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NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2011

APRIL 2011
POLITICAL SCIENCE (317)
SECTION–A
1. Write the meaning of Political Science. 2
Ans.:- Political Science is that part of social science which deals with the foundations of the state and the principles of the government. According to J W Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the state,”.
2. Mention any two points of distinction between State and other associations. 2
Ans.:- State as an association is different from other associations:-
1. All the associations, including even the state, consist of people. But while the membership of the state is compulsory, that of the other associations is voluntary.
2. A person is member of one state at one time, he/she cannot be a member of two or three states at the same
3. Mention any two elements of Nationality. 2
Ans.:- Two elements of nationality are
a. Common Geography
b. Common Race
4. Explain the Preamble’s goal of liberty and equality. 2
Ans.:- Liberty:- Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship
                Equality:- Equality of status and opportunity.
5. Who are the members of the Electoral College that elect the President of India? 2
Ans.:- The elected member of Parliament one members of the Electoral College for Presidential election. As such, they participate in the election of the President of India. They elect the Vice-President. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Rajya Sabha eects it Deputy Chairman.
6. Describe any two functions of the Parliament. 2
Ans.:- Two functions of the parliament are as follows:-
1 .Legislative Function:- The Parliament makes laws on all subjects listed in the Union List. It can also makes laws on subjects listed under the Concurrent List. In case there is any conflict or overlapping in the provisions existing in the Union and State enactment, the Union law prevails. In cases when an emergency has been declared, the Union Parliament can also make laws on subjects that fall within the State List.
2. Financial Control:-  Union Parliament has exclusive powers to provide ways and means through which revenue has to be raised for public services. To that end it imposes taxes and also ensures that the money sanctioned for expenditure to various departments of the government has been spent for the authorized purposes.
7. What is meant by simple majority system of election? 2
Ans.:- Simple majority may refer to :
Majority, a voting requirement of more than half of all ballots cast.
Plurality (voting), a voting requirement of more ballots cast for a proposition than for any other option.
First-past-the-post voting, shifts the winner of the election from an absolute majority outcome to a simple majority outcome.
8. What is good governance? 2
Ans.:- In international development, good governance is a subjective term that describes how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in the preferred way. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented.”
9. Write a short note on India and UN’s peace-keeping operations. 2
Ans.:- Peace Keeping stands for prevention, containment and termination of hostilities between or within states through the non offensive activities of multinational forces of soldiers, police and civilian people sent unto the authority of the United Nations with the consent of the countries concerned. Peacekeeping nations changed in its scope and nature according to needs of a conflict situation.
10. What are the effects of imposition of President’s Rule in a State? 5
Ans.:- The declaration of emergency due to the breakdown of Constitutional machinery in a Sate has the following effects:
.1. The President can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the State Government or he may vest all or any of those functions with the Governor or any other executive authority.
.2. The President may dissolve the State Legislative Assembly or put it under suspension.  He may authorise the Parliament to make laws on behalf of the State Legislature.
.3. The President can make any other incidental or consequential provision necessary to give effect to the object of proclamation.
11. Describe the legislative powers of State Governors. 5
Ans.:- The Governor is an inseparable part of the State Legislature and as such he/she possesses certin legislative powers as well.
The Governor has the right to summon and prorogue the State Legislature. He/she can, on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Ministers dissolve the State Legislative Assembly.
He/she can address the session of the State Legislative Assembly or Joint Session of the two Houses of the Legislature. He can send messages to either or both Houses.
He/she can nominate one member of the Anglo Indian Community to the State Legislative Assembly, if he/she is satisfied that after General Elections, the said community is not adequately represented in the Assembly.
He/she nominates one-sixth members of the total strength of the Legislative Council if the same is existing in a State. Such nominated members are those who possess special knowledge in the field of literature, science, cooperative movement and social service.
12. Explain the meaning and significance of universal adult franchise. 5
Ans.:- The right of the people to vote and elect their representatives is called franchise. The world franchise is derived from the French word ‘franc’ which means ‘free’. It means free exercise of the right to choose one’s representatives. Adult franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or sex.
It is based on equality which is a basic principle of democracy. It demands that the right to vote should be equally available among all. To deny any class of persons from exercising this right is to violate their right to equality. In fact, the spirit of democracy can be maintained only if the people are given the right to vote without any discrimination. The exercise of right to vote adds to the individual’s self-respect, dignity, sense of responsibility, and political and civic education. As provided for , in the Constitution of the land, the citizens cast their votes at regular intervals to elect their representatives to the Parliament, to the Legislative Assemblies, and such other institutions as are essential organs of political power in a democracy. These institutions are called representative institutions precisely because they represent the will of the peoples.
13. Describe the role and importance of regional political parties. 5
Ans.:- Though the regional parties operate within very limited area and pursue only limited objective, they have played significant role both in the State as well as national politics. The regional political parties formed governments in several states and tried to give concrete shape to their policies and programmes. Some of the important regional parties which formed governments in various states include DMK and AIADMK in Tamil Nadu, National Conference in 


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