NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - April' 2012

APRIL 2012

1.       What are folkways?       1
Ans.:- Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.

2.       Name the founder of Buddhism.                              1
Ans.:- Gautama Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism.

3.       Name the saint of the fifteenth century.              1
Ans.:- Vincent Ferrer

4.       From where was the term ‘sociology’ derived? 2
Ans.:- The world ‘sociology’ was derived from the Latin word socius (association), and the Greed word ‘logus’ (theory) debited the theory or science of human association society.

5.       What is positivism?        2
Ans.:- Positivism is the traditional method of sociology, which is generally associated with Auguste Comte. Comte’s emphasis on reporting of social facts is like what we find in natural sciences where accuracy and objectivity in understanding and analysis are core characteristics.

6.       Name different types of surveys.            2
Ans.:- Classification of surveys
a)      Descriptive
b)      Explanatory
c)       Predictive
d)      Evaluative

7.       What is levirate?             2
Ans.:- Levirate: Levirate is the custom in which a widow marries her husband’s brother. Generally, husband’s younger brother marries the widow. This practice is prevalent among the Toda of Nilgiri Hills.

8.       Name the four Vedas.   2
Ans.:- Four Vedas are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda

9.       Describe ‘plural society’.             2
Ans.:- A plural society is defined by Fredrik Barth as a society combining ethic contrasts: the economic interdependence of those groups, and their ecological specialization (i.e. use of different environmental resources by each ethnic group). The ecological interdependence or the lack of completion, between ethnic groups may be based on the different activities in the same region or on long-term occupation of different regions is Defined by J S Furnivall as a medley of peoples- European, Chinese, Indian and native, who do mix but do not combine. Each group holds by its own religion, its own culture and language, its own ideas and ways.

10.   Explain ‘social structure.’             4
Ans.:- Social structure refers to the way the units of a group or a society relate to one another. According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups. It may be said that social structure refers to the overall composition of a society. Its units are groups, institutions, associations and organizations. As we know all men and women relate themselves to each other and they establish a structural form, it may be a group, an association or an organization. Social structure is made up of these structural forms through which society functions. Actually, this structure is there before we come into the world.

11.   Explain ‘ascribed’ and ‘achieved’ status.              4
Ans.:- There are two different kinds of status that people occupy, ascribed status and achieved status.
1.       An ascribed status is a social position that is assigned at birth and is, therefore, usually permanent. Hence, an ascribed status is one into which a person is born and in which he or she remains throughout his or her life, e.g., sex, caste, race and age. A Brahmin, for example, enjoys the ascribed status of a Brahmin by virtue of his birth. In addition, sex, ethnic background, place of birth, and family name supply assigned statuses. Such statuses are said to be ascribed.
2.       An achieved status is one that is chosen or achieved, such as a married person, a parent, a friend, a doctor or an engineer. An achieved status is acquired through one’s own efforts. Society recognizes such changes in achieved status. Statuses which are not fixed by inheritance, biological characteristics, or other factors, over which the individual has no control, are known as achieved statuses.

12.   Differentiate between ‘Sociology’ and ‘Economics’.       4
Ans.:- There are some aspects in which these two subjects differ. Economists collect their data from government publications, census reports, proceedings of the banking institutions, economic survey reports and balance sheets, etc. These data pertain to macro-level situations. It is from a study of these institutions that economists attempt to make generalizations. Rarely do they study the society at a micro-level, for instance at the level of a village or urban neighbourhood? Sociologists, by comparison, carry out their studies at the micro-level using the methodology of intensive fieldwork. The economist’s approach is deductive, i.e., he arrives at general propositions from which specific statements can be made. The sociological approach is inductive. From particular studies, one tries to generalize about the whole, and these propositions are subjected to further testing. Finally, sociology is not as quantitative as is economics.

13.   Explain ‘power’ and ‘authority’.               4
Ans.:- Power is different form authority. What distinguishes these two is legitimacy, i.e. whether the exercise of power is legitimate or warranted under the existing and acceptable set of rules in society or not. The meaning of legitimacy is ‘rightfulness’, whether the individual has been given the right to exercise power. Force is exercised by both-the robber and the policeman-but the force that the latter exercise is legitimate, and not the one which the former exercises. The state has been defined as an institution that has the power to exercise ‘legitimate violence’ over a territory. When the exercise of power is legitimate, it is termed authority. The concept of power itself does not tell us whether it is legitimate or not, because here, the emphasis is on the exercise of force and its compliance. In the concept of authority, the emphasis is on legitimacy. So, legitimate power may be defined as authority.

14.   What are the environmental hazards for human health?              4
Ans.:- Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:
(a)    Air pollution causes respiratory diseases.
(ii)                Water pollution causes enteric diseases.
(iii)               Solid waste pollution causes vector-borne diseases.
(iv)              Toxic waste causes cancer and neurological disorders.

15.   Describe the political factors of social change.  4
Ans.:- Political Factors of Social Change:-  State is the most powerful organisation which regulates the social relationships. It has the power to legislate new laws, repeal old ones to bring social change in the society. Laws regarding child marriage, widow remarriage, divorce, inheritance and succession, untouchability are some of the examples which have brought many changes in the social structure of Indian society.
The type of political leadership and individuals in power also influences the rate and direction of social change. In many societies the political leadership controls the economy also. Scientific technological and non-technological change is also dependent on political development which indirectly affects social change.
There is a direct relationship between the type of political organisation and social change.

16.   Describe the elements of socialization.                4

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