NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2011

APRIL 2011

1.       Name any one book written by Emile Durkheim.             1
Ans.:- Laws of marriage.

2.       Give an example of a group where secondary cooperation is found.      1
Ans.:- Political party.

3.       Who is a juvenile delinquent?  1
Ans.:- The crime committed by children is called juvenile delinquency.

4.       List any two differences between Sociology and History.                             2
Ans.:- While history confines itself with specific societies, sociology attempts to generalize about human societies.
Sociology is an observational, comparative, and generalizing science. History basses itself on an analysis.

5.       Why is Hindu marriage a sacrament?     2
Ans.:- Hindu marriage is a sacrament which purifies a person. Marriage is considered so sacred that there is no provision for divorce in the Hindu texts. In fact, marriage is considered a union of two souls which remain faithful to each other forever.

6.       Mention any two characteristics of acculturation.            2
Ans.:- Two characteristics of Acculturation are:-
1.       Acculturation could be either a conscious or an unconscious process. People borrowing the culture traits of other groups might be aware of the fact that they are borrowing or they might do it without realizing that these are being borrowed by them.
2.       Acculturation takes place when two or more communities belonging to different cultures come together and start adopting each others culture trait. So it is a two way process of culture change. Both the groups involved undergo some change. 

7.       Name the four Vedas.   2
Ans.:- Four Vedas are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda

8.       What is socialisation?   2
Ans.:- Socialization is a process of owning, adopting and initiating the newborn, stage by stage in the family, community and society.

9.       Define social structure.                2
Ans.:- According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups. It may be said that social structure refers to the overall composition of a society.

10.   What is the relevance of Sociology in our life?  4
Ans.:- Sociology is a subject with important practical relevance in our life. It can contribute to social criticism and practical reform in several ways. These are mainly:-
1.       The improved understanding of a given set of social circumstances often gives us all a better chance of controlling them.
2.       Sociology provides the means of increasing our cultural sensitivities, allowing policies to be based on an awareness of divergent cultural values.
3.       We can investigate the consequences of the adoption of particular policy programmes.
4.       Finally and perhaps most important, sociology provides self-enlightenment, offering groups and individuals an increased opportunity to alter the conditions of their own lives.

11.   Highlight the differences between community and association.              4
Ans.:- The following are the differences between Community and Association:-
They are spontaneously created social grouping
People organize with a particular purpose in mind.
Community have more endurance, continuity and have a long past.
May be short-lived.
Society as a system of social relationship can exist.
Importance is attached to the group members and specificity of the goal.
Function through customs, tradition and unwritten laws.
Mostly functions through written laws and rules.

12.   How are laws different from customs? 4
Ans.:- It may be noted that laws are different from customs in the following ways:
1.       Law has a coercive character. Therefore, it compels people to act in a particular way. Customs, on the other hand, are respected and practised because of the sensitise of traditions and social approval associated with them.
2.       Customs are specific to groups and clans while laws have a more general and universal nature.
3.       Breach of law entails punishment by the state while disregard of customs is frowned upon by the society and only in an extreme case may result in ostracism.
4.       Laws are a more recent phenomenon associated with the growth of the state and its institutions, while customs existed in one form or another at all times and in all societies.

13.   Write briefly about the five pillars of Islam.       4
Ans.:- The five aspects constitute the ‘pillars’ of Islam. They are:-
1.       Bearing witness in public at least once in one’s lifetime that ‘There is no God but God and Muhammad is His prophet.’ Islam’s fundamental ideas are the oneness of God and the finality of the Prophet.
2.       Praying five times a day (before sunrise, early afternoon, late afternoon, immediately after sunset, and before retiring), while facing the Ka’ bah at Mecca.
3.       Paying welfare tax (zakat) for poor.
4.       Fasting during Ramadan (the ninth month of the Islamic lunar year) with no eating, drinking, smoking, or sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset.
5.       Performing the annual pilgrimage to the Ka’ bah once in one’s adult lifetime provided one can afford the journey and has provision for one’s family.

14.   Explain the two types of interview.        4
Ans.:- There are two types of interviews: (a) he structured, formal interview follows a set pattern. All the questions are decided beforehand and the exact wording remains the same in each one. It is standardized and controlled. (b) the informal unstructured interview allows the respondents to expand and develop answers. A tape recorder may also prove very handy if allowed by the respondent. The interviewer must be skilled and able to direct the respondents in order to obtain information relevant to the study.

15.   Analyze the relationships between norms and values.  4
Ans.:- Values may be defined as a measure of goodness or desirability. They provide general guidelines for conduct. In this sense they are often referred to as “higher order norms.” But norms are given much more specific meaning. They define appropriate and acceptable behaviour in particular situations. Values are cherished only through the observance of norms. The relationship between the two can be made clear by the following example. A society may cherish the value of “privacy”. This value provides only a general guide to behaviour. Norms define how the value of ‘privacy’ is translated into action in particular situations and circumstances. For instance, norms relating to privacy may insist that person ‘letters must not be opened without permission etc.
16.   Describe urban social problems in brief.              4
Ans.:- Urban society has several social problems such as congestion of population, slums, crime, and acute shortage of resources and facilities (such as water, electricity). Certain problems emerge from anonymity in cities, where personal relation and primary group have broken down. It causes tremendous mental pressure and tension. That is why, psychological ailments are numerous in cities. Because of large migration to cities 

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