SOCIOLOGY (331) - April' 2017 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (April’ 2017)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       In which year was the Dowry Prohibition Act implemented?      1
Ans.:- The Dowry Prohibition Act implemented in the year 1961.

2.       Name the founder of Buddhism.                              1
Ans.:- Gautama Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism.

3.       When was the Mandal Commission Instituted?                1
Ans.:- The Mandal Commission, or the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes Commission (SEBC), was established in India on 1st January 1979.

4.       According to Emile Durkheim, what are social facts?      2
Ans.:- Emile Durkheim said that sociologists study ‘social facts’, which are objective and exist in the consciousness of the collectivity.  Examples of social facts are rules of marriage, laws, ritual performances and various kinds of social statistics, etc.

5.       Name the two types of classification of marriages based on number of mates. 2
Ans.:- Types of Marriage on the basis of Number of Mates:
(a)    Monogamy
(b)   Polygamy

6.       Explain Social Deviance.                               2
Ans.:- The behaviour of some members of the society does not conform to social expectations. As a result, social deviance takes place. Crime, truancy, vagrancy, delinquency, alcoholism and drug addition are examples of social deviance.

7.       What is Human Poverty?             2
Ans.:- Human poverty is a concept that goes beyond the limited view of poverty as lack of income. It refers to the denial of political, social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a ‘reasonable’ standard of living.

8.       What is Regionalism?    2
Ans.:- Regionalism is defined as a feeling of loyalty to a particular part of a country and a wish for it to be more politically independent. It is not just a territorial unit but a culmination of socio-economic and political factors.

9.       Explain Birth Rate?         2
Ans.:- Birth rate is the demographic measure of the rate at which children are born. The most well known is the crude birth rate, which is the number of births that occur each year per 1,000 people in the midyear population.

10.   Define Values. What are three general types of value?                4
Ans.:- Values are broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values define social preference, specify societal choice, and provide a vision for future action.
General types of values are
1)      Moral Values:-  Every society has different types of moral values. They are not scientific. They are related to the religion and different situations of society. For example, respect to the parents, do not steal things, don’t tell a lie. Society does not allow for the violation of such values.
2)      Rational values are scientific and logical in nature viz. Hard wording is a rational value of modern society.
3)      Aesthetic values-are related to the literature, art, culture. Music white in colour are the signs of beautiful women in Indian society.

11.   What do you understand by a Community?        4
Ans.:- According to sociologist, “whenever the members of any group, small or large, live together in such a way that they share the basic conditions of a common life, we call that group a community.” Thus, a community refers to a group of individuals living in a geographical area. They share the same physical environment and the basic conditions of common living. A neighbourhood or a village are good examples of a community.

12.   What are the various techniques of Data Collection?     4
Ans.:- Most important techniques of Data Collection are:
a)      Observation
b)      Survey
c)       Case study
d)      Questionnaire
e)      Interview

13.   What are the various techniques of case study?               4
Ans.:- Case Study is a method of studying social phenomena through the analysis of an individual case. The case may be a person, a group, an institution, a classroom, an episode, a process, a society or any other unit of social life. All data relevant to the case are gathered, and all available data are organized in terms of the case. The case study method gives a unitary.

14.   Explain the four forms of Muslim marriage.        4
Ans.:- There are four forms of Muslim marriage:-
(a)    Nikah or ‘Sahi Nikah’:- The marriage which conforms to the rules of marriage as laid down in the Koran- the holy book of Muslims, is termed as regular marriage or Nikah or Sahi Nikah.
(b)   Fasid:- The marriage which fails to conform to a few conditions initially is called ‘irregular marriage’ or Fasid. The irregularity can later be removed and it can be converted into Sahi Nikah.
(c)    Muta:- Muslims also have a system of temporary marriage and it is called Muta. This type of marriage contract is valid for a fixed period of time and after the expiry of this period, marital relation is automatically dissolved. However, the children born out of this temporary union are given a share in the father’s property.
(d)   Batil:- Batil is that form of mating which cannot be regularised because it violates certain basis principles of Muslim marriage.

15.   What is the aim of Revolution?                4
Ans.:- The term evolution means more than just growth. Growth actually implies a change in size or quality in a desired direction. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. It is a process of growth, increasing complexity and differentiation of structure and functions of society. It also refers to interdependence among differentiated parts. Thus we see that evolution is an expression of continuity indicating a certain direction of change. It is unilinear indirection, i.e. from simple to complex structure and from small to large whereas change may have many directions.
16.   What are the four ‘stages of life’ believed by Hindus?  4
Ans.:- The traditional Hindu society believed in ascribed status, it was hierarchical in  nature where upward mobility was difficult and slow. The concept of Purusharthas (goals of life) guided the life. They are Dharma (morality, the path of righteousness, duties of the individual, etc.), Artha (pursuit of wealth and well-being), Kama (pursuit of bodily desires, particularly sex), and Moksha (salvation). The Hindus believed in four Ashrams or ‘stages of life’ which are related to the above four goals of life.

17.   Explain the causes of corruption.             4
Ans.:- A number of causes are associated with the prevalence of corruption in our society. Some of them are- to make illegal things legal on the basis of bribe or commission, to acquire more and more wealth and consumer good, high aspirations from jobs, to enhance status in the society, to pay dowry, to meet expenditure on technical and higher education of children, to erect modern and beautiful house, to get required number for constituting and running the government, to collect money for fighting election, etc.

1.       Explain the concept of cultural mosaic.         4

Ans.:- “Cultural mosaic” is the mix of ethnic groups, languages and cultures that coexist within society. The idea of a cultural mosaic is intended to suggest a form of multiculturalism, different from other systems such as the melting pot, which is often used to describe the United State’ supposed ideal of assimilation. Assimilation means that a person or group has acquired the values of another group to such an extent that it losses its identity. Assimilation is a process where close contact of persons of dissimilar cultures always results in fusion of cultural traits although borrowing may not be so pronounced in one direction as in the case of the other.


2.       What do you understand by the term Sanskritization?          4

Ans.:- Sanskritization:- It is a process by which any low caste could adapt to the behaviour pattern, style of life, and culture of high caste and claim membership in that high caste. But they have to leave their unclean occupation and other impure habits like meat eating and taking liquor, etc. The untouchables were not allowed to sanskritize their status. Thus only middle castes could sanskritize themselves. For sanskritization, a caste must have three conditions: (a) it should have a touchable status, (b) it should have better economic condition, (c) it should make a claim to membership into a high caste, by propagating some story or myth.


3.       Explain the term Norms. What are the characteristics of Norms?                     6

Ans.:- Social norms are rules developed by a group of people that specify as to how people should, and should not behave in various situations. For example, children must take parents’ permission to go out. Social norms are always backed by societal sanction. Sanctions can be negative or positive. In case of negative sanction, the violators of norms suffer some penalties prescribed by the groups, while those who abide by the norms are rewarded as a result of positive sanction.

Characteristics of norms:

1)      Norms are parts of society.

2)      Norms are positive and negative both.

3)      Norms are formal and informal

4)      Norms have situations

5)      Norms are related to sanctions. 


4.       Define Social system. What ate characteristics of Social System?                     6

Ans.:- A social system is an orderly and systematic arrangement of social interaction. Social system is made up of a plurality of individuals. They interact with others according to shared norms and meaning within the social system. There are various sub-system of social system (like political system, religious system, economic system, etc.)

Characteristics of Social System:

1)      Social system is based on the interaction of plurality of individuals.

2)      The interaction must carry a meaning.

3)      Social system is a unity. Here, various parts like institutions, customs, traditions, procedures and laws are arranged in an integrated manner.

4)      Social system is related with cultural system. Culture determines the nature of inter-relation and interaction.


5.       Define family. Write the characteristics of family.   6

Ans.:- Family is the basic unit of society. In its minimal form, family may consist of a husband, wife and children. In its widest sense, it refers to all relatives of several generations connected to each other by blood, marriage or adoption.

Family is the basic unit of social organization. It displays certain specific features or characteristics which are as follows:-

1.       Universality:-  Family as a social unit is universal. There is not a single society in this universe where family is not found. The reason for its universality is that it performs many functions which are indispensable for the individual and society.

2.       Emotional Basis:- Family members are emotionally bound to each other. They provide love, care and protection to each other and are ready to make sacrifices for the welfare of family members.

3.       Limited Size:- A family is basically made up of a husband, wife and their unmarried children, it is a small group and its membership is confined to those who are related by either marriage or blood ties. Large families are getting fewer and fewer day-by-day.

4.       Nuclear Position in Social Structure:- Family is regarded as basic, nuclear or fundamental to all social groupings. In the simpler as well as in the advanced societies, the whole social structure i.e. stable set of social relations, is built largely on the basis of family.

5.       Social Regulations:-  Family is run according to social norms. Its members are trained to follow social norms and customs in the process of socialization. Inter-relationships and interactions among family members are guided by social and legal regulations.


6.       Define Socialization. What are the agents of socialisation? 6

Ans.:- Socialization is a process of owning, adopting and initiating the newborn, stage by stage in the family, community and society.

Agents of Socialization are:-

a.       Family:- A child is born dependent and helpless. He has various biological and psychological attributes. He has to depend on his parents for physical and mental needs. The mother fulfils all these needs of the infant.

b.      Neighbourhood:- The locality and village constitute the neighbourhood in which a child grows up. He is socialised in the physical and social environment of the neighbourhood. He plays with elder siblings, other children of the locality/village and thus, acquires knowledge about physical and social objects available in his neighbourhood. He learns about the nature, characteristics and usefulness of these objects operating in the neighbourhood.

c.       School/Institution:- Schools and educational institutions are important agents of socialization. They provide learning situations and environment to the child which impart discipline and inculcate certain qualities which enable him to develop his personality. This way he learns to discover his own needs and needs of the group to which he belongs. Thus, he learns to conform to the norms set by the school and other institutions.

d.      Society:- we live in society. All our actions and behaviour are governed by different rules and regulations. No one can act independently with complete disregard to society and social patterns of life. The action and behaviour should commensurate with traditions, customs and norms and values prescribed by the society.

e.      Reward and Punishment:- The process of socialization also involves reward and punishment for the better performance and reinforcement of competitive sense in the child. Reward and punishment operates important agents of socialization. In their operation, there is a basic difference and they serve different purposes. Man is a cultured animal and communicates largely through symbols. If possible, human beings are likely to use symbolic sanctions resorting to other types of  sanction only if the symboke approach fails.


7.       Explain Rural Societies and its characteristics.           6

Ans.:- Rural society means society that lives in village, and is dependent on natural environment. Rural economy rests predominantly on agriculture and allied activities.

Ans.:- The village community has the following characteristics.

(i)      Agriculture is the predominant occupation among them. It is not the only source of income but also the way of life for the villagers.

(ii)    The village community is small in size. It means they live in small geographical areas with lower density of population as compared to the towns.

(iii)   They have primary group behaviour, i.e. face-to-face relationship is found among the members of the village.

(iv)  Their social structure is based on kinship and family relationships. Here the role of lineage (Vansh) is very important.

(v)    They are more conservative and tradition oriented towards the performance of rituals as well as belief in deities.

(vi)  Group feeling and mutual cooperation is more evident among them. They have a brotherhood feeling. They co-operate with each other in times of exigencies.





8.       In which year was the first school for Dalit girls established?             1

Ans.:- In the year 1852.


9.       Name the two great epics.  2

Ans.:- Two great epics are Ramayana and Mahabharata.


10.   Explain the term Double drudgery. 2

Ans.:- Double Drudgery means some work which is boring and you do not want to do but you have to do is Drudgery.


11.   What are Autonomous Women’s Groups?  4

Ans.:- The ongoing efforts to empower the women of India are made by the state, voluntary organizations and women’s groups. Voluntary women’s groups are also known as autonomous women’s group. The common element in efforts being made both by the state and autonomous women’s groups is the recognition of the fact that there is gender discrimination in our society and that special emphasis must be placed on eliminating it. If the constitutional guarantee of equal  opportunities and prohibition of discrimination has to become a reality (put into practice), there has to be a constant effort to identify and remove gender inequalities. The approaches and strategies of the state and voluntary efforts, however, are different.


12.   Explain female Infanticide and its causes.   6

Ans.:- On the eve of British conquest of India, the position of women was very humiliating. Social evils such as female infanticide, sati, child marriage, restrictions on female education, polygyny and ban on widow marriage flourished. In the name of religion, women were kept away from all efforts to seek empowerment. For more than two hundred years after they set foot in India, the British did not interfere with the religious and social life of the people they governed because of their policy of non-interference. But as their position in India was became strong, the British started responding positively to the efforts of enlightened Indian social reformers who had launched a struggle to emancipate women from the clutches of evil social practices and customs. The period between 1829 and 1947 saw the enactment of many laws, which aimed at emancipating women from the clutches of oppressive social customs. Indian social reformers had to work against heavy odds and stiff social opposition. A change-resistant (opposing change) society did not accept the ban on Sati or the legal sanction for widow marriage so very easily.




25. Name the famous temple of Deogarh.           1

Ans.:- Vishnu Temple at Deogarh.


26. What is Sculpture?  2

Ans.:- Sculpture:- the art or practice of shaping figures or designs as by carving wood, marble or clay etc.


27. Explain Flux.                               2

Ans.:- A culture is also time bound. It changes over time. In other world, it is in a continuous state of flux. Culture can be compared t a flowing river. As the river flows down, the water at a given spot along the river gets replaced by the second incoming flow.


28. What is enculturation?          4

Ans.:- Enculturation is a process of education without a formal school. It is learning about one’s own culture in order to become a member of one’s society. It is a process that differs from one society to another. Enculturation is a continuous process of teaching and learning of all aspects of culture. It is not limited to physical activities such as food or dress, nor does it limit to the language we speak. It includes values, norms, attitudes, morality and everything both mental and physical. Learning the culture begins from birth and continues throughout life. Children born to Indian parents in India learn an alien culture if they are encultured in alien environment from their childhood.  Here, we should note that culture is a group phenomenon and not an individual one. It pertains to society or to the people who share a way of life through a process of learning.


29. Highlight the major points of Mass Communication.               6

Ans.:- There are important agencies of communication, which are adjuncts o the mass media. These are:

1.       The press associations collect and distribute news to the newspapers, television channels radio stations and newsmagazines.

2.       The syndicates offer background news and pictures, commentary and entertainment features to newspapers, television and radio and magazines.

3.       The advertising agencies, serve their business clients on the one hand and the mass media on the other.

4.       The advertising departments of companies and institutions play merchandising roles and public relations departments, serve in disseminating image-building information.

5.       The public relations counselling firms and publicity organisations offer information on behalf of their clients and,

6.       Research individuals and groups help gauge the impact of the message and guide mass media for more effective paths.


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