard of living. In the context of business, it refers to the efficient use of assets to maintain company profitability over time.

4.       Environmental sustainability:- Environmental sustainability aims to improve human welfare through the protection of natural capital (e.g. land, air, water, minerals etc.). Initiatives and programs are defined environmentally sustainable when they ensure that he needs of the population are met without the risk of compromising the needs of future generations.

(or)

How has the Constitution of India given due importance to the Human Rights? Explain. 8

Ans.:- Every human being is entitled to enjoy certain rights which ensure good living. In a democracy all citizens enjoy equal rights. The Constitution of India guarantees those rights in the form of Fundamental Rights.

Fundamental Rights are one of the important features of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution provides for six Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights are justiciable and are protected by the judiciary. In case of violation of any of these rights one can move to the court of law for their protection.

Fundamental Duties were added to our Constitution by the 42nd Amendment. It lays down a list of ten Fundamental Duties for all citizens of India. While the rights are given as guarantees to the people, the duties are obligations which every citizen is expected to guarantees to the people, the duties are obligations which every citizen is expected to perform.

SECTION- B

OPTION0- I

(World order and the United Nations)

21.   Write the name of any four principal organs of the United Nations.                               2

Ans.:- Four principal organs of the United Nations are:-

(i)      The General Assembly

(ii)    The Security Council

(iii)   The Economic and Social Council

(iv)  Trusteeship Council

22.   Analyze the three positive and two negative effects of globalization.                           5

Ans.:- Positive effects of Globalization:-

(i)      Global market:- The privatization of industries owned by the state has enabled the emerging markets to be successful. Most of the companies are increasing the consumer demand through extension and expansion of their value chain to international levels. As a result, the positive effects of globalization are expressed by the rising transactions across the borders.

(ii)    Competition:- competition in the market is largely due to globalization. As a result, the positive effects are visible, since global competition leads to products of high quality. The enhanced quality of both products and services are based on production approaches of customer demands and customer services.

(iii)   Culture:- Globalization has resulted in numerous positive effects on culture. There is no single civilization that had all good practices. Instead, the coming together of various cultures has made the world today a better place.

Negative effects of Globalization:-

(i)      Environmental Damage:- Increased production means increased utilization of natural resources. Besides, increased trade results to increased transport, which uses fossil fuels. As a result, pollution has increased, leading to climate change. The changes in climate are now a serious threat to humanity and the future of teh world, all because of globalization.

(ii)    Fluctuation in prices:- Globalization has led to increased market competition, hence leading to fluctuation in prices. For example, developed countries like the USA have been forced to reduce their products prices, because countries such as china offer the same products at cheaper prices.

23.   Analyze the peacekeeping and disarmament activities of the United Nation.            8

Ans.:- Peacekeeping Activities:- Compared to the military authorisations, peacekeeping is a remarkable contribution of the United Nations towards world peace. This important activity, in fact, was not anticipated when the United Nations was founded. However, UN tried with this technique right from its early years. The first UN peacekeeping activity started in 1948 when UN dispatched a small team of military observers to ensure peace after the first Arab-Israeli war. Since then, in all there have  been 60 peacekeeping operations dispatched by United Nations to restore or maintain peace in countries located in four continents- Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. Two such operations restored peace between India and Pakistan.

Disarmament Activities:- It was thought that the production and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction would ensure peace by deterring the opponent. Far from securing peace these weapons have made the world a dangerous place to live in. Nuclear and other dangerous weapons threaten the very survival of mankind. If full-fledged nuclear war breaks out, it is not only the population of the warring countries that would die but also the rest of the population spread over the globe would suffer. Those who survive the nuclear war would die a slow and painful death. Thus, the preservation of life on the planet is the first and foremost consideration for disarmament. Equally important, disarmament offers the possibility of diverting huge funds, from the arms production for improving the living conditions of the poor and needy people of the world.

(or)

Analyze the role of United Nations International children’s Emergency fund to improve the lot of disadvantaged children.        8

Ans.:- Created in 1946, UNICEF concentrates exclusively on the task of improving the lot of disadvantaged children.

UNICEF has undertaken projects on health, education, malaria eradication, nutrition, rural development, family and child welfare and emergency aid to promote child welfare. In recognition of its social and humanitarian efforts, UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1965. It focuses on India in a very big way.

UNICEF has made an important contribution to a better environment for children in India and identified the problem of excess fluoride in groundwater resources. Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the most severely affected states.

WHO’s aims are (i) preventing the spread of disease (ii) curing disease and (iii) preventing the outbreak of disease. The means adopted to prevent the spread of disease include Conventions providing international standards for public health. WHO’s has been a clearing house for scientific knowledge and a exchange of information for curing disease. WHO’s activity in the area of preventing the outbreak of disease is to facilitate the exchange of findings and promotion of research.

A very important WHO programme is Polio Eradication Immunization. Polio is the first disease of the 21st century to be eradicated. Another important campaign of UN health agency, WHO is against the use of tobacco especially in developing countries.

The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) concentrates on rural development. This Rome based agency works for alleviation of poverty and hunger by promotion agriculture development, improved nutrition and easy access of food.

OPTION-II

21. State the meaning of ‘Bureaucracy’.?                                              2

Ans.:-  The term ‘Bureaucracy’ lacks a definition that is universally accepted. Bureaucracy is sometimes used in a disparaging manner to mean unimaginative, rigid and inefficient government administrators. It is associated with red-tapism, delay and wastefulness.

22. Describe any four functions of Block Development officer. How is he related to Panchayat  Samiti.?               5

Ans.:- Functions of Block Development officer are:-

1.       To convene the meetings of the block Smiti, to prepare its agenda and keep its records.

2.       To prepare the budget at the block level.

3.       To prepare programme for the development work and to assist in its implementation.

4.       He supervises the work of the different agencies like Agriculture, Fisheries, Cattle stock etc.

B.D.O. functions as an agent of the state government under the supervision of the Tehsildar, He is closely related to the Panchayti Raj system. He acts as the secretary of the block level Panchayat Samiti.

23. Examine the role of the Central Vigilance Commission.                                                         8

Ans.:- The Central Vigilance Commission receives complaints directly from the aggrieved party. It also gathers information about corruption and malpractices or misconduct from other sources such as press reports, audit objections, information through parliamentary debates and other forms etc. The complaints about Central Government employees received by the State Vigilance Commissions are forwarded by them to the CVC. On receiving complaints, the Commission may ask:

(i)      The concerned ministry/department to inquire into them,

(ii)    The central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to make and inquiry, and

(iii)   The CBI direction to register a case and conduct an investigation. Prosecution, however, depends on the approval by the appropriate sanctioning authority.

The CVC has laid clown procedures to be followed by the administrative ministries/departments in the case of complaints received by them. These complaints are to be dealt with by the ministries/departments concerned.  The CVC may advise the ministries/departments in respect of all matters relating to integrity in administration. It may also call for reports, returns or statements from all ministries/departments so as to enable it, to exercise a general check and supervision over vigilance and anti-corruption work in the ministries/departments. It can also take over under its direct control any complaint or case for further action.+-

(or)

Examine the independence of the Union Public Service Commission.                   8

Ans.:- The following constitutional provisions are intended to make the commission, both UPSC and SPSC, independent of any external influence:-

1.       Members are appointed for a fixed tenure of six years or until the attainment of sixty-five years of age in the case of UPSC, and sixty-two years in the case of SPSC.

2.       The conditions of service of a member cannot be changed to his/her disadvantage during his tenure of office.

3.       The removal of a member can take place by an order of the President on certain specific grounds in consultation of the Supreme Court.

4.       The expenses of the commission are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.

5.       All regulations to be issued by the government excluding any matter from the purview of the commission will have to be laid before the Parliament or the state legislature for such modification as it may deem fit to make.

6.       Further employment of any member is severely restricted.

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