NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2015

APRIL 2015
1. According to Karl Marx, what does politics mean? 2
Ans.:- As Karl Marx observed: “At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
2. Explain sovereignty as an element of State. 2
Ans.:- India before 15 August 1947 had all the other elements of the state but it lacked sovereignty and therefore it was not a state. Sovereignty is the supreme power by which the state commands and exerts political obedience from its people.
3. What is meant by single integrated judicial system? 2
Ans.:- A single judiciary represents a hierarchy of courts. The Supreme Court stands at the top of this single integrated judicial system with High Courts at the state level. Below the High Courts, there are several subordinate courts such as the District Courts which deal with civil cases and the Session Courts which decide criminal cases.
4. State any two financial powers of the Governor of a State. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Financial powers of the Governor of a State are:-
1.       No money bill can be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly without the prior permission of the Governor.
2.       The annual and supplementary budgets are introduced in the Assembly in the name of the Governor.
5. Assess the role of Gram Panchayat in improving the sanitation and cleanliness of a village. 2
Ans.:- Functions of Gram panchayat:- Some States distinguish between obligatory (compulsory) and optional functions of Gram Panchayats while other States do not make this distinction. The civic functions relating to sanitation, cleaning of public roads, drains and ponds, public toilets and lavatories, primary health care, vaccination, supply of drinking water, constructing public wells, street lighting, social health and primary and adult educations etc.
6. In what respect is the proportional representation system considered better than the simple majority system? 2
Ans.:- The simple majority system is usually followed is single-member constituencies where the candidate simply securing the highest number of votes is declared elected. This system of does not ensure adequate representation to all sections of the electorate. This system of proportional representation is followed to provide representation to the minorities in proportion to their voting strength. Minority representation is also secured through some other methods such as cumulative vote system and limited vote plan.
7. Mention any two electoral reforms introduced in India. 1×2=2
Ans.:- Two electoral reforms introduced in India are:-
1.       The voting age has been lowered from 21 years to 18 years. This has helped increase the number of votes and response confidence in the youth of the country.
2.       Another landmark change has been the increase in the amount of security deposit by the candidate to prevent many no serious candidates from  contesting elections with a ulterior motive.
8. What was the boundary dispute between India and China in 1950s? 2
Ans.:- The 1950s were marked by the boundary dispute between India and China, the flash point of which unfortunately caused a war between the two countries in 1962. China first started to claim large parts of Indian territory in North East Frontier Agency (NEFA, now Arunachal Pradesh) and Ladakh by publishing maps in which these were shown as included in China.
9. Assess the impact of nuclear tests conducted by both India and Pakistan. 2
Ans.:- Indo-Pakistan relations acquired an entirely new dimension in the context of nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. The relations between the two neighbours it a new low. India has been facing a nuclear threat arising out of China’s clandestine support to build up of the nuclear weapon capability of Pakistan since the mid-seventies. No doubt, Pakistan’s nuclear policy is targeted against India.
10. Bring out any five distinctions between State and Society. 1×5=5
Ans.:- The distinction between the state and the society can be explained as under:
1.       Strictly speaking, the state is a political organization; it is society politically organized. Society, on the other hand, is a social organization and has within it, all types of associations (social, economic, religious, political, cultural and the like).
2.       In terms of origin, society is prior to the state. Society may be said to have been born the day the human life must have begun. But the state did not begin with the society,
3.       Being prior to the state, society is clearly a natural and therefore, an instinctive institution. The state, on the other hand, is artificial, a created institution, it was made when it was needed.
4.       The state exists for the society in the same way as a means exists for its end. The state is, therefore, a means and the society is an end.
5.       The state is sovereign: no sovereignty means no state, the society is not sovereign, it exists without being sovereign.
11. Evaluate the role of liberalism as an exponent of democratic Government and the concept of limited State. 2½+2½=5
Ans.:- The role of liberalism as an exponent of democratic Government and the concept of limited State
Democratic Government:- Liberalism is an exponent of democratic government. It seeks to establish a government of the people, by the people and for the people, a government that functions according to the Constitution and constitutionalism, a government that upholds the rule of law, a government that secures rights and liberties of the people. Liberalism, McGovern says, is a combination of democracy and individualism.
Limited State:- Liberalism advocates the concept of limited state. The liberals view the state as a means for attaining the good of the individual. They oppose every type of totalitarian state. They are of the opinion that a more powerful state means a less free individual. Locke used to say, ”because the functions of the state are limited, so are limited its powers.”
12. What is meant by Fundamental Rights? Mention the six freedoms given under the Right to Freedom. 2+3=5
Ans.:- The right, which are enshrined in the Constitution, are called ‘Fundamental Rights.’ These rights ensure the fullest physical, mental and moral development of every citizen. They include those basic freedoms and conditions which alone can make life worth living. The six freedoms given under the Right to Freedom are:
1.       Freedom of speech and expression.
2.       Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
3.       Freedom to form associations or unions.
4.       Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
5.       Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
6.       Freedom to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
13. In a bicameral legislature, which House of the State Legislature is more powerful and why? 5
Ans.:- Vidhan Parishad in a bicameral legislature is more powerful because Vidhan Parishad is the upper House of the State Legislature. It is not in existence in very state. Very few States have bicameral Legislature that means having two Houses. At present five states viz. Utter Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Jammu & Kashmir have Vidhan Parishad while, remaining 23 States have one House, i.e. Vidhan Sabha. Legislative Councils are legacy of the 

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