SOCIOLOGY (331) - April' 2013 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (April’ 2013)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       Name the oldest religion.           1
Ans.:- Sikhism.

2.       Who founded the Theosophical Society?             1
Ans.:- Helena Blavatsky

3.       What does Buddha mean?          1
Ans.:- The term Buddha means ‘enlightened’, one who has attained the knowledge of life.

4.       In which year was Royal Asiatic Society founded and by whom?               2
Ans.:- The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland was founded by the eminent Sanskrit scholar, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, on the 15th March 1823.

5.       Name the two types of family on the basis of authority.               2
Ans.:- Families are of two types seen form the point of view of authority. These are
(a)    Patriarchal Family
(b)   Matriarchal Family

6.       What is a social group? 2
Ans.:- A social group is simply a number of people who interact with each other on a regular basis. It establishes social relationship among social beings. Groups are units of society, having all characteristics of the society, except for the fact that groups are concrete entities.

7.       What was the religious name of Narendranath Dutta and where was he born? 2
Ans.:- The religious name of Narendranath Dutta was Vevekananda. He was born in January 12, 1863, Calcutta.

8.       What is secularism?       2
Ans.:- Secularism is a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism.

9.       What is meant by population explosion?             2
Ans.:- Populating explosion is a rapid growth of population. It reveals increase in population at an alarming rate. The growth rate of population is basically difference between birth rate and death rate.

10.   What is the scope of Sociology?                               4
Ans.:-Sociology is systematic and objective study of human society. Sociologists study individual’s social actions. Social relationships such as between husbands and wife, teacher and student, buyer and seller, and social processes, namely, co-operation, competition, conflict and organizations, communities and nations, and social structures (family, class and state), are the basis of sociological enquiry. Interpretations guided by norms and values give rise to social institutions. Sociology, therefore, is the study of social life as a whole. Sociology has a wide range of concerns and interests. It seeks to provide classifications and forms of social relationships, institutions and associations, relating to economic, political, moral, religious and social aspects of human life.

11.   Write briefly about any four techniques of data collection.        4
Ans.:- Technique of data collection:-
1)      Observation:- Observation is used as a tool of collecting information in situations where methods other than observation cannot prove useful, e.g., voter’s behaviour during election time. The purpose of observation is to explore important events and situations capturing human conduct as it actually happens.
2)      Social Survey:- The techniques of survey are: mail questionnaire or interview to elicit information directly and interpreting the resulting data by means of statistical analysis. It provides an alternative to the experimental method or participant observation and is widely used in sociology.
3)      The questionnaire:- This must be carefully prepared and tested to check its value. Words and phrases must be familiar and simple, questions must not be ambiguous, it should demand short and easy-to-analyze answers, it should be value-free and it should provide the data from which the hypothesis can be tested.
4)      Interviews:-  Interview is a conversation between an investigator and an informant for the purpose of gathering information. A number of the social sciences use the interview as one of their techniques of data collection. The interview-schedule is filled by the researcher himself while engaged in the face-to-face interview of the respondent.

12.   What are values? Mention three kinds of value.              4
Ans.:- Values are broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values define social preference, specify societal choice, and provide a vision for future action.
General types of values are
1)      Moral Values:-  Every society has different types of moral values. They are not scientific. They are related to the religion and different situations of society. For example, respect to the parents, do not steal things, don’t tell a lie. Society does not allow for the violation of such values.
2)      Rational values are scientific and logical in nature viz. Hard wording is a rational value of modern society.
3)      Aesthetic values-are related to the literature, art, culture. Music white in colour are the signs of beautiful women in Indian society.

13.   What do you understand by community? Give example.             4
Ans.:- According to sociologists, “whenever the members of any group, small or large, live together in such a way that they share the basic conditions of a common life, we call that group a community.” Thus, a community refers to a group of individuals living in a geographical area. They share the same physical environment and the basic conditions of common living. A neighbourhood or a village are good examples of a community.

14.   What are the three types of authority? Explain.               4
Ans.:- The three types of authority are distinguished by their respective sources of legitimacy. When legitimacy is derived from the existing conventions and customs, it is called traditional authority. Suppose, the rule is that after the father, the son will become the head of the state, it is an example of traditional authority. In rational legal authority, the laws are formally laid down rules and prescriptions are impersonal and apply equally to all. Individuals have to compete for authority, which is distributed depending upon the rules. Besides the impersonal laws in this system, merit and qualification are also important principles. The third type of authority is called charismatic. It emerges in situations of crises that the existing system is unable to solve. When this happens, people crave for an intervention by a person who could resolve the crises for them, which may be natural, social, or political. Such a person becomes the bearer of charisma.

15.   Differentiate between evolution and revolution.            4
Ans.:- Evolution: The term evolution means more than just growth. Growth actually implies a change in size or quality in a desired direction. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. It is a process of growth, increasing complexity and differentiation of structure and functions of society. It also refers to interdependence among differentiated parts.
Revolution: Revolution is a form of sudden and abrupt overthrow of the existing social order and system. It is also characterized by a change that comes about in a short period of time. The system that replaces the existing one is totally different and new. Like in the case of the French Revolution the rule of the Emperor came to an end suddenly.

1.       Describe the causes of corruption.  4

Ans.:- A number of causes are associated with the prevalence of corruption in our society. Some of them are- to make illegal things legal on the basis of bribe or commission, to acquire more and more wealth and consumer good, high aspirations from jobs, to enhance status in the society, to pay dowry, to meet expenditure on technical and higher education of children, to erect modern and beautiful house, to get required number for constituting and running the government, to collect money for fighting election, etc.


2.       What do you understand by cultural mosaic? How is it different from plural society?            4

Ans.:- “Cultural mosaic” is the mix of ethnic groups, languages and cultures that coexist within society. The idea of a cultural mosaic is intended to suggest a form of multiculturalism, different from other systems such as the melting pot, which is often used to describe the United State’ supposed ideal of assimilation.

Multiculturalism, different from other systems such as the melting pot, which is often used to describe the United States’ supposed ideal of assimilation.


3.       Describe the principles of Buddhism.            4.

Ans.:- Buddhism does not acknowledge the presence of any supreme god. The ideas, therefore, built around god have no place in it. Neither does it have the idea of a personal god, one with whom one has relations of love and affection. In Buddhism, the only way to attain salvation (nirvana, i.e. permanent release from the cycle of birth and death) is by following a set of ethical and moral principles. It refuses to accept the principles of the Hindu social order, i.e. the varna and jati system. It does not lend support to the system of animal sacrifice.


4.       What is poverty? Explain.    4

Ans.:- Poverty is an universal problem. It is a condition of an individual in which his income is so low that he is unable to feed or provide shelter for himself and his family members. Those who do not have such income are called poor.

Poverty is also an inability to earn sufficient income to arrange two square meals a day for himself as well as family members. A sizable section of the population of our country fails to earn such income. So, they are considered to live below poverty line.


5.       Explain the main characteristics of the secondary group. Give example.       6

Ans.:- Where relations are impersonal, face to face contact is not present, it is called a secondary group, e.g. a political party, caste and trade unions.

The external features/characteristics of secondary group are:

i)        Large in size-Red cross society consists of members from all over the world

ii)       Indirect relation-The members communicate with each other by indirect means, i.e. letter, fax and telephone, etc.

iii)     Goal-oriented-The main function of this group is to fulfil a specific need.

iv)     Impersonal relation- The members need not meet face to face and still perform their job.

v)      Option of membership-The membership is not compulsory. One can become a member of Rotary club or Red Cross society.


6.       Define social system. What are the main characteristics of social system?   6

Ans.:- A social system is an orderly and systematic arrangement of social interaction. Social system is made up of a plurality of individuals. They interact with others according to shared norms and meaning within the social system. There are various sub-system of social system (like political system, religious system, economic system, etc.)

Characteristics of Social System:

1)      Social system is based on the interaction of plurality of individuals.

2)      The interaction must carry a meaning.

3)      Social system is a unity. Here, various parts like institutions, customs, traditions, procedures and laws are arranged in an integrated manner.

4)      Social system is related with cultural system. Culture determines the nature of inter-relation and interaction.


7.       Explain any four types of economic system.               6

Ans.:- Four types of economic system are:-

1.       Traditional Economic System:- A traditional economic system focuses exclusively on goods and services that are directly related to its beliefs, customs, and traditions. It relies heavily on individuals and doesn’t usually show a significant degree of specialization and division of labour. In other words, traditional economic systems are the most basic and ancient type of economies.

2.       Command Economic System:- A command economic system is characterized by a dominant centralized power (usually the government) that controls a large part of all economic activity. This type of economy is most commonly found in communist countries. It is sometimes also referred to as a planned economic system because most production decisions are made by the government (i.e., planned), and there is no free market at play.

3.       Market Economic System:- A market economic system relies on free markets and does not allow any government involvement in the economy. In this system, the government does not control any resources or other relevant economic segments.

4.       Mixed Economic System:- A mixed economic system refers to any mixture of a market and a command economic system. It is sometimes also referred to as a dual economy. Although there is no clear-cut definition of a mixed economic system, in most cases the term is used to describe market economies with strong regulatory oversight and government control in specific areas (e.g., public goods and services).


8.       Explain the elements of socialisation.           6

Ans.:- Communication is one of the basic elements of socialization. It is through the communication skills that a child learns to communicate his feelings and emotions to others. It is through the process of communication that learning occurs.

Role identification and role performance are the other elements of socialization. Socialization enables the child to perform certain social roles effectively. Thus, it influences the social behaviour of the child to perform his role in consonance with the approved social norms and values laid down by the society.

Culture is an element of socialization, which is passed on from one generation to the next. An organised society is built up by means of social organisation and is transmitted from one generation to another by the process of learning. The values of a society and the ways of doing and thinking that are considered right and proper are learnt by the young child. Socialization constitutes these learning processes.


9.       Describe how Sanskritization and Westernization have make changes in the caste system.6

Ans.:- Sanskritization:- It is a process by which any low caste could adapt to the behaviour pattern, style of life, and culture of high caste and claim membership in that high caste. But they have to leave their unclean occupation and other impure habits like meat eating and taking liquor, etc. The untouchables were not allowed to sanskritize their status. Thus only middle castes could sanskritize themselves. For sanskritization, a caste must have three conditions: (a) it should have a touchable status, (b) it should have better economic condition, (c) it should make a claim to membership into a high caste, by propagating some story or myth.

Westernisation:- It indicates adapting to western style of living, language, dress pattern, and behaviour pattern. In India largely the British influence has been found. The features of westernisation are: (a) rational outlook (scientific and goal oriented outlook), (b) interest in material progress, (c) reliance on modern communication process and mass media, (d) English medium education,(e) high social mobility, etc. The higher castes were first to westernise themselves.






10.   In which year did the Constitution of India come into existence?     1

Ans.:- In the year 1950, the Constitution of India came into existence.


11.   Name the two periods the modern age can be classified into.           2

Ans.:- The Modern Age can be classified into two periods. These are:

i)        The British period (1800-1947)

ii)       The period after Independence (1947- till date)


12.   Who started the school for girls and in which year?                2

Ans.:- Jyoti Ba Phule the great reformer form Maharashtra dedicated his life for the cause of women. He started a school for girls in 1848 and in 1852 established the first school for Dalit girls.


13.   Explain women’s movement.            4

Ans.:- Women’s movement refers to the struggles launched by individuals and groups for liberating women from the clutches (control) of social evils and also for establishing equality between men and women. Women’s movement is also referred to as the women’s Liberation Movement. The ideology of the women’s movement is that women have equal rights and opportunities available in society. Women’s movement believes in activism or action directed at ensuring that women get their rightful place in society. The women’s movement fights against oppression of women in all social institutions. It also acts as a pressure group (a group whose voices and actions influence public policy and public opinion) and urges the state to enact laws, which give women their due share in the economic and political affairs of the country.


14.   Which year did the Government of India declare as the ‘Women’s Empowerment year’ and what were its objectives?        6

Ans.:- The Government of India declared 2001 as the year of Women’s Empowerment. Three primary objective were set to achieved during this year. These were:-

1.        Creating and raising large scale awareness of women’s issues with active participation and involvement of women and men.

2.       Initiating and accelerating action for improving access to and control of resources by women.

3.       Creating an enabling environment for enhancing self-confidence and autonomy of women.





25. Name the famous temple of Puri.    1

Ans.:- Jagannath Temple.


26. What is sculpture?   2

Ans.:- The Mathura and Sarnath schools, paid special attention to the physical charm of the statues and to the dignity of their poses. Statues of Vishnu, Shiva, Buddha and other gods and goddess were sculptured in minute details. All the statues found inside the temples of Orissa (Puri, Konar, Bhubaneswar etc.) are characterized by a highly developed sense of rhythm and beauty.


27. What is print medium?          2

Ans.:- The oldest media are those of the printed word and picture, which carry their message through the sense of sight. These are the newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets and direct mail circulars. These may be collectively called the print medium.


28. What do you understand by cultural pluralism?         4

Ans.:- While discussing cultural pluralism, we should first understand the term ‘pluralism’ which means many. Cultural pluralism originates when two or more culture groups occupy a single geographical area, and participate in some common activity/activities, borrow elements of culture from each other, but continue to maintain their respective cultural autonomy.


29. Describe the major forms of mass media.     6

ans.:- The various forms of mass media are:-

1.       The oldest media are those of the printed word and picture, which carry their message through the sense of sight. These are the newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets and direct mail circulars. These may be collectively called the print medium. In newspaper, the focus in upon the community, the nation and sometimes even the world of large.

2.       Radio is the mass communication medium aimed at the sense of sound. Radio offers entertainment, news and opinions, discussions and advertising messages and can bring direct coverage of public events into the listener’s home. This is an electronic medium.

3.       Television and motion pictures are appealing to visual and auditory senses. Television programmes are educative, informative and also offer wide range of entertainment and advertising messages. Films may inform and persuade as well as entertain. This also comes under electronic medium.


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