Political Science (317) - April' 2017 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

POLITICAL SCIENCE (April’ 2017)
(317)
NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1.       “Gandhiji was a critic of western Civilization.” Support the statement with argument. (2)
Ans.:- Gandhiji was a critic of Western Civilization. His complaint against western materialism is that it destroys the very essence of spiritualism. He regarded the western type of man as an atomistic individual, with all flesh and no soul.
2.       Explain the meaning of Justice. (2)
Ans.:- Justice:- Justice promises to give people what they are entitled to in terms of basic rights to food, clothing, housing, participation in the decision-making and living with dignity as human beings.
3.       Who was the chairman of the drafting Committee of the Constitution of India?(2)
Ans.:- Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution to Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25 November 1949.
4.       Describe any two functions of the Vice-President of India. (2)
Ans.:- Two functions of the Vice-President of India are:-
1.       To cast a tie-breaking vote when the senate is in deadlock
2.       To preside over most of the impeachment trials of federal officers.
5.       Describe any two Electoral functions of the Vidhan Sabha. (2)
Ans.:- Electoral function of the Vidhan Sabha are:-
a)      The members of the Vidhan Sabha elect members of the Rajya Sabha from their respective States.
ii)     One-third members of the Vidhan Parishad (if it is in existence in the State) are also elected by the  members of the Vidhan Sabha.
6.       Analyze the role of Political parties in forming the public opinion. (2)
Ans.:- Political parties formulate and organize public opinion. They are called mobilizes of opinion. Political parties not only make the people aware of various public issues. Their purpose is to make the people politically conscious to think about public problems. Political parties publish journals, pamphlets, leaflets, manifestoes, posters etc. to  mould the public opinion in their favour.
7.       Analyze the reason for low representation of women in Lok Sabha. (2)
Ans.:- Gender inequality is a serious concern in most sectors but the gap between men and women has narrowed the least in political representaion. Women make up merely 22% of lower houses in parliaments around the world and in India, this number is less than half at 10.8% in the outgoing Lok Sabha.
8.       Give any two examples of India’s participation in UN. (2)
Ans.:- India’s history of participation in UN peacekeeping operations is a long one.
a)      India’s contribution has been described a s excellent by many political observers.
b)      In UN. Inida’s contribution has been acknowledged by members of the international communities.
9.       DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM OF Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka. (2)
Ans.:- Jaffna province of Sri Lanka has large concentration of Tamil population. The problem became serious when Tamilians began demanding a national homeland or “Eelam” in northern Sri Lanka. It is important to understand that there are essentially two categories of Tamilians in Sri Lanka: The Ceylon Tamils whose forefathers had migrated to Sri Lanka centuries ago. They are estimated to be one million. The second category is of Indian Tamils whose forefathers were taken by the Britishers as plantation workers in the 19th century. They are another one million, many of them without citizenship. The problem of their status dominated early India-Sri Lanka relations. The conflict with Ceylon Tamils came later.

10.   Define state and explain the elements of state. (5)
Ans.:- According to Woodrow Wilson, ’State “is a people organized for law within a definite territory.”
Element s of the State
a)      Population:- The state is a human institution. It is the people who make a state. Antarctica is not a State as is it is without any human population. The population must be able to sustain a state. But the question is; how much should be the population?
b)      Territory:- Just as every person belongs to a state, so does every square yard of earth. There is no state without a fixed territory. Living tighter on a common land binds people together. Love for the territory inculcates the spirit of patriotism. Some call their countries as fatherland and some call it motherland. But there is a definite attachment with one’s territory.
c)       Government:- The purpose for which people live together cannot be realized unless they are properly  organized and accept certain certain rules of conduct. The agency created to enforce rules of conduct and ensure obedience is called government. Government is also the focus of the common purpose of the people occupying the definite territory.
d)      Sovereignty:- A people inhabiting a definite portion of territory and having a government do not constitute a state so long as they do not possess sovereignty. India before 15 August 1947 had all the other elements of the state but it lacked sovereignty and therefore it was not a state. Sovereignty is the supreme power by which the state commands and exerts political obedience form its people. A state muct be internally supreme and free from external control.   
11.   State any five differences between state and Nation. (5)
Ans.:- The distinction between state and nation can be explained as under:-
1.       Nation and state are distinct entities. A nation may not be always a state; India was not a state before August, 1947. A state may not always be a nation. Austria-Hungary was a state but not a nation before World War I because the heterogeneous people did not form a culturally homogeneous people.
2.       The state is a state because it is sovereign. The nation is not a state if it is not sovereign. Sovereignty is the chief characteristic of a state; it is not a feature of the nation. A nation becomes a nation is not a political concept, it is only spiritual.
3.       The state is a political concept while the Nations is a cultural, and a psychological body. Hayes says, “Nation is primarily cultural, and only incidentally political”. What it means is that nation is not a political concept, it is only sp0iritual.
4.       Laws bind the people together in a state, sentiments and emotions bind the people in a nation. The unity of the state is always external, the unity of the nation is eternal. In the case of the state, unity is imposed; it comes from above through laws. In the case of nation, unity comes from within, through emotions.
5.        There is an element of force connected with the state. The state’s laws are binding. There is a coercion exercised by the state if its authority is defied. In the case of the nation, there is the element of persuation.

12.   Describe any five Directive Principles of State Policy classified under the economic and social principles.(5)
Ans.:- Five Directive Principles of State Policy classified under the economic and social principles are:
(1)    Providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women.
(2)    Reorganizing the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few hands.
(3)    Securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
(4)    Securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and children.
(5)    Guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation.

1.       Explain the relationship of the ‘Governor’ with the ‘Chief Minister’. (5)

Ans.:- The Governor is the constitutional head of the State. All executive actions in the State are taken in his name. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and on the advice of the Chief Minister he appoints other ministers. The Governor is responsible for smooth running of the State administration. It is his/her duty to see that the State administrations carried on in accordance with the provisions of eh Constitution. If he/she finds that the constitutional machinery of eh State has broken down or the administration cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, he/she may recommend to the Union Government to proclaim emergency in the State. The Governor in his/her report can advise the President to impose President’s Rule in the State.

2.       Explain the ‘Second Ballot System’ as practiced in France. (5)

Ans.:- The Second Ballot System:- In election, if there are only two candidates contesting election for a single seat, the one who secures a clear majority (at least 50 percent + 1 ) is declared elected. But when there are more than two candidates, it may be the case that none of the candidates secures an absolute majority. In this case, second ballot is held, which means votes are again cast after a few days. In this second ballot only two candidates, who had secured maximum number of cotes in the first poll remain in the field. After voting, one who secures more than 50 percent of votes is declared elected. This system is practiced in France for the election of President and the National Assembly.

For example, in a constituency, three candidates are contesting election. The total number of votes polled, are 12,000. Candidate A secures 500 votes, candidate B secures 4000 votes and candidate C secures 3000 votes. In such a situation no candidate gets absolute majority, that is 6001 votes. This necessitates holding of a second ballot. The candidate (in this case, candidate C) who has secured least number of votes is dropped. As such, the contest now remains between A and B. If B secures majority at the second poll then B and not A will be declared successful. 

3.       Explain the role of ‘Regional Parties’ in India. (5)

Ans.:- India as a democracy has the multi-party system in place, which means there are several political parties competing for power. Apart from the primary parties, each state has their own local political parties that rule and compete in their region.

The multi party system in India has many political consequences. In the event of an election, the norm states that the party with the majority votes wins the election. However, in order to form a government, a party should have a certain number of votes. This need not happen, leading to problems. The majority party has therefore join hands with a regional party in order to form government. This is where the importance of the smaller regional parties comes into play.

This situation is applicable not only to the centre, but also to the state politics. If a party is unable to win the required number of seats, a coalition is the only option. This could mean two regional parties joining hands to form the government (an unlikely event), or the majority parties joining hands with the regional party who are supportive or sympathetic towards them.

4.       Analyze the role of Non-Governmental Organizations to protect and promote the human rights. (5)

Ans.:- Role of Non-Governmental Organizations to protect and promote the Human rights:- Globally, the champions of human rights have most often been citizens, not government officials. In particular, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a primary role in focusing the international community on human rights issues.

NGOs monitor the actions of governments and pressure them to act according to human rights principles.

The impact of human rights has brought about a profound change on the notions of State sovereignty. Today, no nation can say that the way it treats its citizens is purely a domestic concern. Globalisation of human rights with the modern concept of a global village has resulted in the human rights situation anywhere in the world becoming a matter of international concern. Voluntary organizations, which are also called non-governmental organizations, all over the world have begun to support and promote human rights in all societies. 

 

5.       Explain any four Fundamental Rights given in the Constitution of India. (8)

Ans.:- Fundamental Rights given in the Constitution of India are:-

(A)   Right To Equality:-  Right to Equality means that all citizens enjoy equal privileges and opportunities. It protects the citizens against any discrimination by the State on the basis of religion, caste, race, sex, or place of birth.

(B)   Right To Freedom:- Freedom is the basic characteristic of a true democracy. Our Constitution guarantees to the citizens of India a set of six freedoms described as the “Rights to Freedom.” (i) freedom of speech and expression (ii) freedom to assemble peacefully without arms. (iii) freedom to form associations or unions. (iv) freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. (v) freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. (vi) freedom to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

(C)   Right against Explotation:-  The people of India were exploited not only by the British but also by the money lenders and zamindars. This system was called forced labour. Right against exploitation prohibits all forms of forced labour as well as traffic in human beings. The violation of this provision is an offence punishable under law. The state require citizens services in times of major calamities such as floods, forest fire, foreign aggression etc.

(D)   Right to Freedom of Religion:- It also permits every religious group, the right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion. Every religious sect has the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes. Each religious group is also free to purchase and manage its movable and immovable property in accordance with law, for the propagation of its religion.

OR

Explain any four Fundamental Duties enlisted in the Constitution of India. (8)

Ans.:- Article 51A: Fundamental Duties:- It shall be the duty of every citizen of India

(a)    To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

(b)   To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

(c)    To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

(d)   To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; etc.

6.       Describe any eight functions of the Parliament. (8)

Ans.:- Some of the major functions of the parliament are as follows:-

1.       Legislative Function:- The Parliament makes laws on all subjects listed in the Union List. It can also makes laws on subjects listed under the Concurrent List. In case there is any conflict or overlapping in the provisions existing in the Union and State enactment, the Union law prevails. In cases when an emergency has been declared, the Union Parliament can also make laws on subjects that fall within the State List.

2.       Financial Control:-  Union Parliament has exclusive powers to provide ways and means through which revenue has to be raised for public services. To that end it imposes taxes and also ensures that the money sanctioned for expenditure to various departments of the government has been spent for the authorized purposes.

3.       Providing and exercising control over Cabinet:- our Parliamentary system blends the legislative and the executive organs of the State in as much as the executive power is wielded by a group of Members of the Legislature who command majority in the Lok Sabha. To be more specific the government functions through various Ministries under the charge of different Ministers.

4.       Critical Assessment of the Work of the Cabinet:- The Parliament provides the forum through which is ensured that the Cabinet remains in power only as long as it commands majority support in the Lok Sabha which comprises elected representatives of the people.

5.       Role of opposition:- The existence of opposition also ensure that the nation gets to know about the alternative points of view.

6.       An organ of information:- Parliament is the most powerful organ so far information about the functioning of the government is concerned. The information provided in the Houses is authoritative and Ministers are bound to provide information on matters of government when so desired by the members.

7.       Constitutional Functions:- The power to amend the Constitution vests with the Parliament. Constitutional amendments have to be passed by each house by a majority of total membership as well as by two-third majority of members present in voting. In some cases amendments need ratification from half of the Legislative assemblies of The States.

8.       Judicial Functions:- Parliament has the exclusive powers to impeach the President and remove judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court’s through a prescribed procedure. Parliament can also punish a person for contempt or defamation of the House. 

OR

Describe any four functions of the Gram Panchayat  and any four sources of income of Gram Panchayat. (8)

Ans.:- Main functions of the Gram Panchayat are:-

(i)      The Gram Panchayat makes arrangements for pure drinking water and undertakes disinfection drives of the wells, tanks, etc.

(ii)    It makes sanitary arrangements in the village.

(iii)   It makes efforts for improving the health of the people, and for this purpose it opens hospitals and dispensaries.

(iv)  It makes arrangements for street lighting. It also makes arrangements for providing primary education to the children.

Gram panchayats also receive funds as income from property owned by them as common grounds, jungles, cattle ground etc. The sale proceed of dung, refuse and carcasses (dead bodies of animals) is also retained by gram panchayats. They also receive their share in land revenue from the State.

 

7.       Analyze the causes of pollution. (8)

Ans.:- The following are the main causes of pollution:-

1.       Land, Air and Water:- Pollution of land and water has affected plants, animals and human beings. The quality of soil is deteriorating resulting in the loss of agricultural land. The loss is estimated to be about five to seven million hectares of land each year. Soil erosion, as a result of wind and /or water, costs the world dearly. The recurring floods have their own peculiar casualties like deforestation, silt in the river bed, inadequate and improper drainage, loss of men and property. The vast oceans, after being turned in to dumping grounds for all nuclear wastes, have poisoned and polluted the whole natural environment.

2.       Population Growth:- Population growth means more people to eat and breathe, and putting an excessive pressure on land and forest, and ultimately disturbing the ecological balance. Our growing population is putting pressure on land, leading to poor quality of productivity, deforestation (the loss of forest land so necessary for ecological balance and extinction of wild life leading to imbalance in the ecological order, loss of wild life heritage and ultimately dwindling of several species. The growing population is not only a problem for the natural environment, it is a problem for any other aspect of environment, say, for example social, economic, political etc.

3.       Urbanization:- Urbanization is no less a source of pollution, and therefore, a threat to the environment. Urbanization means maddening race of people from villages to the cities.  The net result of urbanization is dirt, disease and disasters. In a state of growing urbanization, environmental problem like sanitation, ill-health, housing, water-supply and electricity keep expanding. On the other, the environmental degradation is caused in the rural life due to indiscriminate collection of firewood, overgrazing and depletion of other natural resources.

4.       Industrialization:-Industrialization coupled with the development of the means of transport and communication has not only polluted the environment, but also has led to the shrinking of the natural resources. Both ways, the loss is really heavy. Increasing level of heat fluxes, carbon dioxide and particulate, radioactive nuclear wastes and the like create environment hazards. On the other hand, the consumption of conventional source of energy leads to the loss of natural resource. We are building a world without caring for future generations.

OR

Analyze the role of caste in politics. (8)

Ans.:- Caste began to play an important role after independence as its involvement in politics increased. The fact that it existed as easily identifiable social cluster of people made it an easy object of political mobilization by political parties in their quest for political support and votes. While the political parties sought to exploit caste for its own electoral purposes, caste groups by making politics their sphere of activity got a chance to assert their identity and bargain for benefits and position in society. Thus, caste and politics interaction has been a two-way process.

In politicizing the castes, the caste associations played a crucial role. Caste associations were quasi-voluntary associations in the sense that its membership was open only to the individuals of the caste community. These associations sere formed to secure economic benefits or educational openings or for more clearly political purpose of uniting to fight the hegemony of the upper castes. In either case, involvement in politics was considered necessary for securing the specific purpose for which they were formed. Thus, once formed on the basis of caste identity, caste associations went on to acquire non-caste functions.

In electoral politics the role of the caste in politics has become powerful. This can be seen at all levels of the political process of the country. Al political parties tend to give party ticket to candidates for contesting elections form amongst the numerically or otherwise dominant caste in every constituency. Major caste groups get representation in the council of ministers. Be it elections, political appointments or even formation of political poarties, caste has been the major consideration.

 

8.       Analyze any four principles of India’s foreign policy. (8)

Ans.:- Four principles of India’s foreign policy are:-

1.       Panchshell:- Panchsheel, or the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, were first formally iterated in the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India signed on April 29, 1954, which stated, in its preamble, that the two Governments “have resolved to enter into the present Agreement based on the following principles:- (a) Respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, (b) Mutual non-aggression (c) Mutual non-interference,(d) Equality and mutual benefit and (e) peaceful co-existence.

2.       Non Alignment:- Non-alignment has been an important feature of India’s foreign policy. The aim of Non-alignment was to maintain national independence in foreign affairs. Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor non-involvement nor isolationism. It was a dynamic concept. Furthermore, Non-Alignment gained popularity in the developing countries.

3.       Anti Imperialism, Anti Racism, Anti Colonialism:- India has always opposed colonialism and racism. Whenever any injustice happened, India raised her voice, for instance in favour of Indonesia’s nationality fighting the Dutch colonialism in 1947, against South Africa’s illegal occupation of Namibia and the infamous apartheid policy in South Africa India fully supported inclusion of communist China in the United Nations.

4.       Strengthening of UN:- India has always viewed UN as a vehicle for peace and for peaceful change in world politics. Apart form this, India has always expected UN to actively involve countries to moderate their differences through talks or negotiations. Further, India has advocated active role for UN in development effort of Third World countries. India has pleaded for a common united front of the third world countries in the UN. It believes that the non-aligned world by virtue of its massive number could play a constructive and meaningful role in the UN by stopping the superpowers from using this world body for their own designs.

Or

Analyze any four problems between India and Pakistan. (8)

Ans.:- Four problems between India and Pakistan are:-

1.                   Indo-Pakistan war 1947-48:- Kashmir problem has been central to the dispute between India and Pakistan. In 1947 when India was partitioned, Maharaja Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler of Muslim dominated Kashmir, dreamt of the independent State of Kashmir. However the partition riots broke out in Kashmir in September 1947 when Muslims were killed in Western part of Kashmir. This led people of this part to rebel against Maharaja and declared their own Azad Kashmir Government.

2.                   Indo-Pakistan War of 1965:- The Indo-Pak War of 1965 was the culmination of a series of disputes between India and Pakistan. The partition of India even led to dispute over sharing of river waters. The water of nearly all the rivers = Indus, Chenab, Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi flowed from India. In 1948 India stopped water of these rivers.

3.                   Indo-Pakistan War of 1971:- After partition the East Wing of Bengal had joined Pakistan as East Pakistan and between the two parts of Pakistan was about 1200 miles of Indian Territory. Also, Pakistan’s military government did not pay much attention to East Pakistan and Urdu was imposed upon it.

4.                   Indo=Pakistan War of 1999:- The cause of the War was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri Militants into Kargil district of J& K and along the LOC. (Line of Control). The intrusion into the areas, that divided the Indian territory of Ladakh from the northern areas of the state, surprised the Indian army and operation Vijay was launched immediately to flush out the enemies from the Kargil sector.

SECTION- B

OPTION – I

9.       Explain any two objectives of the United Nations. (2)

Ans.:- Two objectives of United Nations are:

a.       To keep peace throughout the world.

b.      To develop friendly relations among nations.

10.   Explain any two negative effects of globalization on India. (5)

Ans.:- Negative effects of Globalization:-

1.       Environmental Damage:- Increased production means increased utilization of natural resources. Besides, increased trade results to increased transport, which uses fossil fuels. As a result, pollution has increased, leading to climate change. The changes in climate are now a serious threat to humanity and the future of teh world, all because of globalization.

2.       Fluctuation in prices:- Globalization has led to increased market competition, hence leading to fluctuation in prices. For example, developed countries like the USA have been forced to reduce their products prices, because countries such as china offer the same products at cheaper prices.

23. Explain any four disarmament activities of the United Nations. (8)

Ans.:- The United Nations has taken active interest in disarmament. Several disarmament treaties resulted from UN efforts. Some of them are no doubt controversial.

1.       Treaty on the Non-proliferation (NPT) OF Nuclear Weapons of 1968. This treaty required non-nuclear states not to acquire nuclear weapons, while leaving to sign the treaty to protest against the discrimination.

2.       The UN General Assembly convened three special sessions to focus world attention the need for disarmament. Those sessions, mobilised world opinion to press reduction of nuclear and conventional weapons.

3.       The ending of the Cold War raised hopes of serious moves to control and reduce nuclear and other weapons of mass destructions (WMDs). The General Assembly adopted a text of resolution of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996.

4.       On the positive side, UN efforts in disarmament led to banning of landmines (1997
) and prohibition and destruction of existing stocks of chemical weapons under international supervision (1993).

UN also made progress in actually removing several lakhs of landmines in Asia and Africa, supervising elimination of existing stocks of chemical weapons. Also UN played its part in destruction of chemical and biological weapons of Iraq in 1990s.

OPTION- II

21. ‘How can a Joint Public Commission be constituted? Explain (2)

Ans.:- Two or more states may agree that there should be one public service commission for them. If a resolution to that effect is passed by the House or by each house of legislature (where there are two houses) of the repective states. Parliament may by law provide for the appointment of a Joint State Public Service Commission to serve the needs of those states.

22. Explain any one observation made by the administrative Reforms Commission regarding the relationship between political executive and bureaucracy and one suggestion to improve the system.    (5)

Ans.:-  It visualizes the relationship between the administrator and the politician in terms of a neat division of labour-the politician formulates the policy and the administrator executes it. The bureaucrat acts as pure adviser to his political master, presents facts of the case, suggests lines of action and implications of alternative policies. It is the prerogative of the political master to decide the policy. The bureaucrat is expected to implement the policy faithfully, whatever the decision. He is expected to render impartial advice without fear or favour. The doctrine of neutrality and anonymity has been one of the fundamental tenets of the Weberian model of bureaucracy. It insulates the bureaucrat from any politicization and makes him professional in his outlook.

The planners in India too subscribed to the Weberian ideal of neutral civil service. In our country, the Civil Service Conduct Rules prohibit the government employees from active participation in political activities.

23.  Explain any eight functions of the District Magistrate to maintain law and order. (8)

Ans.:- District Magistrate is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in his district. Three elements are involved i.e.-the police, the judiciary and the jails. As District Magistrate, he performs the following functions:

1.       To control and supervise the subordinate magistracy.

2.       In case of threat to public peace, to order imposition under section 144 of the criminical procedure code.

3.       To inspect the jails.

4.        To release prisoners on parole.

5.       To grant superior classes to prisoners.

6.       To submit an annual criminal report to the govt.

7.       To grant, suspend or cancel many kinds of licenses like arms, hotels, explosives etc.

8.       To control and direct the action of district police.

Or

Explain the composition and functions of the Prime Minister’s office. (8)

Ans.:- The Prime Minister is appointed by the President but the President does not have freedom in the selection of the Prime Minister. Normally the President has to invite leader of the majority party to form the government. In case no single party is in clear majority, the President invites the person who is likely to command support of two or more parties which make up majority in the Lok Sabha.

The Prime Minister is the most important and powerful functionary of the Union Government.

(i)      The Prime Minister being the head of the Council of Ministers, selects the Ministers to be sworn in by the President. The Ministers in fact are chosen by the Prime Minister and remain Ministers as long as they enjoy the confidence of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister distributes portfolios among Ministers.

(ii)    The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Cabinet and conducts its proceedings. As head of the Cabinet, he/she largely influences the decisions of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister co-ordinates the working of various ministers. The President resolves disagreement if any amongst different Ministers. Prime Minister  is the link between the president and Minister.

(iii)   The Prime Minister is the “principal spokesman” and defender of the policies of the Government in the Parliament. When any Minister is unable to defend his/her actions properly, the Prime Minster comes to the help of that Minister both inside and outside the Parliament.

(iv)  The Prime Minister has a special status both in the Government and in the Parliament. This makes him/her the most powerful functionary. His/her position and powers depend upon his/her personality. A person of the stature of Jawaharlal Nehru or Indira Gandhi, is always more effective than a person who lacks vision or depends on support from outside.

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