Sunday, December 29, 2019

NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2013

APRIL 2013

1.       Name the oldest religion.           1
Ans.:- Sikhism.

2.       Who founded the Theosophical Society?             1
Ans.:- Helena Blavatsky

3.       What does Buddha mean?          1
Ans.:- The term Buddha means ‘enlightened’, one who has attained the knowledge of life.

4.       In which year was Royal Asiatic Society founded and by whom?               2
Ans.:- The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland was founded by the eminent Sanskrit scholar, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, on the 15th March 1823.

5.       Name the two types of family on the basis of authority.               2
Ans.:- Families are of two types seen form the point of view of authority. These are
(a)    Patriarchal Family
(b)   Matriarchal Family

6.       What is a social group? 2
Ans.:- A social group is simply a number of people who interact with each other on a regular basis. It establishes social relationship among social beings. Groups are units of society, having all characteristics of the society, except for the fact that groups are concrete entities.

7.       What was the religious name of Narendranath Dutta and where was he born? 2
Ans.:- The religious name of Narendranath Dutta was Vevekananda. He was born in January 12, 1863, Calcutta.

8.       What is secularism?       2
Ans.:- Secularism is a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism.

9.       What is meant by population explosion?             2
Ans.:- Populating explosion is a rapid growth of population. It reveals increase in population at an alarming rate. The growth rate of population is basically difference between birth rate and death rate.

10.   What is the scope of Sociology?                               4
Ans.:-Sociology is systematic and objective study of human society. Sociologists study individual’s social actions. Social relationships such as between husbands and wife, teacher and student, buyer and seller, and social processes, namely, co-operation, competition, conflict and organizations, communities and nations, and social structures (family, class and state), are the basis of sociological enquiry. Interpretations guided by norms and values give rise to social institutions. Sociology, therefore, is the study of social life as a whole. Sociology has a wide range of concerns and interests. It seeks to provide classifications and forms of social relationships, institutions and associations, relating to economic, political, moral, religious and social aspects of human life.

11.   Write briefly about any four techniques of data collection.        4
Ans.:- Technique of data collection:-
1)      Observation:- Observation is used as a tool of collecting information in situations where methods other than observation cannot prove useful, e.g., voter’s behaviour during election time. The purpose of observation is to explore important events and situations capturing human conduct as it actually happens.
2)      Social Survey:- The techniques of survey are: mail questionnaire or interview to elicit information directly and interpreting the resulting data by means of statistical analysis. It provides an alternative to the experimental method or participant observation and is widely used in sociology.
3)      The questionnaire:- This must be carefully prepared and tested to check its value. Words and phrases must be familiar and simple, questions must not be ambiguous, it should demand short and easy-to-analyze answers, it should be value-free and it should provide the data from which the hypothesis can be tested.
4)      Interviews:-  Interview is a conversation between an investigator and an informant for the purpose of gathering information. A number of the social sciences use the interview as one of their techniques of data collection. The interview-schedule is filled by the researcher himself while engaged in the face-to-face interview of the respondent.

12.   What are values? Mention three kinds of value.              4
Ans.:- Values are broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values define social preference, specify societal choice, and provide a vision for future action.
General types of values are
1)      Moral Values:-  Every society has different types of moral values. They are not scientific. They are related to the religion and different situations of society. For example, respect to the parents, do not steal things, don’t tell a lie. Society does not allow for the violation of such values.
2)      Rational values are scientific and logical in nature viz. Hard wording is a rational value of modern society.
3)      Aesthetic values-are related to the literature, art, culture. Music white in colour are the signs of beautiful women in Indian society.

13.   What do you understand by community? Give example.             4
Ans.:- According to sociologists, “whenever the members of any group, small or large, live together in such a way that they share the basic conditions of a common life, we call that group a community.” Thus, a community refers to a group of individuals living in a geographical area. They share the same physical environment and the basic conditions of common living. A neighbourhood or a village are good examples of a community.

14.   What are the three types of authority? Explain.               4
Ans.:- The three types of authority are distinguished by their respective sources of legitimacy. When legitimacy is derived from the existing conventions and customs, it is called traditional authority. Suppose, the rule is that after the father, the son will become the head of the state, it is an example of traditional authority. In rational legal authority, the laws are formally laid down rules and prescriptions are impersonal and apply equally to all. Individuals have to compete for authority, which is distributed depending upon the rules. Besides the impersonal laws in this system, merit and qualification are also important principles. The third type of authority is called charismatic. It emerges in situations of crises that the existing system is unable to solve. When this happens, people crave for an intervention by a person who could resolve the crises for them, which may be natural, social, or political. Such a person becomes the bearer of charisma.

15.   Differentiate between evolution and revolution.            4
Ans.:- Evolution: The term evolution means more than just growth. Growth actually implies a change in size or quality in a desired direction. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. It is a process of growth, increasing complexity and differentiation of structure and functions of society. It also refers to interdependence among differentiated parts.
Revolution: Revolution is a form of sudden and abrupt overthrow of the existing social order and system. It is also characterized by a change that comes about in a short period of time. The system that replaces the existing one is totally different and new. Like in the case of the French Revolution the rule of the Emperor came to an end suddenly.

16.   Describe the causes of corruption.          4
Ans.:- A number of causes are associated with the prevalence of corruption in our society. Some of them are- to make illegal things legal on the basis of bribe or commission, to acquire more and more wealth and 

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