Political Science (317) - April' 2015 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

POLITICAL SCIENCE (April’ 2015)
(317)
NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1. According to Karl Marx, what does politics mean? 2

Ans.:- As Karl Marx observed: “At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.

2. Explain sovereignty as an element of State. 2

Ans.:- India before 15 August 1947 had all the other elements of the state but it lacked sovereignty and therefore it was not a state. Sovereignty is the supreme power by which the state commands and exerts political obedience from its people.

3. What is meant by single integrated judicial system? 2

Ans.:- A single judiciary represents a hierarchy of courts. The Supreme Court stands at the top of this single integrated judicial system with High Courts at the state level. Below the High Courts, there are several subordinate courts such as the District Courts which deal with civil cases and the Session Courts which decide criminal cases.

4. State any two financial powers of the Governor of a State. 1×2=2

Ans.:- Financial powers of the Governor of a State are:-

1.       No money bill can be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly without the prior permission of the Governor.

2.       The annual and supplementary budgets are introduced in the Assembly in the name of the Governor.

5. Assess the role of Gram Panchayat in improving the sanitation and cleanliness of a village. 2

Ans.:- Functions of Gram panchayat:- Some States distinguish between obligatory (compulsory) and optional functions of Gram Panchayats while other States do not make this distinction. The civic functions relating to sanitation, cleaning of public roads, drains and ponds, public toilets and lavatories, primary health care, vaccination, supply of drinking water, constructing public wells, street lighting, social health and primary and adult educations etc.

6. In what respect is the proportional representation system considered better than the simple majority system? 2

Ans.:- The simple majority system is usually followed is single-member constituencies where the candidate simply securing the highest number of votes is declared elected. This system of does not ensure adequate representation to all sections of the electorate. This system of proportional representation is followed to provide representation to the minorities in proportion to their voting strength. Minority representation is also secured through some other methods such as cumulative vote system and limited vote plan.

7. Mention any two electoral reforms introduced in India. 1×2=2

Ans.:- Two electoral reforms introduced in India are:-

1.       The voting age has been lowered from 21 years to 18 years. This has helped increase the number of votes and response confidence in the youth of the country.

2.       Another landmark change has been the increase in the amount of security deposit by the candidate to prevent many no serious candidates from  contesting elections with a ulterior motive.

8. What was the boundary dispute between India and China in 1950s? 2

Ans.:- The 1950s were marked by the boundary dispute between India and China, the flash point of which unfortunately caused a war between the two countries in 1962. China first started to claim large parts of Indian territory in North East Frontier Agency (NEFA, now Arunachal Pradesh) and Ladakh by publishing maps in which these were shown as included in China.

9. Assess the impact of nuclear tests conducted by both India and Pakistan. 2

Ans.:- Indo-Pakistan relations acquired an entirely new dimension in the context of nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. The relations between the two neighbours it a new low. India has been facing a nuclear threat arising out of China’s clandestine support to build up of the nuclear weapon capability of Pakistan since the mid-seventies. No doubt, Pakistan’s nuclear policy is targeted against India.

10. Bring out any five distinctions between State and Society. 1×5=5

Ans.:- The distinction between the state and the society can be explained as under:

1.       Strictly speaking, the state is a political organization; it is society politically organized. Society, on the other hand, is a social organization and has within it, all types of associations (social, economic, religious, political, cultural and the like).

2.       In terms of origin, society is prior to the state. Society may be said to have been born the day the human life must have begun. But the state did not begin with the society,

3.       Being prior to the state, society is clearly a natural and therefore, an instinctive institution. The state, on the other hand, is artificial, a created institution, it was made when it was needed.

4.       The state exists for the society in the same way as a means exists for its end. The state is, therefore, a means and the society is an end.

5.       The state is sovereign: no sovereignty means no state, the society is not sovereign, it exists without being sovereign.

11. Evaluate the role of liberalism as an exponent of democratic Government and the concept of limited State. 2½+2½=5

Ans.:- The role of liberalism as an exponent of democratic Government and the concept of limited State

Democratic Government:- Liberalism is an exponent of democratic government. It seeks to establish a government of the people, by the people and for the people, a government that functions according to the Constitution and constitutionalism, a government that upholds the rule of law, a government that secures rights and liberties of the people. Liberalism, McGovern says, is a combination of democracy and individualism.

Limited State:- Liberalism advocates the concept of limited state. The liberals view the state as a means for attaining the good of the individual. They oppose every type of totalitarian state. They are of the opinion that a more powerful state means a less free individual. Locke used to say, ”because the functions of the state are limited, so are limited its powers.”

12. What is meant by Fundamental Rights? Mention the six freedoms given under the Right to Freedom. 2+3=5

Ans.:- The right, which are enshrined in the Constitution, are called ‘Fundamental Rights.’ These rights ensure the fullest physical, mental and moral development of every citizen. They include those basic freedoms and conditions which alone can make life worth living. The six freedoms given under the Right to Freedom are:

1.       Freedom of speech and expression.

2.       Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.

3.       Freedom to form associations or unions.

4.       Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.

5.       Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.

6.       Freedom to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

13. In a bicameral legislature, which House of the State Legislature is more powerful and why? 5

Ans.:- Vidhan Parishad in a bicameral legislature is more powerful because Vidhan Parishad is the upper House of the State Legislature. It is not in existence in very state. Very few States have bicameral Legislature that means having two Houses. At present five states viz. Utter Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Jammu & Kashmir have Vidhan Parishad while, remaining 23 States have one House, i.e. Vidhan Sabha. Legislative Councils are legacy of the British period. The Parliament can create Vidhan Parishad in a State where it does not exist, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to this effect by a majority of the total membership of the Assembly and by a majority of the total membership of the Assembly and by a majority of not less than two thirds of the members of the Assembly present and voting, and sends the resolution to the Parliament.

14. Examine the role of caste in the Indian society. 5

Ans.:- The political process of any society is influenced by the nature of the society. To understand the nature of the society we study its social structure. India’s social structure is best understood in terms of caste system wherein the cast is hierarchically arranged. Over the years, the caste system developed into an elaborate system to maintain socio-economic inequalities in the society.

1.       In the typical Varna-Vyvastha there are four Varnas: Brahmin (the priest and the intellectual class), Kshatriya (warrior and the ruling class), Vaisyas (the producing class peasants and artisaas) and Shudra (those who performed menial and ‘polluting’ jobs). One must note here that ‘varna-vyvastha’ provides more the theory than the actuality of the caste. In reality, there are not four but thousands of castes and jatis, in which the caste system is organized.

2.       Caste is a localized group having a traditional association with an occupation. The principle of birth forms the exclusive basis of membership in a caste group. Accordingly, the choice of occupation is not open but is determined on the basis of  one’s birth in a caste.

15. Highlight any five significant measures taken at the international level to fulfil the commitment to protect the environment. 1×5=5

Ans.:- Significant measures taken at the international level to fulfil the commitment to protect the environment are:

1.  In regard to transport pollution apart from conversation measures, population free engines are being designed, some of which have already been introduced for two-wheelers, three-wheelers and some of the popular cars.

2.  Environmental Brigades, A forestation Brigades and Ecological task Force have been organized by Non-government organizations (NGOs).

3.  India’s wild life conservation projects have met with remarkable success. India has a protected network of 75 national parks and 421 wild life sanctuaries. The Tiger project has been a great success.

4.  India also has an elaborate laws relating to the prevention of pollution of water, soil and air and a system of environmental audit of most industrial projects.

5.  India is also engaged in serious and systematic efforts to develop alternative and renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and wave energy which are environment friendly.

1.       Explain the concept of Human Rights. Identify any three features which are common to all the categories of Human Rights. 2+3=5

Ans.: Human rights are at the core of international law and international relations. They represent basic values common to all cultures, and must be respected by countries worldwide. Human rights are inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because he or she is a human being. Features which are common to all the categories ho Human rights are:

.1. People have rights simply because they are human:- All people have the right to lead a dignified and human life, and work towards achieving this for all people. These rights cannot be denied on the basis of caste, colour, religion and gender.

.2. Human rights are universal:- The take no account of nation, race, sex or colour. People of all nations, colour, race, religion have same rights everywhere. The developed and developing countries in all continents of the world must guarantee same rights to all their citizens.

.3. Human rights encompass the fundamental principles of humanity:- These rights are considered to be basic for the development of human personality and for the sake of human dignity. Examples of such rights are the right to lilfe, freedom from slavery and freedom from torture.  

2.       “The framers of the Indian Constitution modified the true spirit of federalism by incorporating certain non-federal features in it.” Justify the statement by giving any four examples from the Indian Constitution. 2×4=8

Ans.:- In spite of the fact that the Indian Constitution establishes a federal structure, it is indeed very difficult to put the Indian Constitution in the category of a true federation. The framers of the Constitution have modified the true nature of Indian federation by incorporating certain non-federal features in it.

Examples

1.       Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘ Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and Secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union. Besides, the Constitution of the Union and the States is a single framework from which neither can get out and within which they must function.

2.       The Centre appoints the Governors of the States and may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise. In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States.

3.       The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament). However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States. They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.

4.       In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. Besides, there is single citizenship. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states. 

OR

Examine the situations under which President’s Rule can be imposed in a State. Evaluate the after effects of such an imposition of emergency. 8

Ans.:- It is the duty of the Union Government to ensure that governance of a State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. Under Article 356, the President may issue a proclamation to impose emergency in a state if he is satisfied on receipt of a report from the Governor of the State, or otherwise, that a situation has arisen under which the Government of the State cannot be carried on smoothly. In such a situation, proclamation of emergency by the President is called ‘proclamation on account of the failure (or breakdown) of constitutional machinery.’ In popular language it is called the President’s Rule. The declaration of emergency due to the breakdown of Constitutional machinery in a Sate has the following effects:

.1. The President can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the State Government or he may vest all or any of those functions with the Governor or any other executive authority.

.2. The President may dissolve the State Legislative Assembly or put it under suspension.  He may authorise the Parliament to make laws on behalf of the State Legislature.

.3. The President can make any other incidental or consequential provision necessary to give effect to the object of proclamation.

3.       Explain the legislative powers of the President of India. 8

Ans.:- Legislative Powers:- The President being an integral part of Parliament enjoys many legislative powers. These powers are, The President summons, and prorogues the Houses of Parliament. He may summon the Parliament at least twice a year, and the gap between two sessions cannot be more than six months. The President has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. In normal course he/she dissolves Lok Sabha after five years. The President nominates twelve members to Rajya Sabha from amongst persons having special knowledge in the field of literature, science, art and social service. The President may also nominate two members of Anglo=Indian community to the Lok Sabha in case that community is not adequately represented in the House. The President can call a joint sitting of the two Houses of  Parliament in case of a disagreement between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on a non-money bill.

Every bill passed by Parliament is sent to the President for his/her assent. The President may give his/her assent, or return it once for the reconsideration of the Parliament. If passed against the President has to give her assent. Without his/her assent no bill can become a law.the President may promulgate an ordinance when the Parliament is not in session. The ordinance so issued has the force of law. The ordinance so promulgated should be laid before both Houses of Parliament when they reassemble.

OR

What is a Money Bill? How is it passed in the Parliament? 2+6=8

Ans.:- Money Bill:- The bill that deals with the money matters i.e. imposition, abolition, alteration of any tax or the regulation of the borrowing of money or giving of any guarantee by the Government of India or amendment of law with respect to any financial obligation undertaken by the Government of India or related to Consolidated Fund or Contingency Fund of India, is called a Money Bill. The money bill has undergo three readings like an ordinary bill but few considerations are also added here. They are:

.1.           Money bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha and not in Rajya Sabha and that too with the prior approval of and on behalf of the President.

.2.           After being passed by the Lok Sabha, the bill goes to the Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha has 14 days at its disposal for  consideration and report.

.3.           The Rajya Sabha cannot reject the money bill. It may either accept it or make recommendations.

.4.           In case Rajya Sabha chooses to make recommendations, the bill will return to Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha may accept these recommendations or reject them. In any case the bill will not go back to Rajya Sabha. Instead it will be sent directly to the President for his assent.

.5.           If the Rajya Sabha does not return the bill within 14 days, it will be deemed to have been passed by both the Houses of the Parliament and sent to the President for his assent.

19. Analyze the evolution of party system in India. 8

Ans.:- The evolution of Indian party system can be traced to the formation of the Congress, as a political platform in 1885. Other parties and groups originated later. The Indian National Congress was formed as a response to the colonial rule and to achieve independence from the British rule.

After independence and with the adoption of a democratic Constitution, a new party system emerged in the wake of the first general elections based on universal adult franchise in 1952. During the post-independence period, the party system passed through various phases.

The first phase is known as the phase of one-party dominance because with the exception of Kerala during 1956-59, the ruling party both at the Centre and in the states was the Congress. The second phase (1967-1975) saw the emergence of a multi-party system in India. IN THE Assembly elections in 1967, Congress was defeated in eight States. For the first time non-Congress parties formed governments in these states. These parties formed coalition governments. Then came the emergency period (1975-77) which is known as the authoritarian period of Indian democracy.

In 1989 elections, the National Front joined government with the support of BJP and the Left Front. But this formation could not last its tenure and elections for the tenth Lok Sabha were held in May-June, 1991. Congress again formed government at the Centre. In 1996 general elections BJP emerged as the single largest party and was asked to form government at the Centre. Since it could not prove its majority within the given time it had to resign. The United Front which was a combination of thirteen parties, formed the government at the Centre with the external support of the Congress and the CPI (M).

OR

Suggest any four measures for correcting regional imbalances in India and explain how the same can be implemented effectively. 2×4=8

Ans.:- Regionalism has been an important aspect of Indian politics. Sometimes, it has posed threat to the unity of the country. Hence it is necessary to take steps to reduce such tendencies. Some such measures can be

(A)   To promote even development of the hitherto neglected areas so that they feel a part of the national mainstream.

(B)   The central government must not interfere in the affairs of the state unless it is unavoidable for national interest.

(C)   Problems of people must be solved in a peaceful and constitutional manner. Politicians must not be allowed to misuse the issue of regional demands.

(D)   Except for issues of national importance, the states should be given freedom to run their own affairs.

(E)    Changes are necessary in the Central-State relations in favour of the states, and for introducing a system of national education that would help people to overcome regional feelings and develop an attachment towards the nation.

20. Explain any four major concerns in India’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War period. 2×4=8

Ans.:- The end of cold war in 1989 has brought about significant changes in the international scene and hence new policy problems for the various states in the developing world including India. The new situation is made by greater uncertainty and complexity.

a. For India, disintegration of the Soviet Union has meant uncertainty on several aspects viz., supply of weapons system, supply of spare parts, diplomatic support on Kashmir and other politico-strategic issues in and outside the United Nations and as a counter weight to US in South Asia.

b. Militancy in Kashmir has emerged as the for most challenge to our foreign policy. Pakistan and the Western countries blamed India for violating human rights and denial or rights to self determination. Gradually, India brought the situation under control.

c. Because of the Kashmir dispute, India’s relations with Pakistan sharply deteriorated. India accused Pakistan of fanning trouble through cross border terrorism in Kashmir and other parts of our country. India conducted nuclear weapon tests in 1998, followed by  Pakistan’s tests. Pakistan resorted to further mischief by secretly sending its soldiers into Kargil in order to cut off the Kashmir valley from the rest of India.

d. Spread of terrorism to corners beyond Kashmir is a challenge as well as opportunity for our foreign policy now a days. India is interested in forging anti-terrorism coalition with as many countries as possible.

OR

Explain the Indo-US relations after the end of the Cold War in 1990. 8

Ans.:- The end of the Cold War in 1990 left the United States as the lone super power. This new reality brought a reappraisal of the Indo-US relations. New opportunities came up to bring India and US close. Military-military contacts commenced, American investments started pouring in, and Indian skilled professionals in communication and information technology projected India to US in a positive light. President Clinton paid a hugely successful visit to India in 2000. On political front terrorism, non-proliferations have been major issues. One of the turning points of Indo-US relations in recent years was the American role in the Kargil crisis in 1999. India viewed President Bill J Clinton’s role during the 1999 Kargil crisis in persuading Pakistan to withdraw its troops from the Indian side of the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir as an important milestone.

India tried to impress the importance of fighting the menace of terrorism, by highlighting Pakistan’s role in Jammu and Kashmir. But the United States did not show much interest in acting against terrorism till the US cities (New York and Washington) were struck in a big way on 11th September 2001. India offered full cooperation to the US in counter terrorism compaign. However our plea to US that Pakistan’s support to Taliban in Afghanistan, and Jehadists in Kashmir made it the ‘epicentre’ of international terrorism fell on deaf ears. The US needed Pakistan more than India to contact A1-Qaeda terrorists. So US distinguished ‘good’ terrorists and bad terrorists. They extended sympathy when terrorists attacked Kashmir Assembly and India’s Parliament in October and December 2001 respectively. Anxious to enlist allies in the war against terrorism, USA reverted to Cold War partnership with Pakistan. Once highly critical of the military regime in Pakistan run by General Pervez. Musharraf, Washington now welcomed Musharraf as a full-fledged partner in the international coalition against terrorism. The Bush administration lifted the sanctions against Pakisatan, pledged to provide generous assistance and gave the Musharrraf government a legitimacy it had never before enjoyed. India legitimately feared that Washington would tilt toward Islamabad once more.

US besides countries like Canada, helped India established nuclear power stations in 1963. But the cooperation came under a cloud in 1970, because of India’s peaceful nuclear explosion at Pokhran in 1974 and India’s refusal to sign nuclear non-prolification treaty.

OPTION–I

(World Order and the United Nations)

21. Examine the international situation which gave birth to the Non-Aligned Movement. 2

Ans.:- The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a term used for an international organization who do not want to officially align themselves with, or against, any major power bloc (group of countries).

22. Explain the composition and the functions of the UN Security Council. 2+3=5

Ans.:- The Security Council is the most powerful decision-making body of the United Nations. It has the main responsibility to maintain international peace and security. The Council is a contrast from the General Assembly in respect of both its composition and the decision-making procedure. Unlike the Assembly, the membership of the Council is limited to 15 counties only, out of which five are permanent members. These five countries are China, France, Russia, the UK and the USA.

The power and functions of the Security Council are limited to the task of maintenance of international peace and security. In case, a dispute arises between two or more countries the Council can make appropriate recommendations in the interest of peaceful settlement of the dispute. Nevertheless, these recommendations are not binding on the unwilling states. For example, on the Jammu and Kashmir dispute, the Security Council resolutions are not legally binding on either India or Pakistan unless both countries willingly accept them.

23. Describe the four main aspects of the United Nations’ activities which have made our world somewhat peaceful. Give at least one example for each. 2×4=8

Ans.:- The first UN peacekeeping activity started in 1948 when UN dispatched a small team of military observers to ensure peace after the first Arab-Israeli war. Since then, in all there have been 60 peacekeeping operations dispatched by United Nations to restore or maintain peace in countries located in four continents-Africa, Asia, Europe and South America.

United Nations Military Observer Groups in India and Pakistan (UNOGIP) was established in January 1949 after the major conflict between the two countries over Kashmir issue. The observers are continuing to the present time.

United Nations India Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) was established in September 1965 after the war between India and Pakistan and continued until March 1966.

In 1960 a much larger peacekeeping force ensured that a newly independent country remained secure from foreign intervention and internal disintegration. In 1993, an equally big operation took over administration of Cambodia and installed democratically elected government there. The end of cold war in 1990 witnessed rapid rise in the number of peacekeeping activities launched.

OR

What are the specialized agencies of the United Nations? Mention the names of any four such agencies and describe the functions of any one of them. 2+(2+4)=8

Ans.:- There are Specialized Agencies of the United Nations. Though these agencies are part of the UN system, they function independently of United Nations organs and are generally described as autonomous organizations. Each has its own headquarters, constitution, staff and budget.

Name of four agencies are

UNDP, UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) , the United National Educational Scientific,

The following are the functions of World Health Organization:-

1. To act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work,.

2. To promote technical cooperation, To assist Governments, upon request, in strengthening health services.

3. To furnish appropriate technical assistance and, in emergencies, necessary aid, upon the request or acceptance of Governments.

4. To promote, in cooperation with other specialized agencies where necessary, the improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic or working conditions, and other aspects of environmental hygiene.

OP TION–II

(Administrative System in India)

21. Describe the composition of the Union Public Service Commission. 2

Ans.:- Composition- Article 316 deals with the appointment and term of office of members. The UPSC Comprises of a chairman and other members appointed by the president.

22. (a) Explain any three advantages of having a Commission type of organization for the recruitment of civil servants. 3

Ans.:- Three advantages of having a Commission type of organization for the recruitment of civil servants:-

1. A plural body like public service commission consisting of experts in parts professional and technical weight age in the process of decision making.

2. when several heads combine for deliberations, biases are eliminated and objectivity is ensured.

3. A commission functions outside the normal governmental machinery, hence greater flexibility and innovativeness of approach is possible. Bureaucratic rigidities and delays, which characterize government departments can thus be avoided.

(b) Why should such a Commission have a constitutional status? 2

Ans.:- Such a Commission have a constitutional status because the father of the constitution were perhaps guided in their decision by the fact that the task required experts and longer specialized knowledge also and that facilitates collective deliberation by a group of experts who are able to pool their knowledge and experience to arrive at informed and objective decision.

23. What is meant by bureaucracy? Mention any six characteristics of an ideal type of bureaucracy as suggested by Max Weber. 2+6=8

Ans.:- The term ‘Bureaucracy’ lacks a definition that is universally accepted. Bureaucracy is sometimes used in a disparaging manner to mean unimaginative, rigid and inefficient government administrators. It is associated with red-tapism, delay and wastefulness.

Max Weber, the German social scientist who was the first to make a systematic study of bureaucracy, described it as rational and the most efficient form of organisation. He described an ideal-type of bureaucracy as one characterized by:

1. Officials organised in fixed jurisdictional areas,

2. A hierarchical arrangement of offices (organised in a pyramid like structure with each lower office under the control of higher one),

3. Impersonality in applying rules uniformly.

4. Anonymity.

5. Impersonality in applying rules uniformly.

6. Political neutrality.

OR

What is the importance of redressal of grievances in a democracy? Describe the functioning of any three instruments of redressal in India. 2+6=8

Ans.:- In a developing country like ours, Government has to perform many functions. The citizens depend on the services provided by various government agencies. To levy rice, wheat and sugar from a ration shop, a citizen has to have a ration card issued by the Government. To obtain a ration card is not very difficult, but the quality of services is far from satisfactory. For most things in life, citizens depend on the services and facilities provided by government agencies. If there are too many public grievances against the government agencies, corrective measures have to be taken to redress those grievances. Indian Instrumentation:-

1. In India, it has been observed by many committees and commissions that special machinery should be set up to deal with public complaints against the administration. Various institutions exist to redress public grievances. Many kinds of administrative tribunals have been set up to provide cheap and speedy justice to the complainant. The Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Labour Tribunal etc, are instances of this type of institution.

2. Secondly, Parliamentary procedure provides for opportunities to raise questions in Parliament by the elected representatives concerning their constituencies. Also, there is a Parliamentary Committee called the Committee on Petitions. A citizen may submit petitions to secure redress against an act of injustice. So, even though a distant body, Parliament or State Legislature can take up the cause of an aggrieved citizen.

3. Thirdly, under the provisions of the Public Servants (Enquiries) Act, departmental as well as public agencies can be instituted against a public servant for  his misconduct. Not day-to-day dealing but more serious matter of maladministration come under the purview of this Act.

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