NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - Oct' 2017

1.       What does practical politics imply? 2
Ans.:- Practical politics
(a)    matter for concrete action as distinguished from theoretical discussion.
(b)   Political intrigue, scheming, or action involving dishonourable or dishonest dealings.
2.       Explain the Marxist concept of the State. 2
Ans.:- Marxism underestimated the importance of the state. To say that the Sate is a class institution and therefore, an oppressive and exploitative one is to oversimplify things.
3.       What is meant by the word ‘socialist’ in the Indian context? 2
Ans.:- Socialist means commitment to attain ideals like removal of inequalities, provision of minimum basic necessities to all, equal pay for equal work.
4.       Mention any two discretionary powers of the Governor of a State. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Governor may exercise his discretionary powers to meet political exigencies in the following cases
a.       Appointing the Chief Minister when no party has acquired clear cut majority in the State  Legislative Assembly and when the Chief Minister dies when in office.
b.      Dismissal of the Council of the Minsters when they loos the confidence of The  confident of the State Legislative Assembly.
5.       How can Gram Sabhas ensure active participation of the people in the rural self-government? 2
Ans.:- Generally, two meetings of Gram Sabha are held every year. In these meetings, the Gram Sabha as the general body of the people hear annual statement of accounts, audit or administrative report of panchayats. It also recommends new development projects to be undertaken by panchayats. It also helps in identifying poor people of the village so that they may be given economic assistance.
6.       Identify any two rights which make the people of India political sovereign.1×2=2
Ans.:- Sovereignty is the supreme power by which the state commands and exerts political obedience from its people. A state must be internally supreme and free from external control. Thus sovereignty has two aspects, internal and external. Internal sovereignty is the state’s monopoly of authority inside its boundaries. This authority cannot be shared with any other state. The state is independent and its will is unaffected by the will o any other external authority.
7.       Highlight any two techniques of campaigning before an election. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Two techniques of campaigning before election
a.       Holding of public meetings.
b.      Distribution of handbills, highlighting the main issues of their election manifesto (election manifesto is a document issued by apolitical party).
8.       Mention any two initiatives taken by India to come closer to China. 1×2=2
Ans.:- India tried its best to come close to china:-
a.       It was the first no-communist country to recognise communist china in 1949.
b.      It also acknowledged China’s claim over Formosa (Taiwan). It refused to be a party to peace treaty with Japan without China.
9.       How far did the Shimla Pact of 1972 between India and Pakistan prove to be successful? Assess. 2
Ans.:- Shimla pact 1972: This Shimla agreement however bears important significance as the two countries agreed to seek the settlement of all bilateral problems, including Kashmir, mutually without the intervention of any third party. Thus under the Shimla Pact, the Kashmir issue cannot be raised in international or any other forum, although Pakistan has not hesitated to ignore the sprit of the agreement. The agreement also talked about the return of Prisoners of war (POW). Though Pakistan’s territory in India’s possession was returned, a new cease-fire line (in place of the old cease-fine line of 1948-49) was drawn, which is known as the LOC, Pakistan found ways other than open war to destabilise India by encouraging and assisting terrorism in Punjab, and the state-sponsored militancy in Jammu and Kashmir since the mid 1980s.
10.   Explain any five points of distinction between State and other associations. 1×5=5
Ans.:- State as an association is different from other associations:-
a.       All the associations, including even the state, consist of people. But while the membership of the state is compulsory, that of the other associations is voluntary.
b.      A person is member of one state at one time, he/she cannot be a member of two or three states at the same time. But a person may be, a member of numerous associations at the same time.
c.       All associations function on territory. But while for a state as an association, territory has to be definite, the other associations do not have permanent territory.
d.      All association, including the state, exist to perform and achieve certain ends. While for the state, the purpose is always general (maintenance of law and order for example) for the other associations, the purpose is usually specific, particular.
e.      The character of the state is national. The character of other associations may be local, provincial, national and even international.
11.   Examine any five features of liberalism. 1×5=5
Ans.:-We may identity certain characteristics of liberalism. These characteristic/features are:
a.       Individual Liberty:- Liberalism is essentially an ideology of liberty. Its love for individual liberty is unquestionable. It has become libertarianism.
b.      Individual-centred theory:- Liberalism begins and ends with individual. For liberals, individual is the centre of all activities, the focal point, individual is the end while all other associations, including the state, are the means, which exist for the individual.
c.       Capitalistic Economy:- Liberalism advocates free-market economy, i.e., the capitalistic mode of economy. It believes in private property system, regarding property rights as sacrosanct, maximum profit as the only motive, capitalistic mode of production and distribution as the only essence, the market forces as the controlling means of economy.
d.      Limited State:- Liberalism advocates the concept of limited state. The liberals view the state as a means for attaining the good of the individual.
e.      Opposed to Traditions/Superstitions:- As liberalism rose as a reaction against traditions/superstitions, it is, by its nature, opposed to all reactionary measures.
12.   What do Directive Principles of State Policy mean? The Constitution of which country inspired to include DPSP into our Constitution and why? 2+1+2=5
Ans.:- Directive Principles of State Policy are in the form of instructions/guidelines to the governments at the centre as well as states.  Though these principles are non-justifiable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country.
The idea of Directive Principles of State Policy has been taken from the Irish Republic.
They were incorporated in our Constitution in order to provide economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. Therefore, no government can afford to ignore them. They are in-fact, the directives to the future governments to incorporate them in the decisions and policies to be formulated by them.
13.   Bring out any five similarities between Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. 1×5=5
Ans.:-  The following are the similarities between Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad:-
In order to become a Member of Vidhan Sabha / Vidhan Parishad:-
a.       A person must be a citizen of India.
b.      His/her name must be in voters’ list.
c.       Must not hold any office of profit i.e. should not be a government servant.
d.      Both vidhan Sabha and vidhan parishad together makes vidhan sangh.

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