NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2012

APRIL 2012
1. What is the meaning of Political Science? 2
Ans.:- Political Science is that part of social science which deals with the foundations of the state and the principles of the government. According to J W Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the state,”.
2. Distinguish between State and Government. 2
Ans.:- Some of the main differences between state and government are as follows:-
.1. Government is only an element of the state:- A State has four essential elements-Population, Territory, Government is only one element of State. It is just one part of the State which acts for the state.
.2. Government is an Agency or Agent of the State:- Government is an agency of the state. It acts for the state. It is that agency of the state which formulates the will of the state into laws, implements the laws of the state and ensures conformity to the laws of the state. Government exercises power and authority on behalf of the state.
3. Mention any two basic postulates of Marxism. 2
Ans.:- Two basic postulates of Marxism are:-
a. Nothing happens in the world on its own; there is always a cause-effect relationship in what we see around. The relations of production (i.e., material relations among the people), as the basis of society, provide the cause while the productive forces constitute the effect.
b. The real development is always the material development (i.e., the economic development). The progressive development of productive forces indicates the progressive level of development.
4. Write the meaning of India as a democratic republic. 2
Ans.:- Though India became a free nation on August 15, 1947, it declared itself a Sovereign, Democratic and Republic state with the adoption of the Constitution on January 26, 1950. The Constitution gave the citizens of India the power to choose their own government and paved the way for democracy.
5. How is the State Legislative Council composed? 2
Ans.:- Composition of State Legislative Council. The popular name of the State Legislative Council is the Vidhan Parishad. The total membership of a Legislatve council cannot be normally less then 40 and more than 1/3rd of the total membership of the State Legislative Assembly.
6. Distinguish between the Council of Ministers and the Cabinet. 2
Ans.:- The following are the Differences between Cabinet and Council of Ministers:-
Council of Ministers
The cabinet is the small body of the Council, comprising of the most experienced and influential members formed to discuss and decide policies of government.
Council of Ministers is the body that advises the President on various matters and is formed to assist the Prime Minster in running Government.
Consist of 15-18 ministers.
Consist of 40-60 ministers.
7. What is meant by functional representation? 2
Ans.:- Functional representation is where there is representation in a legislative or political body based on the economic and social groups in a community.
8. What is environmental degradation? 2
Ans.:- We use environmental resources in our day to day life. These resources are renewable and non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum, which are prone to depletion. All human activities have an impact on environment. But in the last two centuries or so, the human influence on environment has increased manifold due to the rapid population growth and the fast development in science and technology. These two are the major factors in reducing the quality of environment and causing its degradation.
9. Write a short note on India’s participation in UN peacekeeping process. 2
Ans.:- India’s history of participation in UN peacekeeping operations is a long one. India’s contribution has been described a s excellent by many political observers. In UN.  India’s contribution has been acknowledged by members of the international communities.
10. Describe the Preamble to Indian Constitution. Highlight its main features. 5
Ans.:- As we know that the Constitution of India commences with a Preamble. The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of book. As an introduction, it is not a part of the contents but it explains the purposes and objectives with which the document has been written. So is the case with the ‘Preamble’ to the Indian Constitution. As such the ‘Preamble’ provides the guide lines of the Constitution.
The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India. It is because of this, the Preamble is considered to be the key of the Constitution.
11. Explain the meaning and importance of collective responsibility. 5
Ans.:- Our Constitution clearly says that “The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to ‘House of the People’”. It actually means that the Ministers are responsible to the Lok Sahba not as individuals alone, but collectively also. Collective responsibility has two implications. Firstly, it means that every member of the Council of ministers accepts responsibility for each and every decision of the Cabinet. Members of the Council of Ministers swim and sink together. When a decision has been taken by the Cabinet, every Minister has to stand by it without any hesitation. If a Minister does not agree with the Cabinet decision, the only alternative left to him/her is to resign from the Council of Ministers.
12. What do you understand by election model Code of Conduct? 5
Ans.:- During the campaign period the political parties and the contesting candidates are expected to abide by a model code of conduct evolved by the Election Commission of India on the basis of the consensus among political parties. It comes into force the moment schedule of election is announced by the Election Commission. The code of conduct is as follows:
(i) Political Parties and contesting candidates should not use religious places for election campaign.
(ii) Such speeches should not be delivered in a way to create hatred among different communities belonging to different religions, castes and languages, etc.
(iii) Official machinery should not be used for election work.
(iv) No new grants can be sanctioned, no new schemes or projects can be stared once the election dates are announced.
(v) One cannot misuse mass media for partisan coverage.
13. Trace the development of regionalism in India. 5
Ans.:- Some of the most important causes of regionalism in India are as follows:-
1.Geographical Factor:- The territorial orientation based on geographical boundaries relate to the inhabitants of a particular region which are symbolic, at least in the Indian context. This is more so because of the linguistic distribution along geographical boundaries. The topographic and climatic variations along with differences in the settlement pattern induce in people the concept of regionalism.
2.Historical and Cultural Factors:- In Indian scenario the historical or cultural factors may be considered the prime components of the phenomenon of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism 

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