SOCIOLOGY (331) - April' 2011 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (April’ 2011)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       Name any one book written by Emile Durkheim.             1
Ans.:- Laws of marriage.

2.       Give an example of a group where secondary cooperation is found.      1
Ans.:- Political party.

3.       Who is a juvenile delinquent?  1
Ans.:- The crime committed by children is called juvenile delinquency.

4.       List any two differences between Sociology and History.                             2
Ans.:- While history confines itself with specific societies, sociology attempts to generalize about human societies.
Sociology is an observational, comparative, and generalizing science. History basses itself on an analysis.

5.       Why is Hindu marriage a sacrament?     2
Ans.:- Hindu marriage is a sacrament which purifies a person. Marriage is considered so sacred that there is no provision for divorce in the Hindu texts. In fact, marriage is considered a union of two souls which remain faithful to each other forever.

6.       Mention any two characteristics of acculturation.            2
Ans.:- Two characteristics of Acculturation are:-
1.       Acculturation could be either a conscious or an unconscious process. People borrowing the culture traits of other groups might be aware of the fact that they are borrowing or they might do it without realizing that these are being borrowed by them.
2.       Acculturation takes place when two or more communities belonging to different cultures come together and start adopting each others culture trait. So it is a two way process of culture change. Both the groups involved undergo some change. 

7.       Name the four Vedas.   2
Ans.:- Four Vedas are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda

8.       What is socialisation?   2
Ans.:- Socialization is a process of owning, adopting and initiating the newborn, stage by stage in the family, community and society.

9.       Define social structure.                2
Ans.:- According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups. It may be said that social structure refers to the overall composition of a society.

10.   What is the relevance of Sociology in our life?  4
Ans.:- Sociology is a subject with important practical relevance in our life. It can contribute to social criticism and practical reform in several ways. These are mainly:-
1.       The improved understanding of a given set of social circumstances often gives us all a better chance of controlling them.
2.       Sociology provides the means of increasing our cultural sensitivities, allowing policies to be based on an awareness of divergent cultural values.
3.       We can investigate the consequences of the adoption of particular policy programmes.
4.       Finally and perhaps most important, sociology provides self-enlightenment, offering groups and individuals an increased opportunity to alter the conditions of their own lives.

11.   Highlight the differences between community and association.              4
Ans.:- The following are the differences between Community and Association:-
They are spontaneously created social grouping
People organize with a particular purpose in mind.
Community have more endurance, continuity and have a long past.
May be short-lived.
Society as a system of social relationship can exist.
Importance is attached to the group members and specificity of the goal.
Function through customs, tradition and unwritten laws.
Mostly functions through written laws and rules.

12.   How are laws different from customs? 4
Ans.:- It may be noted that laws are different from customs in the following ways:
1.       Law has a coercive character. Therefore, it compels people to act in a particular way. Customs, on the other hand, are respected and practised because of the sensitise of traditions and social approval associated with them.
2.       Customs are specific to groups and clans while laws have a more general and universal nature.
3.       Breach of law entails punishment by the state while disregard of customs is frowned upon by the society and only in an extreme case may result in ostracism.
4.       Laws are a more recent phenomenon associated with the growth of the state and its institutions, while customs existed in one form or another at all times and in all societies.

13.   Write briefly about the five pillars of Islam.       4
Ans.:- The five aspects constitute the ‘pillars’ of Islam. They are:-
1.       Bearing witness in public at least once in one’s lifetime that ‘There is no God but God and Muhammad is His prophet.’ Islam’s fundamental ideas are the oneness of God and the finality of the Prophet.
2.       Praying five times a day (before sunrise, early afternoon, late afternoon, immediately after sunset, and before retiring), while facing the Ka’ bah at Mecca.
3.       Paying welfare tax (zakat) for poor.
4.       Fasting during Ramadan (the ninth month of the Islamic lunar year) with no eating, drinking, smoking, or sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset.
5.       Performing the annual pilgrimage to the Ka’ bah once in one’s adult lifetime provided one can afford the journey and has provision for one’s family.

14.   Explain the two types of interview.        4
Ans.:- There are two types of interviews: (a) he structured, formal interview follows a set pattern. All the questions are decided beforehand and the exact wording remains the same in each one. It is standardized and controlled. (b) the informal unstructured interview allows the respondents to expand and develop answers. A tape recorder may also prove very handy if allowed by the respondent. The interviewer must be skilled and able to direct the respondents in order to obtain information relevant to the study.

15.   Analyze the relationships between norms and values.  4
Ans.:- Values may be defined as a measure of goodness or desirability. They provide general guidelines for conduct. In this sense they are often referred to as “higher order norms.” But norms are given much more specific meaning. They define appropriate and acceptable behaviour in particular situations. Values are cherished only through the observance of norms. The relationship between the two can be made clear by the following example. A society may cherish the value of “privacy”. This value provides only a general guide to behaviour. Norms define how the value of ‘privacy’ is translated into action in particular situations and circumstances. For instance, norms relating to privacy may insist that person ‘letters must not be opened without permission etc.

1.       Describe urban social problems in brief.      4

Ans.:- Urban society has several social problems such as congestion of population, slums, crime, and acute shortage of resources and facilities (such as water, electricity). Certain problems emerge from anonymity in cities, where personal relation and primary group have broken down. It causes tremendous mental pressure and tension. That is why, psychological ailments are numerous in cities. Because of large migration to cities unemployment is found in large number in the urban areas. This happens due to push and pull factors. This causes a lot of frustration among the people.

Push factor means that lack of employment in the villages pushes the villagers to the towns in search of jobs. Pull factor means the relatives in the town invite their close people and try to give them jobs. Besides, the entertainment aspect of urban life attracts or pulls the people to the towns.

2.       Explain the process of Sanskritisation.          4

Ans.:- Sanskritization:- It is a process by which any low caste could adapt to the behaviour pattern, style of life, and culture of high caste and claim membership in that high caste. But they have to leave their unclean occupation and other impure habits like meat eating and taking liquor, etc. The untouchables were not allowed to sanskritize their status. Thus only middle castes could sanskritize themselves. For sanskritization, a caste must have three conditions: (a) it should have a touchable status, (b) it should have better economic condition, (c) it should make a claim to membership into a high caste, by propagating some story or myth.

3.       Describe the significance of kinship relations.           4

Ans.:- We can categorize the kinship relationship in term s of degree of closeness into following types:-

a.        Primary kin:- Primary kins or first degree kins are those who are directly related to each other.  These kins may belong to the family of orientation i.e. the one in which we are born and brought up. For example our, our father, mother, brother and sisters are our primary kins because we are directly related to these persons through blood or genetic ties.

b.      Secondary kin:- The primary kins of our first degree kins are our secondary kins. They are not directly related to us but through primary kins. There can be 33 types of secondary kins. Examples of secondary kin are: Father’s father i.e. paternal grandfather, mother’s father i.e. maternal grandfather, father’s mother i.e. paternal grandmother, wife’s or husband’s brothers and sisters, parents and so on.

c.       Tertiary Kin:-  The primary kins of our secondary kins or secondary kins of our primary kins are known as our tertiary kins or third degree kins. For example, you brother-in-law is you secondary kin or third degree kins. For example, your brother in law is your secondary kin and his wife or children who are his primary kins become your tertiary kin. There are 151 types of tertiary kins. For example, father’s brother’s wife, father’s sister’s husband, father’s mother’s brother, father’s mother’s sister and so on.

4.       Explain four main causes of poverty in India.             4

Ans.:- Main causes of Poverty are as follows:

1.       Social causes:- In society, scheduled castes occupied lowest position. They did not posses any property. So, they remained poor for centuries, generation after generation. Heavy expenditure on performance of social customs, tradition, rituals also make many person poor.

2.       Economic causes:- Unequal distribution of land, unemployment, low wages, and indebtedness are responsible for poverty. In our society, a number of families are landless or near landless. They are dependent on others for work and wages.

3.       Political causes:- Improper policies in the past are also responsible for poverty in our country. We have now opened our market for foreign countries. The production system in our country has now to match its production with them. Heavy industries have adverse influence on rural and cottage industries. Lack of proper marketing system for agricultural produce and forest produce has also very few even for educated youths.

4.       Religious causes:- Religious beliefs and practices also adds to poverty in our country. People spend good amount on performing religious rites and rituals. They even take loans at high rate of interest from the money-lenders. When loan and interest is not paid they have to mortgage or sell land, ornaments and other kind of property. Those who do not have landed property have to work as bonded labour on nominal wages.

5.       Highlight the differences between primary and secondary groups. 6

Ans.:- Distinction between Primary and Secondary Groups:-


Primary Group

Secondary Group





Persists overtime


Nature of proximity

High, face to face


Nature of interests



Nature of relationship



Found more in

Rural society

Urban society

6.       How did Green Revolution lead to social change?   6

Ans.:- As population rise, consequently the demand for food grew, India found itself depending upon food imports to deed its teeming millions. The situation warranted a close look at increasing agricultural productivity and the answer that finally helped India to become self-sufficient in food has been termed the “Green Revolution,”

While output was significantly higher than earlier, the outcome was not necessarily a positive one for all states and for all sections of society at large.

(a)    The increasing importance of large tracts of farmland and of capital gave a distinct advantage to that section of society, which had access to them. Relationships, based on land, gave way to an employer-employee relationship, commonly seen in industrial activities.

(ii)  Since land reforms had been unevenly implemented in various parts of the country, the Green Revolution was confined to the selected states where it was initiated. This , in turn, triggered large-scale seasonal migration from states like Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh to Punjab and Haryana- the cradle of the Green Revolution.

(iii) Additionally, another significant outcome was a widening of inequality across states in general and among the “landed” and the “landless” in particular. Finally, the middle castes who had gained access to land in the wake of land reforms became the biggest beneficiaries of these changes and slowly emerged as a dominant force in Indian policies.

7.       Explain the changes in the structure and functions of family.             6

Ans.:- The change in the structure and functions of family

1.       Size of the family has been considerably reduced under the impact of urbanization and industrialization. In urban areas, it is very difficult to find large accommodation for large-sized families. Moreover, the income of an individual is not sufficient to meet the requirements of large families. Hence, families in modern times consist basically of husband, wife and their unmarried children. Such families are known as nuclear families.

2.       Rise of nuclear families has changed the inter-relationship among its members. The members of nuclear family interact with each other on more equal terms. They no longer have t o follow the dictates of the elders blindly.

3.       Sometimes, conflict between older and younger generation is seen in the family because of their inability to understand each other’s point of view. As a result, the level of discipline and devotion towards each other has declined.

4.       Some parents do not take care of children adequately because of their jobs, busy schedule or desire of freedom from responsibilities of children.

5.       Boys and girls do not find it necessary to marry the mates selected by their parents. They choose their marital partners on the basis of mutual attraction, career and occupational similarity, financial benefits and so on. Class, caste and compatibility between family-values are no longer very important.

6.       Kinship-ties are not very strong in today’s family set-up. The family members have become more self-centred and self-reliant. They do not spare much time, energy and money for their relatives or kinsmen.

8.       Describe the problems faced by Scheduled Tribes. 6

Ans.:- Scheduled Tribes are those communities who are outside the caste system of our society. They live in hills, forest and coastal and desert areas, and even on islands.

The following are the problems faced by Scheduled Tribes are:-

1.       Problems Related to Forest:- In the forests, STs lived, enjoyed hunting, gathering and shifting cultivation and artefacts made from forest-material. But forest policies and regulations have snatched away traditional rights of S.Ts. over forest.

2.       Land Alienation:- Right from the British days, the tribal lands have been acquired for road, railways, officers, colonies, market, hospital, post office, etc. The outsiders, contractors and money lenders have also purchased lands of tribal. Marriage of tribal girls with non-tribal also resulted in land alienation.

3.       Problem of Health and Nutrition:- Through the practice of food gathering and hunting, tribals were able to get nutrient like vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrate, etc. But ban on hunting and gathering coupled with the depletion of forests has resulted in malnutrition and under-nourishment. The income of majority o tribal families is not enough to feed family members properly.

4.        Lack of Communication:- The tribals live in remote areas. Hence, one has to face a great problem in commuting. It takes much time for news related to welfare and development to reach them. As a result, they are not conscious of their rights and ignorant of a number of development programmes.

5.       Lack of Education:- A good number of tribal families have to struggle hard to maintain their existence. For them, bread is more important than education. Our Government has opened Ashram schools for them. But it has not been possible to enrol their children. Enrolled children too have to work in their houses, adding to the problem of absenteeism and dropouts from schools.

6.       Problem of Identity:- The Scheduled Tribes are conscious of their identity since the British period. They had organised movements against zamindars, Jagridars and British rule, in the form of revolts. Chotanagpur in the then Bihar state had witnessed Maler revolt (1770), Ho revolt (1821), Great Kol revolt (1831) and Santhal revolt (1855).

9.       Explain the main challenges to national integration.              6

Ans.:- Main challenges to national integration are

1.       Communalism:- In our country the feeling of oneness between Hindus and Muslims have been challenged on many occasions. Although there have been minor communal riots in Bihar, U.P. and other states, but the most cruel scenes of riots had appeared in 1947 and 1992 which had touched almost entire length and breadth of our nation. In communal riots, the people forget that they are Indians. They forget that the people whom they are going to kill are also Indians.

2.       Linguism:- Like communalism, linguism also poses a threat to national integration. Lingual loyalty is against the feeling of oneness among the people of a nation. In linguism, the people forget about their national identity and attach more and more importance to their lingual identity. For the relative status of individual languages, they come in conflict and behave like enemy.

3.       Regionalism:- Regionalism, like communalism and linguism, is also a challenge to national integration. Regional aspirations of the people articulated by their leaders threaten national integration. The regional aspirations and loyalty hurt the feeling of national integration. Regionalism is responsible for the existence of a number of regional political parties. It has sponsored the demand of regional autonomy. It has created new States and is working for the creation of more states.





10.   Who started the first school for Dalit girls in Maharashtra? 1

Ans.:- Jyoti Ba Phule.

11.   Name any tow laws for liberation of women in India.            2

Ans.:- The Government of India implemented a number of laws for liberating women from oppressive social customs. These include laws relating to divorce, inheritance etc.

12.   What do you understand by feminism?        2

Ans.:- Feminism is both a concept and practice. Broadly defined, it is a state of awareness that women are oppressed and exploited in all social institutions. Feminism does not just stop at recognizing that there is oppression of women. It believes in raising consciousness and initiating action for bringing about change. They raise questions and resort to protests when women’s rights and self-respect are hurt.

13.   Explain briefly, what domestic violence is. 4

Ans.:- The term ‘domestic violence’ refers to destructive acts which cause physical injury or harm to a women in her household. The term domestic violence is generally used to refer to physical abuse, but it should also include deprivations, which members of a family may experience, through not necessarily physical abuse. Look at this example, A daughter who is not sent to school and forcibly confined to domestic work or denied nutritious food, while sons receive the best of food, best of education and all other facilities for development. in the above instance, there may be no physical abuse involved, but the fact that a girl child is prevented from enjoying the rights conferred on her is also a form of violence.  

14.   What is women empowerment? How can they be empowered?     6

Ans.:- An empowered woman is none who has the freedom to take decisions in matters relating to her life. She is also free from violence in her family and all other social institutions.

Women’s Empowerment through Voluntary Actions:- The women’s movement in India has been a strong force in the struggle for empowerment of women. Prior to independence, organizations such as All India Women’s Conference, Bharat Stri Mandal, Women’s Indian Association, National Council of Women in India came into existence. These organizations no doubt raised issues of women’s inequality, but their thought and action were not radical enough to question patriarchy. However, they organized campaigns against child marriage, purdah and demanded voting rights for women.

Empowerment through action:- .:- The autonomous women’s groups believe in fighting oppression, injustice and discrimination against women in all social institutions. The groups do not compromise their principles for any political, social or economic policies or programmes, which bring indignity to women. They are fully aware of the fact that empowerment cannot be achieved until basic gender inequalities in family, economy, education and political institution are removed. The autonomous women’s groups have two strategies for women’s empowerment – awareness and action. Autonomous women’s groups have taken up issues such as dowry, rape, family violence, alcoholism, sexual harassment at work place and many others. 



25. Name any one popular folk-dance of India. 1

Ans.:- Bhil-Nritya.

26. List any tow characteristics of culture.            2

Ans.:- Two characteristics of culture are:

a.       Culture is universal

b.      Culture is stable, yet it is also dynamic.

27. What is cultural lag?               2

Ans.:- The term culture lag refers to a situation when ideas, values, and norms and beliefs sued to regulate social life do not keep pace with changes in the technology of society.

28. Write about the contributions of Indian scientists in brief.  4

Ans.:- Contributions of Indian scientists:- Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose made discoveries on plant-life in 1897 and startled the world by his demonstration in short waves wireless. In 1902, Prafulla Chandra Ray wrote the history of Hindu chemistry, which acquainted the West with our progress in the field of Chemistry. In 1911 the Indian Institute of Science was founded by Tata at Bangalore for all research work in physics, chemistry etc. in 1914, Indian Science Congress was started to promote the study and research in science, to acquaint people with the progress of science, to create interest in science and establish close contacts among the scientists. It has been doing admirable work in the field of science. As a result of this, Indians made remarkable progress in various branches of science and gained international fame. In 1918, Srinivas Ramanujam started the world by his talents C.V. Raman to Physics in 1930 have all brought them international reputation and Physics (1930).

29. Describe various forms of mass media.          6

ans.:- The various forms of mass media are:-

1.       The oldest media are those of the printed word and picture, which carry their message through the sense of sight. These are the newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets and direct mail circulars. These may be collectively called the print medium. In newspaper, the focus in upon the community, the nation and sometimes even the world of large.

2.       Radio is the mass communication medium aimed at the sense of sound. Radio offers entertainment, news and opinions, discussions and advertising messages and can bring direct coverage of public events into the listener’s home. This is an electronic medium.

3.       Television and motion pictures are appealing to visual and auditory senses. Television programmes are educative, informative and also offer wide range of entertainment and advertising messages. Films may inform and persuade as well as entertain. This also comes under electronic medium.


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