Political Science (317) - Oct' 2014 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1. What is the scope of Political Science? 2
Ans.:- The scope of political science is vast and experts have divided the field of political science into five sub-disciplines that are political theory, public administration, comparative politics, international relations, and public law. It needs to be noted that these sub-disciplines cover the entire gamut of the modern political economy and provide the basis for the study and understanding of how the global political economy works.
2. Mention any two elements of nationality. 2
Ans.:- Two elements of nationality are
a. Common Geography
b. Common Race
3. What is meant by the concept of Sarvodaya? 2
Ans.:- Sarvodaya, as Gandhiji had visualised, is the greatest good of all the members of the society. It is the welfare of all. It is the good of the individual together with the good of all the individuals, i.e., the good of each with the good of all.
4. What is the significance of the Preamble to the Constitution of India? 2
Ans.:- The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of a book. It is not a part of the contents but it explains the purposes and objectives with which the document has been written. So is the case with the ‘Preamble’ to the Indian Constitution.
5. What is the composition of the Electoral College which elects the President of India? 2
Ans.:- The elected member of Parliament one members of the Electoral College for Presidential election. As such, they participate in the election of the President of India. They elect the Vice-President. The Lok Sabha elects its Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Rajya Sabha eects it Deputy Chairman.
6. What is public interest litigation (PIL)? 2
Ans.:- Public interest litigation (PIL):- It means that even people, who are not directly involved in the case, may bring to the notice of the Court matters of public interest. It is the privilege of the Court to entertain the application for public interest litigation (PIL). The concept of PIL was introduced by Justice P.N.Bhagwati.
7. What is the composition of the Election Commission of India? 2
Ans.:- Composition:- The Election Commission of the Chief Election Commissioner and such other Election commissioners as may be decided by the President from time to time.
8. Mention any two environmental problems. 2
Ans.:- Two environmental problems are
1. Land Air and Water:- Pollution of land water has affected plants, animals and human beings. The quality of soil is deteriorating resulting in the loss of agricultural land. The loss is estimated to be about five to seven million hectares of land each year.
2. Population Growth:- Population growth means more people to eat and breath, and putting an excessive pressure on land and forest, and ultimately disturbing the ecological balance. The growing population is not only a problem for the natural environment, it is a problem for many other aspect of environment, say, for example social, economic, political etc.
9. Mention any two principles of Panchsheel. 2
Ans.:- Panchsheel, or the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, were first formally iterated in the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India signed on April 29, 1954, which stated, in its preamble, that the two Governments “have resolved to enter into the present Agreement based on the following principles:- (a) Respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, (b) Mutual non-aggression

10. Explain the main features of Indian Federal System. 5
Ans.:- The main features of Indian Federal System are:-
1. Written Constitution:- The most important feature of a federation is that its constitution should be a written one, so that both the Union Government as well as the State can refer to that as and when needed.
2. Rigid Constitution:- The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid. Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.
3. Division of Powers:- In our Constitution, there is a clear division of powers, so that the States and the Centre are required to enact and legislate within their sphere of activity and none violates its limits and tries to encroach upon the functions o the other.
4. Supremacy of the Judiciary:- Another very important feature of a federation is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity. The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.
11. What is the meaning and importance of judicial review? 5
Ans.:- Judicial Review:- It is a process through which judiciary examines whether a law enacted by a legislature or an action of the executive is in accordance with the Constitution or not. Judicial Review does not mean that every law passed by the legislature is taken up by the Supreme Court for review. It only means that the Court will review the law as and when it gets an opportunity.
Importance of judicial review:- Because the power of judicial review can declare that laws and actions of local, state, or national government are invalid if they conflict with the Constitution. It also gives courts the power to declare an action of the executive or legislative branch to be unconstitutional.
12. Distinguish between national and regional political parties. Mention the names of any two regional parties. 5
Ans.:- India has two types of political parties- national parties and regional parties. National parties are those which generally have influence all over the country. It is not necessary that a national party will have equal strength in all the states, it varies from state to state. A party is recognised as a national party by the Election Commission on the basis of a formula. The political party which has secure not less than four percent of the total valid votes in the previous general elections at least in four states, is given the status of a national party.
However, there are other parties in India, which do not enjoy national influence. Their activities and influence are restricted to particular states or regions. Sometimes these parties are formed to voice demands of a specific region. These parties are neither weak nor short-lived. Sometimes they prove to be very powerful in their respective regions. These are known as regional parties.
Major regional parties are AIADMK and DMK in Tamil Nadu, Telugu Desam in Andhra Pradesh, Akali Dal in Panjab, national Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, Asom Gana Parishad in Assam.
13. Identify the shortcomings of India’s electoral system. 5
Ans.:- Shortcomings of India’s electoral system:
1. Money Power:- The role of unaccounted money in elections has become a serious problem. The political parties collect funds from companies and business houses, and then use this money to influence the voter to vote in their favour. The business contributions are mostly in cash and are not unaccounted.

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