NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2017


1.       In which year was the Dowry Prohibition Act implemented?      1
Ans.:- The Dowry Prohibition Act implemented in the year 1961.

2.       Name the founder of Buddhism.                              1
Ans.:- Gautama Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism.

3.       When was the Mandal Commission Instituted?                1
Ans.:- The Mandal Commission, or the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes Commission (SEBC), was established in India on 1st January 1979.

4.       According to Emile Durkheim, what are social facts?      2
Ans.:- Emile Durkheim said that sociologists study ‘social facts’, which are objective and exist in the consciousness of the collectivity.  Examples of social facts are rules of marriage, laws, ritual performances and various kinds of social statistics, etc.

5.       Name the two types of classification of marriages based on number of mates. 2
Ans.:- Types of Marriage on the basis of Number of Mates:
(a)    Monogamy
(b)   Polygamy

6.       Explain Social Deviance.                               2
Ans.:- The behaviour of some members of the society does not conform to social expectations. As a result, social deviance takes place. Crime, truancy, vagrancy, delinquency, alcoholism and drug addition are examples of social deviance.

7.       What is Human Poverty?             2
Ans.:- Human poverty is a concept that goes beyond the limited view of poverty as lack of income. It refers to the denial of political, social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a ‘reasonable’ standard of living.

8.       What is Regionalism?    2
Ans.:- Regionalism is defined as a feeling of loyalty to a particular part of a country and a wish for it to be more politically independent. It is not just a territorial unit but a culmination of socio-economic and political factors.

9.       Explain Birth Rate?         2
Ans.:- Birth rate is the demographic measure of the rate at which children are born. The most well known is the crude birth rate, which is the number of births that occur each year per 1,000 people in the midyear population.

10.   Define Values. What are three general types of value?                4
Ans.:- Values are broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values define social preference, specify societal choice, and provide a vision for future action.
General types of values are
1)      Moral Values:-  Every society has different types of moral values. They are not scientific. They are related to the religion and different situations of society. For example, respect to the parents, do not steal things, don’t tell a lie. Society does not allow for the violation of such values.
2)      Rational values are scientific and logical in nature viz. Hard wording is a rational value of modern society.
3)      Aesthetic values-are related to the literature, art, culture. Music white in colour are the signs of beautiful women in Indian society.

11.   What do you understand by a Community?        4
Ans.:- According to sociologist, “whenever the members of any group, small or large, live together in such a way that they share the basic conditions of a common life, we call that group a community.” Thus, a community refers to a group of individuals living in a geographical area. They share the same physical environment and the basic conditions of common living. A neighbourhood or a village are good examples of a community.

12.   What are the various techniques of Data Collection?     4
Ans.:- Most important techniques of Data Collection are:
a)      Observation
b)      Survey
c)       Case study
d)      Questionnaire
e)      Interview

13.   What are the various techniques of case study?               4
Ans.:- Case Study is a method of studying social phenomena through the analysis of an individual case. The case may be a person, a group, an institution, a classroom, an episode, a process, a society or any other unit of social life. All data relevant to the case are gathered, and all available data are organized in terms of the case. The case study method gives a unitary.

14.   Explain the four forms of Muslim marriage.        4
Ans.:- There are four forms of Muslim marriage:-
(a)    Nikah or ‘Sahi Nikah’:- The marriage which conforms to the rules of marriage as laid down in the Koran- the holy book of Muslims, is termed as regular marriage or Nikah or Sahi Nikah.
(b)   Fasid:- The marriage which fails to conform to a few conditions initially is called ‘irregular marriage’ or Fasid. The irregularity can later be removed and it can be converted into Sahi Nikah.
(c)    Muta:- Muslims also have a system of temporary marriage and it is called Muta. This type of marriage contract is valid for a fixed period of time and after the expiry of this period, marital relation is automatically dissolved. However, the children born out of this temporary union are given a share in the father’s property.
(d)   Batil:- Batil is that form of mating which cannot be regularised because it violates certain basis principles of Muslim marriage.

15.   What is the aim of Revolution?                4
Ans.:- The term evolution means more than just growth. Growth actually implies a change in size or quality in a desired direction. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. It is a process of growth, increasing complexity and differentiation of structure and functions of society. It also refers to interdependence among differentiated parts. Thus we see that evolution is an expression of continuity indicating a certain direction of change. It is unilinear indirection, i.e. from simple to complex structure and from small to large whereas change may have many directions.
16.   What are the four ‘stages of life’ believed by Hindus?  4
Ans.:- The traditional Hindu society believed in ascribed status, it was hierarchical in  nature where upward mobility was difficult and slow. The concept of Purusharthas (goals of life) guided the life. They are Dharma (morality, the path of righteousness, duties of the individual, etc.), Artha (pursuit of wealth and well-being), Kama (pursuit of bodily desires, particularly sex), and Moksha (salvation). The Hindus believed in four Ashrams or ‘stages of life’ which are related to the above four goals of life.

17.   Explain the causes of corruption.             4
Ans.:- A number of causes are associated with the prevalence of corruption in our society. Some of them are- to make illegal things legal on the basis of bribe or commission, to acquire more and more wealth and consumer good, high aspirations from jobs, to enhance status in the society, to pay dowry, to meet expenditure on technical and higher education of children, to erect modern and beautiful house, to get required number for constituting and running the government, to collect money for fighting election, etc.

18.   Explain the concept of cultural mosaic. 4

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