NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - Oct' 2014

1.       Who are affinal Kins?    1
Ans.:- The relationship between son-in-law and father-in-law is an example of affinal kinship. Similarly, one’s brother-in-laws and their children are also examples of affinal kins.

2.       Which is the earliest civilization?            1
Ans.:- Indus Valley Civilization (3000-2000 B.C.)

3.       Name the place where Onge tribe is found.       1
Ans.:- Andaman Islands.

4.       What are the two main types of observation?   2
Ans.:- Two types of observation are:-
1)      Participant Observation
2)      Non-Participant Observation.

5.       What is meant by family of procreation?             2
Ans.:- Family of procreation refers to the family you create through marriage and by having or adopting children. In other words, the family of orientation is the family you were born into involuntarily. Family of procreation is the family that you create.

6.       What are folkways?       2
Ans.:- Folkways are informal rules and norms that, while not offensive to violate, are expected to be followed. Mores (pronounced more-rays) are also informal rules that are not written, but, when violated, result in severe punishments and social sanction upon the individuals, such as social and religious exclusions.

7.       What do you mean by secularism?          2
Ans.:- Secularism is a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism.

8.       What is poverty?             2
Ans.:- Poverty is an universal problem. It is a condition of an individual in which his income is so low that he is unable to feed or provide shelter for himself and his family members. Those who do not have such income are called poor.

9.       Who compiled the Guru Granth Sahib and in which year?           2
Ans.:- Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled the Guru Granth Sahib in 1604.

10.   Describe any four characteristics of primary group.         4
Ans.:- The primary group is an important component of social structure of any society. External features/characteristics of primary groups are:
Small size;
Face to face interaction; and
Physical proximity
Whereas internal features of primary groups are:-
We feeling
Altruism-good will for the group
Spontaneous growth
Enduring character
Relations as ends and as means
Dominance of informal social norms and inter-personal relations with emotional bondage

11.   Describe how Indian village communities were historically characterized.          4
Ans.:- The village community has the following characteristics.
(a)    Agriculture is the predominant occupation among them. It is not the only source of income but also the way of life for the villagers.
(b)   The village community is small in size. It means they live in small geographical areas with lower density of population as compared to the towns.
(c)    They have primary group behaviour, i.e. face-to-face relationship is found among the members of the village.
(d)   Their social structure is based on kinship and family relationships. Here the role of lineage (Vansh) is very important.

12.   What is conflict? Explain.            4
Ans.:- Conflict as another form of social interaction is a process of opposition. It is inherent in every society or social system and is reflected in the attitude, behaviour, stereotypes and social distance. The process of conflict arises when the norms and values of one group come in clash with that of the other or when a group struggles for its own values and objects against others. Sometimes conflict is also apparently noted when an individual or a group seeks to attain its own ends in ways which obstruct the attainment of the same ends by others.

13.   Explain the Characteristics of role.          4
Ans.:- Characteristics of role
1.       Role is a dynamic aspect of the status.
2.       Role exists in status. Role can not be isolated from status.
3.       Role is not found in vacuum. It has a strong cultural aspect.
4.       The normative aspect of role is culture.
5.       Role is relative.
There are no roles without statuses or statuses without roles. Just as in the case of status, the term role is also used with a double significance. Every individual has a series of roles deriving from the various patterns in which he participates and at the same time a role in general, which represents the sum total of these roles and determines what he does for his society and what he can expect from it..

14.   Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy. Give examples.                            4
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.

15.   What are the informal means of social control? Describe each briefly.  4
Ans.:- Informal means of social control are:-
a.       Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.
b.      Mores:- Mores refer to moral conduct as distinct from the customary practice of folkways. They influence the value system of a society and are in the form of social regulations which aim to maintain social order. Mores seek to regulate the relationship between individuals in defined situations, e.g. between husband and wife, parents and children and siblings, etc.
c.       Customs:- Customs are the long established practices of people, which occur spontaneously but gradually. Along with regulating social life, they also bind them together. In primitive societies, customs were powerful means of social control but in modern times, they have weakened due to rise in the forces of individualism and diversity.
d.      Religion:- Religion exercises a powerful influence on its adherents. Emile Durkheim defines religion as the unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. Those who have common beliefs and practices are united into one single moral community through religion.

16.   What are the social problems? Explain.                4

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