SOCIOLOGY (331) - Oct' 2014 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (Oct’ 2014)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       Who are affinal Kins?    1
Ans.:- The relationship between son-in-law and father-in-law is an example of affinal kinship. Similarly, one’s brother-in-laws and their children are also examples of affinal kins.

2.       Which is the earliest civilization?            1
Ans.:- Indus Valley Civilization (3000-2000 B.C.)

3.       Name the place where Onge tribe is found.       1
Ans.:- Andaman Islands.

4.       What are the two main types of observation?   2
Ans.:- Two types of observation are:-
1)      Participant Observation
2)      Non-Participant Observation.

5.       What is meant by family of procreation?             2
Ans.:- Family of procreation refers to the family you create through marriage and by having or adopting children. In other words, the family of orientation is the family you were born into involuntarily. Family of procreation is the family that you create.

6.       What are folkways?       2
Ans.:- Folkways are informal rules and norms that, while not offensive to violate, are expected to be followed. Mores (pronounced more-rays) are also informal rules that are not written, but, when violated, result in severe punishments and social sanction upon the individuals, such as social and religious exclusions.

7.       What do you mean by secularism?          2
Ans.:- Secularism is a belief system that rejects religion, or the belief that religion should not be part of the affairs of the state or part of public education. The principles of separation of church and state and of keeping religion out of the public school system are an example of secularism.

8.       What is poverty?             2
Ans.:- Poverty is an universal problem. It is a condition of an individual in which his income is so low that he is unable to feed or provide shelter for himself and his family members. Those who do not have such income are called poor.

9.       Who compiled the Guru Granth Sahib and in which year?           2
Ans.:- Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled the Guru Granth Sahib in 1604.

10.   Describe any four characteristics of primary group.         4
Ans.:- The primary group is an important component of social structure of any society. External features/characteristics of primary groups are:
Small size;
Face to face interaction; and
Physical proximity
Whereas internal features of primary groups are:-
We feeling
Altruism-good will for the group
Spontaneous growth
Enduring character
Relations as ends and as means
Dominance of informal social norms and inter-personal relations with emotional bondage

11.   Describe how Indian village communities were historically characterized.          4
Ans.:- The village community has the following characteristics.
(a)    Agriculture is the predominant occupation among them. It is not the only source of income but also the way of life for the villagers.
(b)   The village community is small in size. It means they live in small geographical areas with lower density of population as compared to the towns.
(c)    They have primary group behaviour, i.e. face-to-face relationship is found among the members of the village.
(d)   Their social structure is based on kinship and family relationships. Here the role of lineage (Vansh) is very important.

12.   What is conflict? Explain.            4
Ans.:- Conflict as another form of social interaction is a process of opposition. It is inherent in every society or social system and is reflected in the attitude, behaviour, stereotypes and social distance. The process of conflict arises when the norms and values of one group come in clash with that of the other or when a group struggles for its own values and objects against others. Sometimes conflict is also apparently noted when an individual or a group seeks to attain its own ends in ways which obstruct the attainment of the same ends by others.

13.   Explain the Characteristics of role.          4
Ans.:- Characteristics of role
1.       Role is a dynamic aspect of the status.
2.       Role exists in status. Role can not be isolated from status.
3.       Role is not found in vacuum. It has a strong cultural aspect.
4.       The normative aspect of role is culture.
5.       Role is relative.
There are no roles without statuses or statuses without roles. Just as in the case of status, the term role is also used with a double significance. Every individual has a series of roles deriving from the various patterns in which he participates and at the same time a role in general, which represents the sum total of these roles and determines what he does for his society and what he can expect from it..

14.   Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy. Give examples.                            4
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.

15.   What are the informal means of social control? Describe each briefly.  4
Ans.:- Informal means of social control are:-
a.       Folkways:- Folkways are norms to which individuals conform. It is customary to do so. Conformity to folkways is not enforced by law or any other agency of the society. Folkways are manifested in matters of dress, food habits, observance of rituals, forms of worship and method of greeting etc.
b.      Mores:- Mores refer to moral conduct as distinct from the customary practice of folkways. They influence the value system of a society and are in the form of social regulations which aim to maintain social order. Mores seek to regulate the relationship between individuals in defined situations, e.g. between husband and wife, parents and children and siblings, etc.
c.       Customs:- Customs are the long established practices of people, which occur spontaneously but gradually. Along with regulating social life, they also bind them together. In primitive societies, customs were powerful means of social control but in modern times, they have weakened due to rise in the forces of individualism and diversity.
d.      Religion:- Religion exercises a powerful influence on its adherents. Emile Durkheim defines religion as the unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. Those who have common beliefs and practices are united into one single moral community through religion.

1.       What are the social problems? Explain.        4

Ans.:- Social problems are the general factors that affect and damage society. A social problem is normally a term used to describe problems with a particular area or group of people in the world. Social problems often involve problems that affect the real world. It also affects how people react to certain situations. Examples can include:

Anti social behaviour, poverty, drug abuse, prostitution, racial discrimination, alcoholism, economic deprivation, political corruption, unemployment, shortage of schools, the lack of infrastructure etc.


2.       Name the four Vedas and describe each briefly.      4

Ans.:- Four Vedas are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda

1.       Rig Veda:- Rig Veda was the first to be composed. It is regarded as the foundation of the Vedic literature. The Rig Veda is divided into ten chapters or books, called mandalas. The hymns were composed by Vedic sage or rights over very long period of time. The Rig Veda hymns are simple expressions of everyday desires of the early Vedic people for such material gins as cattle, hoses and food.

2.       Sama Veda:- The Sama Veda, which was composed in the later Vedic period, is a collection of those portions of the Rig Veda which were meant to be sung during the performance of a Yoja. Since it is mostly the hymns of the Rig Veda which have been reproduced into the Sama Veda, the Historical value of the latter is lesser.

3.       Yajur Veda:- The Yajur Veda has come down to us in two forms: the Shukla Yajur Veda and Krishna Yajur Veda. The main difference between the two is that whereas the former contains only formulas or spells called Yajus from which the name Yajur Veda is derived, the latter contains discussions on the rituals connected with yajans.

4.       Atharva Veda:- The Atharva Veda which was the last to be composed, is mainly a compilation of the primitive magical charms designed to secure the fulfilment of a variety-of desires, ranging from the cure for some disease to the winning of the lover’s heart. Some of these ideas and beliefs may have been adopted by the Vedic people from the indigenous people with whom they came into close cultural contact..


3.       Highlight the features of a nation.  4

Ans.:-  A Nation is a country with a unified social and political structure. A Nation denoted a body of people who have a feeling of oneness. This feeling of oneness is built on the basis of common history, society, common values and culture. Above all, the feeling of oneness among the people bind them together into a nation.

India is a nation. It is a land inhabited by people of different communities. They live in different regions and speak different languages. They practise different religions and have different life styles. But underlying all these diversities we feel that we are Indians. The feeling of oneness is strengthened by economic and political inter dependence.


4.       What are the major reasons of land alienation among the tribes? Explain.  4

Ans.:- Land alienation caused due to the introduction of monetary economy. For every consumption need, the tribals needed money, but did not have any source of earning. They mortgaged land or sold it off land. Besides, outsiders exploited them and grabbed away their land. Further industrialisation also resulted into acquisition of land by the state. Various State governments  have passed several acts to abolish transfer or sale of tribal land to non-tribals.

5.       What are the major components through which integration is formed?        6

Ans.:- Integration is formed by the following components:-

i.         Sharing of common characteristics facilitates group solidarity resulting from division of labour, reciprocal relationship and interdependence.

ii.       Acceptance and observation of various norms set by the group is another unifying factor.

iii.      Ethnocentrism or a preference for one’s own culture among the members of a group is functional in promoting social control within the group.

iv.     Discipline among the members unites the group.


6.       What are the differences between group and community? Describe.            6

Ans.:- The following are the differences between group and community:-



Group is created

It grows naturally and is also created.

Group may be formed for certain purposes

Community involves the whole life of its members

Comparatively temporary

Comparatively permanent

Group is a part of community

Community consists of many groups

A community is a social unit of any size that shares common values or that is situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a village or town). A group will share common characteristics but they do not necessarily share common values. People join groups to get something. When they get it, they leave.


7.       What are various types of marriage on the basis of number of mates? Explain.         6

Ans.:- Types of Marriage on the Basis of Number of Mates

Marriage may be classified into two main types on the basis of number of husbands or wives a person may have at a time:

a)      Monogamy

b)      Polygamy

(a)    Monogamy: (Mono=single, gamy=marriage) Monogamy is that form of marriage in which a man/woman remains married to only one woman/man at a time. One can marry in certain extraordinary circumstances such as the death of the spouse (husband or wife) or divorce.

(b)   Polygamy: (Poly=many, gamy=marriage) In this form of marriage, a man or woman is permitted to marry more than one woman or man and live with all the wives/husbands at the same time.

Polygamy may be further subdivided into tow types:

(a)    Polygyny

(b)   Polyandry

(c)    Polygyny: (Poly=many, gyny=female) Polygyny is that form of marriage in which a man is married to more than one woman.

(ii)  Polyandry: (Poly=many, andry=male) Polyandry is that form of marriage in which a woman is married to more than one man. In other words, under polyandry, a woman is allowed to have more than one husband at the same time.


8.       Highlight the cultural factors of social change.          6

Ans.:- B                y cultural factors we refer mainly to ideas, knowledge, values, beliefs, inventions and exchange. Culture provides the base for inventions and discoveries.

Sociologists have considered the role of cultural factors in bringing about social change. On the one hand, they consider the inter-relationship between religions and social structure as one aspect of culture, on the other hand, they analyse the moral code of various religions and their impact on the character of its economic system.

Social change occurs through cultural contact between different societies. Diffusion is an important mechanism of social change. One society adopts the cultural traits of another through prolonged contact as in travel, trade and commerce as also through sudden events like war where new and hitherto secret technologies reveal themselves.

Cultural mores as well as new technology are borrowed and adopted when societies find that they fill a vacuum or answer a felt need. Borrowing of cultural traits from an advanced society is commonly seen in developing countries and societies as they try to become modern.

Diffusion also takes place through mass media as it transmits and diffuses information to a large number of people. It has accelerated the process of change by spreading the elements of individual cultures to people far away and thus resulted in a form of cultural modernisation.


9.       Describe the major social problems faced by the street children.     6

Ans.:- The street children do not have any guardian to guide or control them. They are free to do anything. As result, they fall victims of intoxicants like Biri, Cigarettes, tobacco, Ganja, Bhang, liquor etc. intoxicants spoil their health and life. These children also fall victim of sexual exploitation. The street children come in contact with the criminals of the cities. They are trained in picking pockets and stealing goods from the public and crowded places. The street children when caught in connection with crime, are sent to jail. In jail, they come in contact with veteran criminals. In this way, they also become criminals in late life.

From the above account, we come to understand about the following points related to the street children:

1.       These children are run away or trapped children.

2.       They are orphans or separated from the families.

3.       These are victims of poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition.

4.       These children are also victims of physical and sexual oppressions. etc.






10.   In which year the Constitution of India came into existence?             1

Ans.:- In the year 1950, the Constitution of India came into existence.


11.   Explain gender equality.                      2

Ans.:- Gender equality refers to a situation or condition in , which men and women receive equal treatment in all social institutions. In a gender equal society women and men have the freedom to exercise their choices and treat each other with respect.


12.   Name the two great epics of the Indian society.                       2

Ans.:- Two great epics of the Indian society are Ramayana and Mahabharata.


13.   Explain the role of autonomous women’s groups.   4

Ans.:- The autonomous women’s groups believe in fighting oppression, injustice and discrimination against women in all social institutions. The groups do not compromise their principles for any political, social or economic policies or programmes, which bring indignity to women. They are fully aware of the fact that empowerment cannot be achieved until basic gender inequalities in family, economy, education and political institution are removed. The autonomous women’s groups have two strategies for women’s empowerment – awareness and action. Autonomous women’s groups have taken up issues such as dowry, rape, family violence, alcoholism, sexual harassment at work place and many others.


14.   Explain female infanticide. What are its causes?                      6

Ans.:- On the eve of British conquest of India, the position of women was very humiliating. Social evils such as female infanticide, sati, child marriage, restrictions on female education, polygyny and ban on widow marriage flourished. In the name of religion, women were kept away from all efforts to seek empowerment. For more than two hundred years after they set foot in India, the British did not interfere with the religious and social life of the people they governed because of their policy of non-interference. But as their position in India was became strong, the British started responding positively to the efforts of enlightened Indian social reformers who had launched a struggle to emancipate women from the clutches of evil social practices and customs. The period between 1829 and 1947 saw the enactment of many laws, which aimed at emancipating women from the clutches of oppressive social customs. Indian social reformers had to work against heavy odds and stiff social opposition. A change-resistant (opposing change) society did not accept the ban on Sati or the legal sanction for widow marriage so very easily.





25. Who was Akbar’s friend, philosopher and guide?     1

Ans.:- Birbal


26. Explain the term ‘Taboo’.     2

Ans.:- Taboo: A social or religious custom prohibiting or restricting a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person, place, or thing. For example, Muslims approve polygyny which is a taboo among many Hindu groups.


27. Define value.             2

Ans.:- Values are broad idea regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. Values define social preference, specify societal choice, and provide a vision for future action. Individuals values are strongly influenced by their specific culture. Social structure, social institution are generally followed by a change in social values and also sometimes vice versa.


28. What are sculptures? Explain.            4

Ans.:- The Mathura and Sarnath schools, paid special attention to the physical charm of the statues and to the dignity of their poses. Statues of Vishnu, Shiva, Buddha and other gods and goddess were sculptured in minute details. All the statues found inside the temples of Orissa (Puri, Konar, Bhubaneswar etc.) are characterized by a highly developed sense of rhythm and beauty.


29. What do you understand by mass communication? 6

Ans.:- The mass media is defined as the technological means of sending information, ideas, opinions etc., through the mass communication device to a diverse audience. In one sense, words and pictures are the media by which thought and feelings are communicated but medium need not be restricted to this meaning. Medium means something intermediates, a middle state, something that intervenes. For example-money is a medium of exchange between a buyer and seller. Stone is a medium for transmission or transference of thought and feeling. Thus we can say, communication is an act or process involving transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills etc., by the use of verbal or non-verbal means (words, pictures, figures, graphs, gestures, facial expression etc.).

Mass communication for a given message of one moment in time is illustrated here: Source (S) has his message reported by communicator (C) in channel controlled by editor (E), some audience members (A) receive the message directly, others indirectly, but some are inattentive, feedback interactions may occur along the communication route.


0/Post a Comment/Comments

Kindly give your valuable feedback to improve this website.