NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - Oct' 2016


1.       Name the emperor under whose patronage Buddhism flourished.         1
Ans.:- Emperor Ashoka

2.       Name the chief architect of the economic theory of social change.         1
Ans.:- Karl Marx is the chief architect of the economic theory of social change.

3.       Mention the main cause of land alienation.       1
Ans.:- Economic poverty of tribals.

4.       Why is Auguste Comte called the father of sociology?  2
Ans.:- Auguste Comte was the first scholar to use the word ‘sociology’ in order to refer to the science of human association. The word ‘sociology’ was derived from the Latin word socius (association, and the Greek word ‘logus’ (theory) denoted, the theory or science of human association society. Comte wished to establish a science of society that would help to reveal social laws, which he believed controlled development and change.

5.       Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy.                             2
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.

6.       What is an empirical method?  2
Ans.:- The empirical method refers to the collection of data from the field. The facts of social life are studied and described as they exist. The techniques used in this method are observation, survey, experimental, case studies.

7.       Bring out distinction between primary cooperation and secondary cooperation.              2
Ans.:- The co-operation found in primary groups such as family and peer groups (friends) is called primary co-operation where people have to choose face to face relations. In these cases, the interests of the individual merge with the interests of the primary group.
Secondary co-operation is found in the secondary group such as government, industrial houses, voluntary organization and trade union, etc where people co-operate for certain interests.

8.       What is acculturation?  2
Ans.:- Acculturation means transmission of culture elements from one social group to another. Acculturation is a process of culture change, which results due to contact between communities belonging to different cultures.

9.       List the various units of social structure.                               2
Ans.:- Various units of social structure are
a)      Institutions
b)      Association
c)       Organizations.

10.   Describe the relationship between sociology and political science.        4
Ans.:- Political science is mainly concerned with political institutions. Sociology does not give primacy to any institution. For it, all institutions are equally important because each contributes in its own significant way to the functioning of society. Thus, for sociology, political institution is one of the institutions of society and should be analysed in relationship with other institutions. The specialized study of political institution that sociologists undertake is known as political sociology. It more than political science the social bases of the distribution of power, control mechanisms, and the system of laws. Questions dealing with the relationship between social stratification sand the distribution of power, or the role of taboos and other prohibitions in the maintenance of social order, or the place of kinship in political system are sociological questions.

11.   How is caste different from class?           4
Ans.:- While a caste is hereditary, a class is non-hereditary in nature. A class is more open than the caste in the sense that mobility is allowed in the class system. It is not allowed that openly in the caste system. Further, caste system is based on ritual criterion whereas, class is based on secular criterion. Ritual criterion means it is based on religious myths, secular means non-religious criterion like economic, political and social criterion. However, in changing circumstances caste is also adapting to secular criteria. Consciousness is found in the class but not necessarily in the caste. However, today castes are also changing into classes in urban areas particularly in terms of economic criterion.

12.   List and briefly describe the causes of delinquency.       4
Ans.:- We might have heard about a crime committed by a child. We would have also seen a child committing crime in a T.V. serial or film. The crime committed by children is called juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency can be seen from social and legal view points. From the social viewpoints, disrespect shown by a child towards norms, values, customs and traditions of the society can be called juvenile delinquency. But from the legal view-point, breaking of laws established by state by a child is called juvenile delinquency. Children involved in juvenile delinquency are called juvenile delinquents.
Juvenile delinquency is a social pathological behaviour in which a child commits crime. It is a social disease which creates social disorganisation in the society.

13.   Differentiate between ascribed role and achieved role.               4
Ans.:- Ascribed roles: A role that an individual acquires automatically at birth, or on the attainment of certain age. The most universally ascribed role is one’s role, male or female. Different age levels are also associated with different expectations. Roles based on one’s birth as a member of particular racial, caste or religious groups are ascribed.
Achieved roles: A role that an individual has because he has either chosen or earned it. It is the result of his efforts and his action. Thus, roles, which are gained by personal efforts, are known as achieved role such as a general in the army, doctor or an engineer and so on.

14.   How are schools and educational institutions agents of socialization?   4
Ans.:- School/Institution:- Schools and educational institutions are important agents of socialization. They provide learning situations and environment to the child which impart discipline and inculcate certain qualities which enable him to develop his personality. This way he learns to discover his own needs and needs of the group to which he belongs. Thus, he learns to conform to the norms set by the school and other institutions.
Education plays an important role in the development of the human behaviour. After family, it is the class room, the peer group, and the teachers who exercise influence on a child. Education gives moral, intellectual and social insight to the individual. It links one to one’s heritage and sets a perspective before him.

15.   Explain the effects of environment on human society.  4
Ans.:- Effects of environment on human society has been emerging as a major challenge for quite sometime. Development was for long associated with under exploitation of natural resources. We have seen that man, equipped with modern technologies and advanced scientific knowledge, has become an important factor in changing the environmental processes. It has to be realized that disturbances in one of the elements of nature i.e. air, water, land, flora and fauna gives rise to an imbalance in others. Natural processes or human factors sometimes aggravate natural environmental process to cause disaster for human society like (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, cyclones etc). They result in heavy loss of life and property. Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:
(i)                  Air pollution causes respiratory diseases.

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