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NIOS Solved Papers: Political Science (317) - Oct' 2016


POLITICAL SCIENCE
OCTOBER
2016
1.       State the meaning of ‘Political Science’.                       2
Ans.:- Political Science is that part of social science which deals with the foundations of the state and the principles of the government. According to J W Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the state,”.
2.       Describe the term ‘State’.                                                   2
Ans.:- We can define state as a society of people politically organized within a definite territory, having its own government with coercive power to enforce obedience and which is free from external control.
3.       For how many days had Constituent Assembly met to prepare the constitution of India? In which year was the constitution enforced?                                                                 2
Ans.:-  The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. During this period, it held eleven sessions covering a total of 165 days. Constitution enforced from 26, January 1950.
4.       State any two sources of income of Gram Panchayat.             2
Ans.:- Money comes from different sources and is deposited in this fune. The taxes imposed by the Village Panchayats  are important source of income of Gram Panchayats, such as :- the toll tax, license fees on transport and communication etc.
5.       Assess the powers of the speaker of the Vidhan Sabha.        2
Ans.:-  The Speaker is responsible for enforcing the Rules of the Legislative Assembly, presiding over the conduct of House business and maintaining order and decorum.
6.       Evaluate the’ simple majority system’ prevalent in India.                    2
Ans.:- Simple majority may refer to :
Majority, a voting requirement of more than half of all ballots cast.
Plurality (voting), a voting requirement of more ballots cast for a proposition than for any other option.
First-past-the-post voting, shifts the winner of the election from an absolute majority outcome to a simple majority outcome.
7.       Describe any two functions of the ‘Returning Officer’.                          2
Ans.:- The returning officer is responsible for handling the electoral process in the riding, and updating the National Register of Electors with current information about voters in the electoral district to which they are appointed.
8.       Explain the meaning of good governance.                                                   2
Ans.:- In international development, good governance is a subjective term that describes how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in the preferred way. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented.”
9.       Analyze any two issues of conflict between India and Pakistan.        2
Ans.:- Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir conflict ant the numerous military conflicts.
10.   Explain any five differences between State and Government.          2
Ans.:- Some of the main differences between state and government are as follows:-
1.       Government is only an element of the state:- A State has four essential elements-Population, Territory, Government is only one element of State. It is just one part of the State which acts for the state.
2.       Government is an Agency or Agent of the State:- Government is an agency of the state. It acts for the state. It is that agency of the state which formulates the will of the state into laws, implements the laws of the state and ensures conformity to the laws of the state. Government exercises power and authority on behalf of the state.
3.       State is Abstract, Government is Concrete:- State is a concept, an idea or a name used to denote a community of persons living on a definite territory and organised for the exercise of sovereignty. State cannot be seen. Government is made by the people of the state. It is formed by the representatives of the people. It has a definite and defined organisation and form. It can be seen as a team of people exercising the power of the State.
4.       Government is organised only by a portion of the population of state:-  The whole population is a part of the State. All the people are citizens of the State. However, government is made by the representatives of the people. Only some people, who get elected act as representatives of the people, form the government of the State.  Their number is limited to few hundred only.
5.       Membership of a State is compulsory but not of Government:- All people are citizens of the State. They together constitute the population of the State. Each one normally gets the membership (citizenship) of a state automatically right at the time of one’s birth and continues to live life as such. However, membership of the government is not automatic. No one can be forced to become its part. Anyone can voluntarily seek an election, get elected as a representative of the people and become a part of the government. Only some persons form the government.
11.   Analyze the weaknesses of liberalism.         2
Ans.:- The weaknesses of liberalism:-
1.       It was classical liberalism ideals were first developed. A variety of different forms of liberalism emerged, and over time these developed into what is termed as modern liberalism.
2.       It is evident that liberalism can be regarded as individualistic. However there are many other qualities that make up this ideology and the importance of these should also be considered.
12.   “Rights to Constitutional Remedies are the soul of the Fundamental Rights”.  Justify the statement.2
Ans.:- It is possible that sometimes our rights maybe violated by fellow citizens on by the government.  when any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy though courts if it is a Fundamental rights we can directly approach the supreme court, on the high court of a state.  There can be on law or action that violated the fundamental rights.

13.   Explain the original Jurisdiction of the High Court.  5
Ans.:- Original Jurisdiction of the High Court are:-
(i)      (a) Disputes between the Government of India on the one side and one or more states on the other side.
(b) Disputes between the Government of India and one or more states on  one side and one or more States on the other side.
(ii)   The Supreme Court has been invested with special powers in the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. In this connection, it has the power to issue directions or writs.
(ii)    CASES UNDER Public Interests Litigation (PIL) can also be heard directly. (This is an extra Constitutional practice, there is no mention of PIL in the Constitution).
14.   Explain any five features of ‘communalism’.                              5
Ans.:- Five features of ‘Communalism’
1.       In Communism, Community ownership is the real sense of understanding. This can be visualized as we go back to the days of class less society. But in the real world, Public ownership is the main feature of communism.
2.       Freedom of people is surrendered to the community leadership/public owner like Government. In case of capitalism, one can have more freedom.
3.       Communism is the expectation of the worker class even though they themselves have the mind of a capitalist. Hence it is a utopian concept, i.e. cannot be realized.
4.       It is the final result of worker class revolution. Therefore it is not a natural process but it is a human induced revolutionary process as per the actual theories.
5.       Equitable distribution of resources and benefits is another salient feature of communism. Current international politics on climatic change even adopts the ideology of communism even though it is too late. This should have dome form the industrial revolution phase at least.
15.   Describe any two major concerns of India’s foreign policy after the cold War period.             5



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