NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2013

APRIL 2013
Note : (i) This Question Paper consists of two Sections, viz., ‘A’ and ‘B’.
(ii) All questions from Section ‘A’ are to be attempted.
(iii) Section ‘B’ has two options. Candidates are required to attempt questions from one option only.
(iv) Marks of each question are indicated against it.
1.       Distinguish between Political Science and Politics. 2
Ans.:- Some scholars define Politics to be “the science and art of government.” But this is only a part of the total explanation of the subject of Political. Science, Now-a-day the term Politics is used to mean the problems of the citizens interacting with the instrument of political power in one form or the other.

2.       Mention four essential elements of the State. 2
Ans.:- Four elements of the State are:-
a.       Population
b.      Territory
c.       Government
d.      Sovereignty.

3.       Point out any two distinctions between State and other Associations. 2
Ans.:- State as an association is different from other associations:-
1.       All the associations, including even the state, consist of people. But while the membership of the state is compulsory, that of the other associations is voluntary.
2.       A person is member of one state at one time, he/she cannot be a member of two or three states at the same time. But a person may be, a member of numerous associations at the same time.
4. Highlight India as a Parliamentary Democracy. 2
Ans.:-  India has a parliamentary form of democracy. This has been adopted from the British system. In a parliamentary democracy there is a close relationship between the legislature and the executive. The cabinet is selected from among the members of legislature. This cabinet is responsible to the latter.
4.       What is meant by individual responsibility? 2
Ans.:- Individual responsibility is enforced when an action taken by a Minister without the concurrence of the Cabinet, or the Prime Minister, is criticised and not approved by the Parliament.
5.       How is the Rajya Sabha constituted? 2
Ans.:- Legislative Assemblies elect the members of the Rajya Sabha on the basis of proportional representation through the single transferable vote system. But all the States do not send equal number of members to the Rajya Sabha. Their representation is decided on the basis of population of respective States.
7. Explain the simple majority system. 2
Ans.:-  Simple Majority System means that in case of a single-member constituency, the person or the candidate getting the highest number of votes is declared elected. The result is decided by the majority of votes secured by a candidate.
1.       What is meant by good governance? 2
ans.:- In modern times, good governance implies enlightened citizenship as well as accountable and constitutional government. Good governance is also a key developmental concept today. The debate only relates to the question of how to bring about development.
2.       State the concept of Panchsheel as a component of Foreign Policy of India. 2
Ans.:- India’s desired peaceful and friendly relations with all countries, particularly the big powers and the neighbouring nations, while signing an agreement with China, on April 28, 1954, India advocated adherence to ficve guiding principles known as Panchsheel for the conduct of bilitral.
3.       What are the consequences of the imposition of constitutional emergency in a State? 5
Ans.:- The declaration of emergency due to the breakdown of Constitutional machinery in a State has the following effects:
a.       The President can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the State Government or he may vest all or        any of those functions with the Governor or any other executive authority.
b.      The President may dissolve the State Legislative Assembly or put it under suspension. He may authorise the Parliament to make laws on behalf of the State Legislature.
c.       The President can make any other incidental or consequential provision necessary to give effect of the object of proclamation.
4.       What are the powers of State Governor? 5
Ans.:- The powers of State Governor:-
a.       Executive Powers:- All the executive functions in the State are carried on in the name of the Governor. He/she not only appoints the Chief Minister but on his/her advice appoints the members of the Council of Ministers.
b.      Legislative Powers:- The Governor is an inseparable part of the State Legislature and as such he/she possesses certain legislative powers as well. The Governor has the right to summon and prorogue the State Legislature. He/she, on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Ministers dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.
c.       Financial Powers:- No money bill can be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly without the prior permission of the Governor. The annual and supplementary budgets are introduced in the Assembly in the name of the Governor.
d.      Power of Pardon:- The Governor possesses the power to grant pardon reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted by the Courts of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.
e.      Discretionary Powers:- The Governor is aided and advised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. These powers are enjoyed by him/her as the Head of State. There are a few more powers which he/she possesses as the representative of the Central or Union Government. 
5.       Explain the composition of the Election Commission of India, its tenure and method of removal of its members. 5
Ans.:- Composition:- The Election Commission of the Chief Election Commissioner and such other Election commissioners as may be decided by the President from time to time.
Tenure and Removal:- Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years, or till the age of 65 whichever is earlier. It is important that Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners should be free from all political interferences. Therefore, even if they are appointed by the President, they cannot be removed by him. And no changes can be brought in the conditions of service and the tenure of office after their appointment. The Chief Election Commissioner cannot be removed from office, except on the grounds and in the manner on which the Supreme Court Judge can be removed. However, since the other Election Commissioners and the Regional Election Commissioners work under the Chief Commissioner, they may be removed by the President on his recommendations.
6.       Explain the meaning and characteristics of public opinion. 5
Ans.:- Public opinion is an organised and considered opinion of a section or many sections of the people on any public issue or concern. It is genuinely both public and opinion. It is neither a propaganda nor a public relations exercise.
The following are the characteristics of public opinion
a.       Public opinion is not the unanimous opinion but there is a general agreement on the issue.
b.      It may change with the circumstances, time and new information.

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