NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - April' 2017

1.       “Gandhiji was a critic of western Civilization.” Support the statement with argument. (2)
Ans.:- Gandhiji was a critic of Western Civilization. His complaint against western materialism is that it destroys the very essence of spiritualism. He regarded the western type of man as an atomistic individual, with all flesh and no soul.
2.       Explain the meaning of Justice. (2)
Ans.:- Justice:- Justice promises to give people what they are entitled to in terms of basic rights to food, clothing, housing, participation in the decision-making and living with dignity as human beings.
3.       Who was the chairman of the drafting Committee of the Constitution of India?(2)
Ans.:- Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution to Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
4.       Describe any two functions of the Vice-President of India. (2)
Ans.:- Two functions of the Vice-President of India are:-
1.       To cast a tie-breaking vote when the senate is in deadlock
2.       To preside over most of the impeachment trials of federal officers.
5.       Describe any two Electoral functions of the Vidhan Sabha. (2)
Ans.:- Electoral function of the Vidhan Sabha are:-
a)      The members of the Vidhan Sabha elect members of the Rajya Sabha from their respective States.
ii)     One-third members of the Vidhan Parishad (if it is in existence in the State) are also elected by the  members of the Vidhan Sabha.
6.       Analyze the role of Political parties in forming the public opinion. (2)
Ans.:- Political parties formulate and organize public opinion. They are called mobilizes of opinion. Political parties not only make the people aware of various public issues. Their purpose is to make the people politically conscious to think about public problems. Political parties publish journals, pamphlets, leaflets, manifestoes, posters etc. to  mould the public opinion in their favour.
7.       Analyze the reason for low representation of women in Lok Sabha. (2)
Ans.:- Gender inequality is a serious concern in most sectors but the gap between men and women has narrowed the least in political representaion. Women make up merely 22% of lower houses in parliaments around the world and in India, this number is less than half at 10.8% in the outgoing Lok Sabha.
8.       Give any two examples of India’s participation in UN. (2)
Ans.:- India’s history of participation in UN peacekeeping operations is a long one.
a)      India’s contribution has been described a s excellent by many political observers.
b)      In UN. Inida’s contribution has been acknowledged by members of the international communities.
9.       DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM OF Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka. (2)
Ans.:- Jaffna province of Sri Lanka has large concentration of Tamil population. The problem became serious when Tamilians began demanding a national homeland or “Eelam” in northern Sri Lanka. It is important to understand that there are essentially two categories of Tamilians in Sri Lanka: The Ceylon Tamils whose forefathers had migrated to Sri Lanka centuries ago. They are estimated to be one million. The second category is of Indian Tamils whose forefathers were taken by the Britishers as plantation workers in the 19th century. They are another one million, many of them without citizenship. The problem of their status dominated early India-Sri Lanka relations. The conflict with Ceylon Tamils came later.

10.   Define state and explain the elements of state. (5)
Ans.:- According to Woodrow Wilson, ’State “is a people organized for law within a definite territory.”
Element s of the State
a)      Population:- The state is a human institution. It is the people who make a state. Antarctica is not a State as is it is without any human population. The population must be able to sustain a state. But the question is; how much should be the population?
b)      Territory:- Just as every person belongs to a state, so does every square yard of earth. There is no state without a fixed territory. Living tighter on a common land binds people together. Love for the territory inculcates the spirit of patriotism. Some call their countries as fatherland and some call it motherland. But there is a definite attachment with one’s territory.
c)       Government:- The purpose for which people live together cannot be realized unless they are properly  organized and accept certain certain rules of conduct. The agency created to enforce rules of conduct and ensure obedience is called government. Government is also the focus of the common purpose of the people occupying the definite territory.
d)      Sovereignty:- A people inhabiting a definite portion of territory and having a government do not constitute a state so long as they do not possess sovereignty. India before 15 August 1947 had all the other elements of the state but it lacked sovereignty and therefore it was not a state. Sovereignty is the supreme power by which the state commands and exerts political obedience form its people. A state muct be internally supreme and free from external control.   
11.   State any five differences between state and Nation. (5)
Ans.:- The distinction between state and nation can be explained as under:-
1.       Nation and state are distinct entities. A nation may not be always a state; India was not a state before August, 1947. A state may not always be a nation. Austria-Hungary was a state but not a nation before World War I because the heterogeneous people did not form a culturally homogeneous people.
2.       The state is a state because it is sovereign. The nation is not a state if it is not sovereign. Sovereignty is the chief characteristic of a state; it is not a feature of the nation. A nation becomes a nation is not a political concept, it is only spiritual.
3.       The state is a political concept while the Nations is a cultural, and a psychological body. Hayes says, “Nation is primarily cultural, and only incidentally political”. What it means is that nation is not a political concept, it is only sp0iritual.
4.       Laws bind the people together in a state, sentiments and emotions bind the people in a nation. The unity of the state is always external, the unity of the nation is eternal. In the case of the state, unity is imposed; it comes from above through laws. In the case of nation, unity comes from within, through emotions.
5.        There is an element of force connected with the state. The state’s laws are binding. There is a coercion exercised by the state if its authority is defied. In the case of the nation, there is the element of persuation.

12.   Describe any five Directive Principles of State Policy classified under the economic and social principles.(5)
Ans.:- Five Directive Principles of State Policy classified under the economic and social principles are:
(1)    Providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women.
(2)    Reorganizing the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few hands.
(3)    Securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
(4)    Securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and children.
(5)    Guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation.
13.   Explain the relationship of the ‘Governor’ with the ‘Chief Minister’. (5)
Ans.:- The Governor is the constitutional head of the State. All executive actions in the State are taken in his name. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and on the advice of the Chief Minister he appoints other ministers. The Governor is responsible for smooth running of the State administration. It is his/her duty to see that the State administrations carried on in accordance with the provisions of eh Constitution. If he/she finds that the 

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