SOCIOLOGY (331) - April' 2018 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (April’ 2018)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1. What are the children born of the same parents called? 1
Ans.:- The children born of the same parents are called siblings. Siblings is a term denoted for a boy and/or a girl born of the same mother and father.

2. Name the earliest civilization. 1
Ans.:- Indus Valley Civilization (3000-2000 B.C.)

3. Name the date and year when Ramakrishna Mission was founded. 1
Ans.:- Ramakrishna Mission on 1 may 1897.

4. What is meant by social work? 2
Ans.:-  ‘’Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems.

5. Explain amitate. 2
Ans.:- Amitate means a special relationship obtaining among some peoples between a niece and her paternal aunt. Authority of a woman over her brother’s children and the rights and responsibilities associated therewith.

6. What are folkways? 2
Ans.:- Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.

7. What is plural society? 2
Ans.:- A plural society is defined by Fredrik Barth as a society combining ethic contrasts: the economic interdependence of those groups, and their ecological specialization (i.e. use of different environmental resources by each ethnic group). The ecological interdependence or the lack of completion, between ethnic groups may be based on the different activities in the same region or on long-term occupation of different regions is Defined by J.S.  Furnivall as a medley of peoples- European, Chinese, Indian and native, who do mix but do not combine. Each group holds by its own religion, its own culture and language, its own ideas and ways.

8. What are the three jewels that the Jains believe in? 2
Ans.:- Jains share a common belief in the concept of ‘three jewels’ (triratna), which are right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct.

9. Explain the term ‘Resurrection’. 2
Ans.:- Resurrection or anastasis is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects.

10. What is a primary group? 4
Ans.:- Where there is face to face contact and intimate relationship such as in a family or in a small village. Primary group and other groups (recently known as secondary groups) are parts of basic concepts. The primary group is an important component of social structure of any society. External features of primary groups are:
Small size;
Face to face interaction, and
Physical proximity
Whereas internal features of primary groups are:
We feeling
Altruism-good will for the group
Spontaneous growth enduring character
 Relations as ends and as means
Dominance of informal social norms and inter-personal relations with emotional bondage.

11. Explain the characteristics of social structure. 4
Ans.:- To fulfil the aim, social structure must be based upon certain principles. They are as follows:-
1)      Normative system:- Normative system renders the society with the ideals and values. The institutions and association are inter-related according to these norms. The individuals perform their roles in accordance with the accepted norms of society.
2)      Position system:- position system refers to statuses and roles of the individuals. The desires and aspirations of the individual are varied. Proper functioning of social structure depends upon proper assignment of roles and statuses.
3)      Sanction system:- For the proper enforcement of norms, every society has a sanction system. It may also be understood from the perspective rewards and punishments or penalties a society prescribes. The co-ordination of different parts of the social structure depends upon the conformity to social norms. Non-conformists are generally punished. But non-conformity is also an essential feature of society.
4)      A system of anticipated response:- Everyday we hear the words like “work ethics”, or see the play cards, which read- “city is yours, keep it clean”. All are supposed to be the functions of a system of anticipated responses. The anticipated response system calls upon the individuals to participate in the social system.

12. What are the main characteristics of association? 4
Ans.:- Characteristics of Association
i)                    It consists of a group of individuals.
ii)                   The people are organized.
iii)                 There are certain rules and regulations for the conduct of activities of association
iv)                 These people carry out activities to attain certain specific goals.

13. Define cooperation. Explain the types of cooperation. 4

Ans.:- Co-operation generally means working together for a common objective.

Co-operation can be of direct or indirect type. When individuals perform similar activities together-such as praying or worshipping together, farming, moving a pile of stones or pushing a motor car out of mud-the co-operation among them is called direct co-operation. On other hand, indirect co-operation is obtained when people perform dissimilar tasks towards a common end. Each has its specialized role to play. For example, when Carpenters, Plumbers, Masons, Architects are based on the principles of specialized knowledge and skills of each individuals. In modern society, one comes across more and more of indirect co-operation due to technological progress leading to role specialization.


14. What are the three types of authority? Explain. 4

Ans.:- The three types of authority are distinguished by their respective sources of legitimacy. When legitimacy is derived from the existing conventions and customs, it is called traditional authority. Suppose, the rule is that after the father, the son will become the head of the state, it is an example of traditional authority. In rational legal authority, the laws are formally laid down rules and prescriptions are impersonal and apply equally to all. Individuals have to compete for authority, which is distributed depending upon the rules. Besides the impersonal laws in this system, merit and qualification are also important principles. The third type of authority is called charismatic. It emerges in situations of crises that the existing system is unable to solve. When this happens, people crave for an intervention by a person who could resolve the crises for them, which may be natural, social, or political. Such a person becomes the bearer of charisma.

15. What are the informal means of social control? Explain. 4

Ans.:- Informal means of social control are:-

a.       Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.

b.      Mores:- Mores refer to moral conduct as distinct from the customary practice of folkways. They influence the value system of a society and are in the form of social regulations which aim to maintain social order. Mores seek to regulate the relationship between individuals in defined situations, e.g. between husband and wife, parents and children and siblings, etc.

c.       Customs:- Customs are the long established practices of people, which occur spontaneously but gradually. Along with regulating social life, they also bind them together. In primitive societies, customs were powerful means of social control but in modern times, they have weakened due to rise in the forces of individualism and diversity.

d.      Religion:- Religion exercises a powerful influence on its adherents. Emile Durkheim defines religion as the unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. Those who have common beliefs and practices are united into one single moral community through religion.


16. What is meant by unity in diversity? Describe. 4

Ans.:- Indian society in ancient, medieval and modern times always exhibited an underlying unity that created a composite culture, which is decisively pan-Indian in nature. It produced a mainstream culture, which rulers in different periods of time never interfered particularly in their internal dynamics. The cultural system has always maintained its own status independent of the political system. Various kingdoms were frequently involved in wars at the regional level, but the aspect of culture unity at the country level remained intact. The notion of Chakravarti Raja and Aswamedhayagna is indicative of political unity. Many kings extended their empires to cover large geographical territories. Kaniska, Kharavela, Ashoka and Samudragupta were powerful monarchs who controlled extensive empires. Ashoka’s greatness is well known.


17. What were the tribal problems during the British rule? 4

Ans.:- Exploitative contact started during the British rule. There are several tribal problems, which are as follows:-

a.       Land Alienation caused due to the introduction of monetary economy. For every consumption need, the tribals needed money, but did not have any source of earning. They mortgaged land or sold it off land.

b.      Indebtedness cropped in due to lack of adequate sources of income. Private money lenders (like mahajan or sahukar) are readily available in tribal areas. They provided personal loan on heavy rate if interest. The consumption patterns of the tribals include regular consumption of liquor, bride price during marriage and fine for any deviant behaviour. All these require money. Hence they go to the money lender. In this manner they are heavily in debt.

c.        Bonded labour is a serious problem, which came in due to rampant poverty and lack of stable income. In fact, land alienation, indebtedness, bonded labour and poverty are inter-related problems. Lack of money leads to taking loan from money lender by mortgaging land,. The tribal community is unable to repay, hence serves as a bonded labourer.

d.      Illiteracy among tribals is a major hindrance towards their development. on account of inaccessible habitat among tribals, education has not spread fast among them. The school timings usually clash with the timings of economic and agricultural operations. However, several programmes have been launched to provide educational access by establishing a primary school within a radius of one kilometre.

18. What is shifting cultivation? Explain. 4

Ans.:- Shifting cultivation is a serious problem, which came in due to rampant poverty and lack of stable income. Shifting cultivation involves clearing of a plot, usually in hilly or terrace area, i.e. cutting plants & shrubs and then broadcasting (sprinkling) seeds usually of arhar, maize, bajra and barbate (beans). It does not involve plough cultivation. The area is cultivated for one or two years and then is left hallow for five to seven years to allow the vegetation to grow densely and to repeat the cycle.


19. Explain any four causes of poverty. 4

Ans.:- Main causes of Poverty are as follows:

1.       Social causes:- In society, scheduled castes occupied lowest position. They did not posses any property. So, they remained poor for centuries, generation after generation. Heavy expenditure on performance of social customs, tradition, rituals also make many person poor.

2.       Economic causes:- Unequal distribution of land, unemployment, low wages, and indebtedness are responsible for poverty. In our society, a number of families are landless or near landless. They are dependent on others for work and wages.

3.       Political causes:- Improper policies in the past are also responsible for poverty in our country. We have now opened our market for foreign countries. The production system in our country has now to match its production with them. Heavy industries have adverse influence on rural and cottage industries. Lack of proper marketing system for agricultural produce and forest produce has also very few even for educated youths.

4.       Religious causes:- Religious beliefs and practices also adds to poverty in our country. People spend good amount on performing religious rites and rituals. They even take loans at high rate of interest from the money-lenders. When loan and interest is not paid they have to mortgage or sell land, ornaments and other kind of property. Those who do not have landed property have to work as bonded labour on nominal wages.


20. Differentiate between Sociology and Economics. 6

Ans.:- There are some aspects in which these two subjects differ. Economists collect their data from government publications, census reports, proceedings of the banking institutions, economic survey reports and balance sheets, etc. These data pertain to macro-level situations. It is from a study of these institutions that economists attempt to make generalizations. Rarely do they study the society at a micro-level, for instance at the level of a village or urban neighbourhood? Sociologists, by comparison, carry out their studies at the micro-level using the methodology of intensive fieldwork. The economist’s approach is deductive, i.e., he arrives at general propositions from which specific statements can be made. The sociological approach is inductive. From particular studies, one tries to generalize about the whole, and these propositions are subjected to further testing. Finally, sociology is not as quantitative as is economics.


21. What is the difference between group and community? 6

Ans.:- Differences between Group and Community:-



Group is created

It grows naturally and is also created

Group may be formed for certain purposes

Community involves the whole life of its members

Comparatively temporary

Comparatively permanent

Group is a part of community

Community consists of many groups


22. Discuss the salient characteristics of caste. 6

Ans.:- Some of the salient characteristics of caste are:-

1.       Caste system is based on the ideas of purity and pollution.

2.       Besides occupation, each caste has its own style of living.

3.       In a village, a person’s caste may be identified by looking at his dress and jewellery, house types, food habits, and the manner of speaking.

4.       It has been found that each caste has its own dialect, which may be distinguished from the others.

5.       Each caste follows the rules of endogamy, that is, its members marry within their own caste, but they marry outside their village. Village exogamy, i.e. marrying out accompanies caste endogamy.

6.       Each caste has its own council, locally called caste panchayat, which takes up disputes and other matters pertaining to the caste.

7.       Each caste has its own complex of Gods and Goddesses, ritual-complex, and folklore.


23. Highlight the cultural factors of social change. 6

Ans.:- B                y cultural factors we refer mainly to ideas, knowledge, values, beliefs, inventions and exchange. Culture provides the base for inventions and discoveries.

Sociologists have considered the role of cultural factors in bringing about social change. On the one hand, they consider the inter-relationship between religions and social structure as one aspect of culture, on the other hand, they analyse the moral code of various religions and their impact on the character of its economic system.

Social change occurs through cultural contact between different societies. Diffusion is an important mechanism of social change. One society adopts the cultural traits of another through prolonged contact as in travel, trade and commerce as also through sudden events like war where new and hitherto secret technologies reveal themselves.

Cultural mores as well as new technology are borrowed and adopted when societies find that they fill a vacuum or answer a felt need. Borrowing of cultural traits from an advanced society is commonly seen in developing countries and societies as they try to become modern.

Diffusion also takes place through mass media as it transmits and diffuses information to a large number of people. It has accelerated the process of change by spreading the elements of individual cultures to people far away and thus resulted in a form of cultural modernisation.


24. Explain the prescriptive and preferential rules of marriage. 6

Ans.:- Prescriptive and preferential rules of marriage:-

a.       Parallel cousin marriage: It is the marriage between the children of either two brothers or two sisters. Such marriages are aimed at strengthening the bond among two brothers or two sisters. Such marriages are exception to the rules of clan exogamy. Parallel cousin marriage is preferred among Muslims.

b.      Cross cousin marriage: It is the marriage of a man with his maternal uncle’s daughter (mother’s brother’s daughter) or paternal aunt’s daughter (father’s sister’s daughter). Alternatively, it may be defined as a marriage of a girl with her mother’s son or father’s sister’s son.

c.       Levirate: Levirate is the custom in which a widow marries her husband’s brother. Generally, husband’s younger brother marries the widow. This practice is prevalent among the Toda of Nilgiri Hills.

d.      Sororate: Sororate is the custom in which a widower marries the younger sister of his deceased wife. It is generally found among the tribes of central India such as Gond or Baiga.



(Status of Women)

25. What is the female literacy rate according to the Census of 2001? 1

Ans.:- 54.16

26. What is female foeticide? 2

Ans.:- With the help of doctors and para-medical staff, some parents resort to the inhuman practice of aborting female foetuses. The killing of female foetuses is known as female foeticide.


27. Explain the term ‘double drudgery’. 2

Ans.:- Double Drudgery means some work which is boring and you do not want to do but you have to do is Drudgery.


28. Differentiate between organized and unorganized sector employment. 4

Ans.:- Differences between organized and unorganized sector employment are:-


Organized sector

Unorganized sector


The sector in which the employment terms are fixed and employees have assured work is organised sector.

The sector that comprises of small scale enterprises or units and are not registered with the government.

Governed by

Various acts like Factories Act, Bonus Act, PF Act, Minimum Wages Act etc.

Not governed by any act.


Workers are paid remuneration for overtime.

No provision for overtime.

Salary of workers

As prescribed by the government.

Less than the salary prescribed by the government.


29. ‘‘Empowered women build empowered society.’’ Explain. 6

Ans.:- The elderly women of a village called Shantigrame started a Day Care Centre for small children. They pooled their small savings and rented a small place to start this Centre. An NGO working in the village also gave them some financial support. There were a number of young girls in this village who were forced to drop out of school because they had to take care of their younger siblings. When the day care centre was started, the infants and very young children were being left there and the young girls went back to school. The parents of the children gave a small token amount to the elderly women who ran the day-care centre, and this small earning gave them resources to improve their own lives. School drop-out numbers reduced considerably and in course of one year, life in the village changed. During the next four years, a high school and a junior college were also started in Shantigrama and every girl in the village attended school or college, as the case may be. As we see, how a few women who were empowered and encouraged to look for means of supporting themselves, also empowered other women and girls in their village.

It is thus necessary to empower women. An empowered woman creates a better home and a better society.



( Culture )

25. Who was Akbar’s friend, philosopher and guide? 1

Ans.:- The inimitable Birbal: a friend, philosopher and guide to Akbar.


26. What is treatise? 2

Ans.:-  Treatise: A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.


27. Explain the term ‘taboo’. 2

Ans.:- Taboo: A social or religious custom prohibiting or restricting a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person, place, or thing. For example, Muslims approve polygyny which is a taboo among many Hindu groups.


28. What are sculptures? 4

Ans.:- The Mathura and Sarnath schools, paid special attention to the physical charm of the statues and to the dignity of their poses. Statues of Vishnu, Shiva, Buddha and other gods and goddess were sculptured in minute details. All the statues found inside the temples of Orissa (Puri, Konar, Bhubaneswar etc.) are characterized by a highly developed sense of rhythm and beauty.


29. Explain the positive and negative impact of television. 6

Ans.:- The influence of television in learning mechanism is considered to be very significant in an urban society, where a substantial portion of the population are compelled to communicate in a language other than their own. A visual medium like television is considered to be a more useful means of learning and communicating cultural ideas than the spoken or a written word. However, the impact of television may not always be positive.

Positive Aspect:-

1.       Television programmes are most informative and educative if we watch programmes like UGC programmes, quiz programmes and also group discussions. Thus, we can say that it is a medium for acquiring information, knowledge and understanding.

2.       Television is the source of entertainment to people of all categories. It provides company for the lonely, aged, and housewives. It gives topics for conversation to members of the family staying at home.

Negative Aspect:-

1.       There are few areas where the influence of television is not positive. It is found that the naked exposures to sensuality, the criminal items and unfair bossism by anti-social elements of society exercise the most adverse impact on children in particular and the youths in general. Many of the scenes and themes shown on TV in films, serials, advertisements, interviews etc.

2.       The sheer amount of time spent in watching TV by the children is often too large. Thus they have negative impact in terms of their studies, socialization and participation in other entertainment activities.


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