Political Science (317) - April' 2011 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers


POLITICAL SCIENCE (April’ 2011)
(317)
NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1. What is the meaning of Political Science? 2

Ans.:- Political Science is that part of social science which deals with the foundations of the state and the principles of the government. According to J W Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the state,”.

2. Distinguish between State and Government. 2

Ans.:- Some of the main differences between state and government are as follows:-

.1. Government is only an element of the state:- A State has four essential elements-Population, Territory, Government is only one element of State. It is just one part of the State which acts for the state.

.2. Government is an Agency or Agent of the State:- Government is an agency of the state. It acts for the state. It is that agency of the state which formulates the will of the state into laws, implements the laws of the state and ensures conformity to the laws of the state. Government exercises power and authority on behalf of the state.

3. Mention any two basic postulates of Marxism. 2

Ans.:- Two basic postulates of Marxism are:-

a. Nothing happens in the world on its own; there is always a cause-effect relationship in what we see around. The relations of production (i.e., material relations among the people), as the basis of society, provide the cause while the productive forces constitute the effect.

b. The real development is always the material development (i.e., the economic development). The progressive development of productive forces indicates the progressive level of development.

4. Write the meaning of India as a democratic republic. 2

Ans.:- Though India became a free nation on August 15, 1947, it declared itself a Sovereign, Democratic and Republic state with the adoption of the Constitution on January 26, 1950. The Constitution gave the citizens of India the power to choose their own government and paved the way for democracy.

5. How is the State Legislative Council composed? 2

Ans.:- Composition of State Legislative Council. The popular name of the State Legislative Council is the Vidhan Parishad. The total membership of a Legislatve council cannot be normally less then 40 and more than 1/3rd of the total membership of the State Legislative Assembly.

6. Distinguish between the Council of Ministers and the Cabinet. 2

Ans.:- The following are the Differences between Cabinet and Council of Ministers:-

Basis

Cabinet

Council of Ministers

Meaning

The cabinet is the small body of the Council, comprising of the most experienced and influential members formed to discuss and decide policies of government.

Council of Ministers is the body that advises the President on various matters and is formed to assist the Prime Minster in running Government.

Size

Consist of 15-18 ministers.

Consist of 40-60 ministers.

7. What is meant by functional representation? 2

Ans.:- Functional representation is where there is representation in a legislative or political body based on the economic and social groups in a community.

8. What is environmental degradation? 2

Ans.:- We use environmental resources in our day to day life. These resources are renewable and non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum, which are prone to depletion. All human activities have an impact on environment. But in the last two centuries or so, the human influence on environment has increased manifold due to the rapid population growth and the fast development in science and technology. These two are the major factors in reducing the quality of environment and causing its degradation.

9. Write a short note on India’s participation in UN peacekeeping process. 2

Ans.:- India’s history of participation in UN peacekeeping operations is a long one. India’s contribution has been described a s excellent by many political observers. In UN.  India’s contribution has been acknowledged by members of the international communities.

10. Describe the Preamble to Indian Constitution. Highlight its main features. 5

Ans.:- As we know that the Constitution of India commences with a Preamble. The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of book. As an introduction, it is not a part of the contents but it explains the purposes and objectives with which the document has been written. So is the case with the ‘Preamble’ to the Indian Constitution. As such the ‘Preamble’ provides the guide lines of the Constitution.

The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India. It is because of this, the Preamble is considered to be the key of the Constitution.

11. Explain the meaning and importance of collective responsibility. 5

Ans.:- Our Constitution clearly says that “The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to ‘House of the People’”. It actually means that the Ministers are responsible to the Lok Sahba not as individuals alone, but collectively also. Collective responsibility has two implications. Firstly, it means that every member of the Council of ministers accepts responsibility for each and every decision of the Cabinet. Members of the Council of Ministers swim and sink together. When a decision has been taken by the Cabinet, every Minister has to stand by it without any hesitation. If a Minister does not agree with the Cabinet decision, the only alternative left to him/her is to resign from the Council of Ministers.

12. What do you understand by election model Code of Conduct? 5

Ans.:- During the campaign period the political parties and the contesting candidates are expected to abide by a model code of conduct evolved by the Election Commission of India on the basis of the consensus among political parties. It comes into force the moment schedule of election is announced by the Election Commission. The code of conduct is as follows:

(i) Political Parties and contesting candidates should not use religious places for election campaign.

(ii) Such speeches should not be delivered in a way to create hatred among different communities belonging to different religions, castes and languages, etc.

(iii) Official machinery should not be used for election work.

(iv) No new grants can be sanctioned, no new schemes or projects can be stared once the election dates are announced.

(v) One cannot misuse mass media for partisan coverage.

13. Trace the development of regionalism in India. 5

Ans.:- Some of the most important causes of regionalism in India are as follows:-

1.Geographical Factor:- The territorial orientation based on geographical boundaries relate to the inhabitants of a particular region which are symbolic, at least in the Indian context. This is more so because of the linguistic distribution along geographical boundaries. The topographic and climatic variations along with differences in the settlement pattern induce in people the concept of regionalism.

2.Historical and Cultural Factors:- In Indian scenario the historical or cultural factors may be considered the prime components of the phenomenon of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism by way of cultural heritage, folklore, myths, symbolism and historical traditions. People of a particular cultural group also derive inspirations from the noble deeds and glorious achievements of the local heroes. Nevertheless there are sudden political and economic realities which can be covered under the gamut of historical and cultural factors.

3.Cast and Region:- Caste system and religion in Indian society play only a marginal roll in causing regionalism. Only when caste is combined with linguistic preponderance or religion it may cause regional feeling. In the like manner religion is not so significant except when it is combined with linguistic homogeneity or based on dogmatism and orthodoxy or lined with economic deprivation. However, regionalism is usually a secular phenomenon in a relative sense and it can cross-cut the caste affiliation or religious loyalties.

4.Economic Factors:- In the present times, uneven developments in different parts of the country may be construed as the prime reason for regionalism and separatism. There are certain regions in the country where industries and factories have been concentrated, educational and health facilities are sufficiently provided, communication net work has been developed, rapid agricultural development has been made possible. But there are also certain areas where the worth of independence is yet to be realized in terms of socio-economic development.

14. Describe the meaning and features of good governance. 5

Ans.:- In international development, good governance is a subjective term that describes how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in the preferred way. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented.”

Features of good governance advocated by Kautilya

(i)      Law and order

(ii)    People caring administration

(iii)   Justice and rationality as the basis of decision

(iv)  Corruption free governance

15. Explain India’s policy of Nonalignment. 5

Ans.:- Non-alignment:- Non-alignment has been regarded as the most important feature of India’s foreign policy. Non alignment aimed to maintain national independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA and Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Second World War. Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor non-involvement nor isolationism. It was a dynamic concept which meant not committing to any military bloc but taking an independent stand on international issues according to the merits of each case. The policy of non-alignment won many supporters in the developing countries as it provided an opportunity to them for protecting their sovereignty as also retaining their freedom of action during the tension ridden cold war period.

16. Highlight the boundary dispute between India and China. 5

Ans.:- The 1950s were marked by the boundary dispute between India and China, the flash point of which unfortunately caused a war between the two countries in 1962. China first started to claim large parts of Indian territory in North East Frontier Agency (NEFA, now Arunachal Pradesh) and Ladakh by publishing maps in which these were shown as included in China. China continued extending its borders and also constructed a 110 mile long road across Aksai China area (Ladakh) of India in1956-57. In 1959, China put claim to some 51,000 sq. miles of Indian territory and also denied the validity of McMahon Line. By this time Tibet had been fully integrated into China, it was in a strong position at the India-China border with Chinese troops posted all along. While the two countries were in dispute over the McMahon line issue, China launched a massive attack on India in October 1962, in the NEFA as well as the Ladakh sector. After overrunning large areas of Indian territory, China announced a unilateral ceasefire after occupying huge territory of India 200 sq. miles in the North Eastern sector and 15,000 sq. miles in Ladakh.

17. What is Liberalism? Explain its any two main features. 8

Ans.:- Liberalism is a theory of reforms, for it has stood for reforms in economic, social and political fields. It is a theory of liberty, individual liberty, individual autonomy, for it has argued in favour of the development of human personality. It is a theory of democracy, for it has favoured constitutional government, government based on the consent of the people rule of law, decentralization, free and fair elections. To conclude, we may highlight three aspects of liberalism which clearly help us in understanding its meanings : in social sphere, liberalism stands for secularism and a society that opposes, all kinds of social discrimination, in economic sphere, it favours a capitalistic economy, individual ownership of the means of production and maximum profit-earning motive, in political sphere it stands for a democratic polity, individual rights and liberties, responsive and responsible government, free and impartial judiciary and the like.

Features of Liberalism:

1. Individual Liberty:- Liberalism is essentially an ideology of liberty. Its love for individual liberty is unquestionable. It has become libertarianism. For the liberals, liberty is the very essence of human personality. It is a means to one’s development.

2. Individual-centred theory:- Liberalism advocates free-market economy, i.e. the capitalistic mode of economy. It believes in private property system, regarding property rights as sacrosanct, maximum profit as the only motive, capitalistic mode of production and distribution as the only essence, the market forces as the controlling means of economy.

Write any four elements of nationality.

Ans.:- Elements of Nationality:-

1. Common Geography:- People living in a common territory constitute one of the major elements of nationality. This is because such a people are likely to develop a common culture. This is also the reason why the countries are called as motherland or fatherland.

2. Common Race:- Common race denotes the idea that a people belonging to a particular nationality belong to one group or they have a social unity. Some people suggest that purity of face makes a nationality.

3. Common Language:- A common language is a medium of communication, which enables the people to express their ideas. It is the basis of all the other elements of nationality. A common language not only means a common literature but also a common heritage of historical traditions.

4. Common Religion:- Religion is also an important element of nationality. A common religion is a strong incentive to national feeling. England fought against the Spanish Armada largely due to her determination to defend Protestantism.

18. Explain the six fundamental freedoms mentioned in the Right to Freedom. 8

Ans.:- The six fundamental freedoms mentioned in the Right to Freedom

.1. Freedom of speech and expression:- Every person has freedom of speech and expression. However, the state can inflict a restriction on this freedom in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of the country, for the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, in relation to the contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense.

.2. Freedom to assemble:- Every person has the freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. However, the State can leave restrictions in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

.3. Freedom to form associations or unions or co-operative societies:- The State can enforce restrictions  on such freedom in the interest of public order, morality and the sovereignty and integrity of the country.

.4. Freedom to move freely:- An Indian citizen has the freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. But the government can impose restrictions on this right only in the interest of the general public.

.5. Freedom to reside and settle:- Citizens of India have the freedom to reside anywhere in the country. However, in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the scheduled tribes the State may impose certain restrictions.

.6. Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any business, occupation or trade:- Every person can carry any business or practice any profession provided it is not dangerous or immoral. Also, professional or technical qualifications must be acquired before practicing any profession or carrying on any trade.

OR

Analyse the nature of Indian federation.

Ans.:- In spite of the fact that the Indian Constitution establishes a federal structure, it is indeed very difficult to put the Indian Constitution in the category of a true federation. The framers of the Constitution have modified the true nature of Indian federation by incorporating certain non-federal features in it.

Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘ Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and Secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union. Besides, the Constitution of the Union and the States is a single framework from which neither can get out and within which they must function.

The Centre appoints the Governors of the States and may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise. In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States.The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament). However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States. They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. Besides, there is single citizenship. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states. 

19. Highlight the powers of the President of India, briefly. 8

Ans.:- Legislative Powers:- The President being an integral part of Parliament enjoys many legislative powers. These powers are, The President summons, and prorogues the Houses of Parliament. He may summon the Parliament at least twice a year, and the gap between two sessions cannot be more than six months. The President has the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. In normal course he/she dissolves Lok Sabha after five years. The President nominates twelve members to Rajya Sabha from amongst persons having special knowledge in the field of literature, science, art and social service. The President may also nominate two members of Anglo=Indian community to the Lok Sabha in case that community is not adequately represented in the House. The President can call a joint sitting of the two Houses of  Parliament in case of a disagreement between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on a non-money bill.

 Financial Powers:

1. A money bill can be introduced in the parliament only with the president’s recommendation.

2. The president lays the Annual Financial Statement, i.e. the union budget, before the parliament.

3. The president can take advances out of the Contingency Fund of India to meet unforeseen expenses.

4. The president constitutes a Finance commission after every five years to recommend the distribution of the taxes between the centre and the states.

Judicial Powers:

The primary duty of the president is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law of India per Article 60. The president appoints the chief Justice of India and other judges on the advice of the chief justice. He dismisses the judges if and only if the two Houses of the parliament pass resolutions to that effect by a two-thirds majority of the members present.

OR

Describe the functions of urban-local bodies.

Ans.:- It is a common practice to divide the organisation of a corporation or a municipality into two parts:

(a) the deliberative, and (b) the executive part.

(a) The Deliberative Function:- The corporation, council or municipal board or council consisting of the elected representatives of the people constitutes the deliberative part. It acts like a legislature. It discusses and debates on general municipal policies and performance, passes the budget of the urban local body, frames broad policies relating to taxation, raising of resources, pricing of services and other aspects of municipal administration. It keeps an eye on municipal administration and holds the executive accountable for what is done or not done.

(b) The Executive Function:- The executive part of municipal administration is looked after by the municipal officers and other permanent employees. In the corporations, the Municipal Commissioner is the executive head, and all other departmental officers like engineers, finance officer, health officers etc. function under his/her control and supervision. In a large corporation such as Delhi or Mumbai Municipal Corporation the Commissioner is usually a senior IAS officer.

20. What is National Human Rights Commission? Explain its role. 8

Ans.:- The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 was enacted in India to provide for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission, State Human Rights Commissions in States for better protection of human  rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. ‘Human rights’ are defined in Section 2 (1) (d) of the Act to mean the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India. The functions of the Commission are enumerated in Section 12 which include a wide area to enable the Commission not only to enquire into the violations or negligence in prevention of violation of human rights but also to promote the human rights culture and perform any function necessary for the promotion of human rights.

Ever since its constitution in 1993, the National Human Rights Commission has been discharging a complementary to that of the Supreme Court of India by performing those tasks which by their very nature the NHRC can perform better e.g. monitoring any situation or functioning of an institution. The dependence between these institutions has considerably improved the mechanism for the protection of human rights in the country, which is primarily a state responsibility.

OR

Describe the meaning of communalism. Examine its impact in India.

Ans.:- Meaning of Communalism:- India is land of multiple faiths and religions leading often to violence and hatred among the people. Those who fan this religious violence do not consider religion as a moral order but use it as a means and weapon to pursue their political ambitions. Communalism essentially leads to violence as it is based on mutual religious hatred.

Impact on Indian social and political systems:- Some general factors are: First the class divisions of our society and the backwardness of our economy has resulted in uneven development of the economy. It is the upper classes of the less-developed communities that have also enjoyed the fruits of limited growth and hence it is they who have also enjoyed political power. Over a period of time some sections among this elite development a sense of rivalry vis-a-vis their counterparts in other communities. In order to draw support from the masses of their own community, these leaders have often encouraged communal feelings to strengthen their political support. Thus, the traditional beliefs of the society are perpetuated to the advantage of the elites. When they, many among communal people, feel insecure because of some adverse circumstances, they often tend to rely on religion, which make them vulnerable to political manipulation to inflame communal passions, sometimes leading to violence.

Communal violence also increases because communal parties carry on religious propaganda in an offensive manner, thereby creating ill-will among the members of the various communities. The political parties in India which adopt a communal attitude should be blamed for encouraging communal feelings which often cause communal violence.

SECTION–B

OP TION–I

(World Order and the United Nations)

21. Describe the composition of International Court of Justice. 2

Ans.:- The International Court of Justice, known as the World Court, located at The Hague (The Netherlands), is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The Court consists of 15 judges, who are elected jointly by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of nine years.

22. Explain the nature of bipolar world order during the Cold War. 5

Ans.:-The concept of bipolarity has significant implications for global order. Firstly, two rival powers cannot remain in equilibrium indefinitely; one has to surpass the other and therefore conflict is inevitalve in a bipolar world. Of increasing importance also, is the emergence of power blocs, which arise as lesser powers fall under the influence of one or other of the superpowers. In this regard, global order is not stable during periods of bipolarity, but instead, warfare appears to be necessary for the resolution of rivalry between two superpowers. In this context, it seems fitting to describe a bipolar world as one that is in “dynamic equilibrium”, where the two sides are equal in power but one may achieve a higher power for a short time before the other matches that power again to re-establish the balance.

Morgenthau believed that bipolarity was “a mechanism that contains in itself the potentialities for unheard-of good as well as for unprecedented evil.” According to him, it “make the hostile opposition of two gigantic power blocs possible” but also held out the hope of regulating that opposition through asymmetry of power maintained by moderate competition. Waltz attributed the absence of war to bipolarity, which, he maintained, was less war-prone than multi-polarity. He believed that war arose primarily because of miscalculation, states misjudge the power and cohesion of opposing coalitions. Waltz argued that the international system was undergoing a peaceful transition from bipolarity to multi-polarity and insists that the international system remains bipolar even after the breakup of the Soviet Union.    

23. Highlight the major UN initiative pertaining to socioeconomic development. 8

Ans.:- Starting from 1960, many of the colonies emerged as independent countries and gained membership of the United Nations. With the help of their growing majority in the United Nations they were able to create new agencies. The United Nations launched the First Development Decade. In 1960s international institutional like the UN Development programme. UN Industrial Development Organisation, International DEVELOPMENT Association were get up in 1960s.

At the initiative of developing countries United Nations Conference on Trade and Development  (UNCTAD) was formed in 1964 to promote international trade for the benefit of developing countries. It has served the developing countries in many ways.

UNCTAD has provided significant support to efforts by developing counties to expand trade and economic cooperation among themselves at the regional and sub regional levels. It has also promoted technical assistance.

In UNCTAD a group of developing countries was formed. This group now consists of 132 countries. It has represented unity and solidarity among developing countries

Also UNCTAD made efforts to ensure preferential treatment and tariff concessions in the developed countries for the items promised by the developing countries, financing of research and development activities, official development assistance for low-income countries and debt relief.

The UNCTAD and UN General Assembly went a step further and questioned the unjust international economic order. To protect the economic interests of the developing countries, the UN gave a call in 1974 for establishment of a New International Economic Order (NIEO), welded to the ideals of equity and justice for all nations, rich and poor.

 

OR

Describe the role and importance of the United Nations Children’s Fund

Ans.:- Created in 1946, UNICEF concentrates exclusively on the task of improving the lot of disadvantaged children.

UNICEF has undertaken projects on health, education, malaria eradication, nutrition, rural development, family and child welfare and emergency aid to promote child welfare. In recognition of its social and humanitarian efforts, UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965. It focuses on India in a very big way.

UNICEF has made an important contribution to a better environment for children in India and identified the problem of excess fluoride in groundwater resources. Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are  the most severely affected states.

WHO’s aims are: (i) preventing the spread of disease (ii) curing disease and (iii) preventing the outbreak of disease. The means adopted to prevent the spread of disease include Conventions providing international standards for public health. WHO’s house for scientific knowledge and a exchange of information for curing disease. WHO’s activity in the area of preventing the outbreak of disease is to facilitate the exchange of findings and promotion of research. It has encouraged research with cheap preventatives, especially vaccines for tuberculosis and DDT for malaria. The campaign against malaria has been one of WHO’s biggest all-out programme. Since heterosexual transmission of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS is becoming the predominant mode of spread of HIV in most countries of the world, WHO is engaged in research for vaccine to cure AIDS for which it needs necessary financial support from rich member countries to meet the challenge of this deadly disease.

A very important WHO programme is Polio Eradication Immunization. Polio is the first disease of the 21st century to be eradicated. Another important campaign of UN health agency, WHO is against the use of tobacco especially in developing countries.

(UNICEF)

OPTION–II

(Administrative System in India)

21. Describe the composition of the State Public Service Commission. 2

Ans.:- Each state in India has a public service commission. The constitution stipulates that the Governor determines the number of members of the Commission. At least half of the members of Commission are persons with a minimum of ten years of experience under the central or a state government. Members are appointed by the Governor for a term of six years or until the age of 62 years.

22. What is the organization of Cabinet Secretariat? 5

Ans.:- Organization of the Cabinet Secretariat:- The Cabinet Secretariat was created in 1947, another administrative machinery of the centre is Cabinet Secretariat, it can be understood in terms of organisation and function. It is headed politically, by the Prime Minister and administratively, by the Cabinet Secretary.

Today, the Cabinet Secretariat has three wings- Civil Wing, Military Wing and Intelligence Wing. In 1988, the Directorate of Public Grievances was set up as its organ.

The Cabinet Secretariat has subject related advisors to the Prime Minister.

23. What is the concept of committed bureaucracy? Account for the decline of neutrality. 8

Ans.:- Committed Bureaucracy:- The concept of ‘committed bureaucracy’ was much contested in the political and administrative circles. It was alleged that it would permanently damage the fabric of the services. It would create a breed of pliable civil servants who would always say “Yes Minister” and would be ready to crawl when asked to bend by their political Maters. It was also alleged that in the name of commitment the ruling party was seeking bureaucracy’s alignment with the party’s ideology in order perpetuate its rule. However, it was later clarified by the government that commitment did not mean attachment to the ideology of the party in power, but a commitment to the development of the country and personal involvement of bureaucracy in the tasks as opposed to ostrich like withdrawal and isolation from politics.

Account of the decline of neutrality:-  The traditional concept of neutrality, however, has been challenged on many grounds. The earlier concept of separation of politics and administration in watertight compartments is considered no more valid. The role of the Civil Service has been changing from being a mere agent of the political executive to that of collaboration with it. The involvement of bureaucracy in political arena is now widely prevalent.

The breakdown of the theory of neutrality has come about because of a number of reasons.

Firstly, the processes of policy making are no longer confined to the political executive. The truth is that the bureaucrats play an important role in policy formulation, perceived to be the exclusive preserve of elected politicians. This has happened because the statutes passed by the parliament are not clear enough.

Secondly, the decline of neutrality can be attributed to the demands and pressures of coalition politics. In coalition governments, ministers are busy in the power game and manoeuvring or their survival, and have neither time nor inclination to guide, direct and control their department or bureaucracy.

Thirdly, according to some political commentators, the classical theory of civil service neutrality presupposes agreement on principles fundamental to democracy. In other words, neutral, value-free bureaucracy is possible only in a society where consensus exists on values, but in transitional societies like India, where dissent and conflict exist, it is too much to expect anyone to be neutral.

OR

Explain the various instruments for redressal of grievances.

Ans.:- Indian Instrumentation:-

        1. In India, it has been observed by many committees and commissions that special machinery should be set up to deal with public complaints against the administration. Various institutions exist to redress public grievances. Many kinds of administrative tribunals have been set up to provide cheap and speedy justice to the complainant. The Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Labour Tribunal etc, are instances of this type of institution.

        2. Secondly, Parliamentary procedure provides for opportunities to raise questions in Parliament by the elected representatives concerning their constituencies. Also, there is a Parliamentary Committee called the Committee on Petitions. A citizen may submit petitions to secure redress against an act of injustice. So, even though a distant body, Parliament or State Legislature can take up the cause of an aggrieved citizen.

1.       Thirdly, under the provisions of the Public Servants (Enquiries) Act, departmental as well as public agencies can be instituted against a public servant for  his misconduct. Not day-to-day dealing but more serious matter of maladministration come under the purview of this Act.

2.       Fourthly, complaint forums have been set up at different levels to deal with public complaints. For example in a public bus or in a railway station, there are complaint boxes to receive complaints from public. Consumers’ Fora are now available to deal with complaints against any suppler of goods and services such as telephone services. Within large public organization such as Railways and Telecommunication etc. there are complaint cells to deal with public complaints.

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