NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2018

Time : 3 Hours [Maximum Marks : 100]
Note : (i) This Question Paper consists of two Sections, viz., ‘A’ and ‘B’.
(ii) All questions from Section ‘A’ are to be attempted.
(iii) Section ‘B’ has two options. Candidates are required to attempt questions from one option only.
1. What are the children born of the same parents called? 1
Ans.:- The children born of the same parents are called siblings. Siblings is a term denoted for a boy and/or a girl born of the same mother and father.

2. Name the earliest civilization. 1
Ans.:- Indus Valley Civilization (3000-2000 B.C.)

3. Name the date and year when Ramakrishna Mission was founded. 1
Ans.:- Ramakrishna Mission on 1 may 1897.

4. What is meant by social work? 2
Ans.:-  ‘’Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems.

5. Explain amitate. 2
Ans.:- Amitate means a special relationship obtaining among some peoples between a niece and her paternal aunt. Authority of a woman over her brother’s children and the rights and responsibilities associated therewith.

6. What are folkways? 2
Ans.:- Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.

7. What is plural society? 2
Ans.:- A plural society is defined by Fredrik Barth as a society combining ethic contrasts: the economic interdependence of those groups, and their ecological specialization (i.e. use of different environmental resources by each ethnic group). The ecological interdependence or the lack of completion, between ethnic groups may be based on the different activities in the same region or on long-term occupation of different regions is Defined by J.S.  Furnivall as a medley of peoples- European, Chinese, Indian and native, who do mix but do not combine. Each group holds by its own religion, its own culture and language, its own ideas and ways.

8. What are the three jewels that the Jains believe in? 2
Ans.:- Jains share a common belief in the concept of ‘three jewels’ (triratna), which are right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct.

9. Explain the term ‘Resurrection’. 2
Ans.:- Resurrection or anastasis is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects.

10. What is a primary group? 4
Ans.:- Where there is face to face contact and intimate relationship such as in a family or in a small village. Primary group and other groups (recently known as secondary groups) are parts of basic concepts. The primary group is an important component of social structure of any society. External features of primary groups are:
Small size;
Face to face interaction, and
Physical proximity
Whereas internal features of primary groups are:
We feeling
Altruism-good will for the group
Spontaneous growth enduring character
 Relations as ends and as means
Dominance of informal social norms and inter-personal relations with emotional bondage.

11. Explain the characteristics of social structure. 4
Ans.:- To fulfil the aim, social structure must be based upon certain principles. They are as follows:-
1)      Normative system:- Normative system renders the society with the ideals and values. The institutions and association are inter-related according to these norms. The individuals perform their roles in accordance with the accepted norms of society.
2)      Position system:- position system refers to statuses and roles of the individuals. The desires and aspirations of the individual are varied. Proper functioning of social structure depends upon proper assignment of roles and statuses.
3)      Sanction system:- For the proper enforcement of norms, every society has a sanction system. It may also be understood from the perspective rewards and punishments or penalties a society prescribes. The co-ordination of different parts of the social structure depends upon the conformity to social norms. Non-conformists are generally punished. But non-conformity is also an essential feature of society.
4)      A system of anticipated response:- Everyday we hear the words like “work ethics”, or see the play cards, which read- “city is yours, keep it clean”. All are supposed to be the functions of a system of anticipated responses. The anticipated response system calls upon the individuals to participate in the social system.

12. What are the main characteristics of association? 4
Ans.:- Characteristics of Association
i)                    It consists of a group of individuals.
ii)                   The people are organized.
iii)                 There are certain rules and regulations for the conduct of activities of association
iv)                 These people carry out activities to attain certain specific goals.

13. Define cooperation. Explain the types of cooperation. 4
Ans.:- Co-operation generally means working together for a common objective.

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