Sunday, December 29, 2019

NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2015

APRIL 2015
1.       What is levirate?             1
Ans.:- Levirate: Levirate is the custom in which a widow marries her husband’s brother. Generally, husband’s younger brother marries the widow. This practice is prevalent among the Toda of Nilgiri Hills.

2.       What is demography related to?              1
Ans.:- Demography is the study of human populations their size, composition and distribution across space.

3.       What are the followers of Judaism known as?   1
Ans.:- The followers of Judaism are known as Jews.

4.       What is category?           2
Ans.:- Category is a class or division of people or things regarded aas having particular shared characteristics.

5.       Name the four types of Muslim marriage.           2
Ans.:- Four types of Muslim marriage are
i. Nikah or ‘Sahi Nikah’
            ii. Fasid
i.   Muta
ii. Batil

6.       Identify three stages of human society given by Auguste Comte.             2
Ans.:- Auguste Comte who gave sociology its name, identified three stages of human society:
Theological- In the first stage, the explanations of various phenomena were given in religious terms this stage was called theological.
Mataphysical- Its successor was the stage of metaphysics, where the explanations were philosophical.
Positivism- The final stage in the evolution of human thought was of positivism, where phenomena were explained in terms of the scientific approach to the social world.

7.       What is Sanskritization?               2
Ans.:- Sanskritization:- It is a process by which any low caste could adapt to the behaviour pattern, style of life, and culture of high caste and claim membership in that high caste. But they have to leave their unclean occupation and other impure habits like meat eating and taking liquor, etc.

8.       Name and briefly describe the religion of pre-Islamic Iran.         2
Ans.:- Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included indigenous animistic-polytheistic beliefs, as well as Charistianity, Judaism, Mandaeism, and Iranian religions of Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Manichaeism. Arabian polytheism, the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, was based on venerationof deities and spirits.

9.       What is poverty?             2
Ans.:- Poverty is an universal problem. It is a condition of an individual in which his income is so low that he is unable to feed or provide shelter for himself and his family members. Those who do not have such income are called poor.

10.   Describe acculturation. 4
Ans.:- Acculturation means transmission of cultural elements from one social group to another. Acculturation is a process of culture change, which results due to contact between communities belonging to different cultures. In case of acculturation both the cultures get mutually affected as the culture traits of none culture move into the other culture and vice versa.
Culture contact operates in all societies and groups. It is possible only when people are desirous of accepting the new traits and continue to follow old traits.
Culture is not inborn. After birth an individual learns cultural values, practices, traditions and norms while growing up in the given physical and social environment. On the other hand there is nothing called pure or pristine culture.

11.   Explain ascribed status and achieved status.      4
Ans.:- There are two different kinds of status that people occupy, ascribed status and achieved status.
1.       An ascribed status is a social position that is assigned at birth and is, therefore, usually permanent. Hence, an ascribed status is one into which a person is born and in which he or she remains throughout his or her life, e.g., sex, caste, race and age. A Brahmin, for example, enjoys the ascribed status of a Brahmin by virtue of his birth. In addition, sex, ethnic background, place of birth, and family name supply assigned statuses. Such statuses are said to be ascribed.
2.       An achieved status is one that is chosen or achieved, such as a married person, a parent, a friend, a doctor or an engineer. An achieved status is acquired through one’s own efforts. Society recognizes such changes in achieved status. Statuses which are not fixed by inheritance, biological characteristics, or other factors, over which the individual has no control, are known as achieved statuses.

12.   What are the components of integration?           4
Ans.:- Integration is formed by the following components:-
1.       Sharing of common characteristics facilitates group solidarity resulting from division of labour, reciprocal relationship and interdependence.
2.       Acceptance and observation of various norms set by the group is another unifying factor.
3.       Ethnocentrism or a preference for one’s own culture among the members of a group is functional in promoting social control within the group.
4.       Discipline among the members unites the group.

5.       Define society and describe its attributes.  4
Ans.:- Society is a term used in everyday life with a particular meaning. A layman often defines society as an aggregation or collection of individuals. But in sociology, the term is used in a different sense. It is not just a congregation of collectivity of several individuals. It refers to the sum total of the relationships existing between them.
The collectivity of individual created society over a long period of time. Sociologists have identified certain attributes of society. They are:
a)      Likeness and differentiation
b)      Inter-dependence
c)       Co-operation and conflict;
1.       In the first place, there should be an aggregate of individuals who share the sense of likeness. No society can come into existence unless its members feel that they are like one another.
2.       Inter-dependence is another attribute of society. The members of a society depend on one another for its smooth functioning. In a traditional village or your neighbourhood, members of different caste groups depend on each other in everyday life.
3.       Co-operation is another essential attribute of society. No society can come into existence or continue to persist unless the members co-operate with each other. Co-operation is obtained at every level of society such as inter-personal relationship like
a)      Between husband and wife and other family members
b)      Between neighbours; and
c)       At the level of wider society.

6.       Explain cross-cousin marriage.          4
Ans.:- Cross cousin marriage:- It is the marriage of a man with his maternal uncle’s daughter (mother’s brother’s daughter) or paternal aunt’s daughter (father’s sister’s daughter). Alternatively, it may be defined as a marriage of a girl with her mother’s brother’s son or father’s sister’s son.
This form has been the preferred form of marriage in several parts of India such as among Gonds of Madhya Pradesh and Oraon  and Kharia tribes of Jharkhand. This is also practised in Maharashtra. Maternal uncle is the prescribed mate among some South Indian Hindus.

7.       What is public opinion? Describe.   4

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