SOCIOLOGY (331) - Oct' 2016 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (Oct’ 2016)
(331)
NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100




1.       Name the emperor under whose patronage Buddhism flourished.         1
Ans.:- Emperor Ashoka

2.       Name the chief architect of the economic theory of social change.         1
Ans.:- Karl Marx is the chief architect of the economic theory of social change.

3.       Mention the main cause of land alienation.       1
Ans.:- Economic poverty of tribals.

4.       Why is Auguste Comte called the father of sociology?  2
Ans.:- Auguste Comte was the first scholar to use the word ‘sociology’ in order to refer to the science of human association. The word ‘sociology’ was derived from the Latin word socius (association, and the Greek word ‘logus’ (theory) denoted, the theory or science of human association society. Comte wished to establish a science of society that would help to reveal social laws, which he believed controlled development and change.

5.       Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy.                             2
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.


6.       What is an empirical method?  2
Ans.:- The empirical method refers to the collection of data from the field. The facts of social life are studied and described as they exist. The techniques used in this method are observation, survey, experimental, case studies.

7.       Bring out distinction between primary cooperation and secondary cooperation.              2
Ans.:- The co-operation found in primary groups such as family and peer groups (friends) is called primary co-operation where people have to choose face to face relations. In these cases, the interests of the individual merge with the interests of the primary group.
Secondary co-operation is found in the secondary group such as government, industrial houses, voluntary organization and trade union, etc where people co-operate for certain interests.

8.       What is acculturation?  2
Ans.:- Acculturation means transmission of culture elements from one social group to another. Acculturation is a process of culture change, which results due to contact between communities belonging to different cultures.

9.       List the various units of social structure.                               2
Ans.:- Various units of social structure are
a)      Institutions
b)      Association
c)       Organizations.

10.   Describe the relationship between sociology and political science.        4
Ans.:- Political science is mainly concerned with political institutions. Sociology does not give primacy to any institution. For it, all institutions are equally important because each contributes in its own significant way to the functioning of society. Thus, for sociology, political institution is one of the institutions of society and should be analysed in relationship with other institutions. The specialized study of political institution that sociologists undertake is known as political sociology. It more than political science the social bases of the distribution of power, control mechanisms, and the system of laws. Questions dealing with the relationship between social stratification sand the distribution of power, or the role of taboos and other prohibitions in the maintenance of social order, or the place of kinship in political system are sociological questions.

11.   How is caste different from class?           4
Ans.:- While a caste is hereditary, a class is non-hereditary in nature. A class is more open than the caste in the sense that mobility is allowed in the class system. It is not allowed that openly in the caste system. Further, caste system is based on ritual criterion whereas, class is based on secular criterion. Ritual criterion means it is based on religious myths, secular means non-religious criterion like economic, political and social criterion. However, in changing circumstances caste is also adapting to secular criteria. Consciousness is found in the class but not necessarily in the caste. However, today castes are also changing into classes in urban areas particularly in terms of economic criterion.

12.   List and briefly describe the causes of delinquency.       4
Ans.:- We might have heard about a crime committed by a child. We would have also seen a child committing crime in a T.V. serial or film. The crime committed by children is called juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency can be seen from social and legal view points. From the social viewpoints, disrespect shown by a child towards norms, values, customs and traditions of the society can be called juvenile delinquency. But from the legal view-point, breaking of laws established by state by a child is called juvenile delinquency. Children involved in juvenile delinquency are called juvenile delinquents.
Juvenile delinquency is a social pathological behaviour in which a child commits crime. It is a social disease which creates social disorganisation in the society.

13.   Differentiate between ascribed role and achieved role.               4
Ans.:- Ascribed roles: A role that an individual acquires automatically at birth, or on the attainment of certain age. The most universally ascribed role is one’s role, male or female. Different age levels are also associated with different expectations. Roles based on one’s birth as a member of particular racial, caste or religious groups are ascribed.
Achieved roles: A role that an individual has because he has either chosen or earned it. It is the result of his efforts and his action. Thus, roles, which are gained by personal efforts, are known as achieved role such as a general in the army, doctor or an engineer and so on.

14.   How are schools and educational institutions agents of socialization?   4
Ans.:- School/Institution:- Schools and educational institutions are important agents of socialization. They provide learning situations and environment to the child which impart discipline and inculcate certain qualities which enable him to develop his personality. This way he learns to discover his own needs and needs of the group to which he belongs. Thus, he learns to conform to the norms set by the school and other institutions.
Education plays an important role in the development of the human behaviour. After family, it is the class room, the peer group, and the teachers who exercise influence on a child. Education gives moral, intellectual and social insight to the individual. It links one to one’s heritage and sets a perspective before him.

1.       Explain the effects of environment on human society.          4

Ans.:- Effects of environment on human society has been emerging as a major challenge for quite sometime. Development was for long associated with under exploitation of natural resources. We have seen that man, equipped with modern technologies and advanced scientific knowledge, has become an important factor in changing the environmental processes. It has to be realized that disturbances in one of the elements of nature i.e. air, water, land, flora and fauna gives rise to an imbalance in others. Natural processes or human factors sometimes aggravate natural environmental process to cause disaster for human society like (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, cyclones etc). They result in heavy loss of life and property. Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:

(i)      Air pollution causes respiratory diseases.

(ii)    Water pollution causes enteric diseases.

(iii)   Solid waste pollution causes vector-borne diseases.

(iv)  Toxic waste causes cancer and neurological disorders.

 

2.       In what way is regionalism a threat to national integration?               4

Ans.:- Regionalism, like communalism and linguism, is also a challenge to national integration. Regional aspirations of the people articulated by their leaders threaten national integration. The regional aspirations and loyalty hurt the feeling of national integration. Regionalism is responsible for the existence of a number of regional political parties. It has sponsored the demand of regional autonomy. It has created new States and is working for the creation of more states.

 

3.       Highlight the features of dominant caste.   4

Ans.:- A caste can become dominant by having the features like:

(a)    Large land holding s in the area (good economic position)

(b)   Politically dominant (becoming vote bank)

(c)    Having a large population

(d)   High ritual status

(e)   English medium education

(f)     Having a tradition in agriculture (not tillers but landlords) and

(g)    Having a tradition of violence (for dominance muscle power is essential).

 

4.       Give an account of the five pillars of Islam. 4

Ans.:- The five aspects constitute the ‘pillars’ of Islam. They are:-

a)      Bearing witness in public at least once in one’s lifetime that ‘There is no God but God and Muhammad is His prophet.’ Islam’s fundamental ideas are the oneness of God and the finality of the Prophet.

b)      Praying five times a day (before sunrise, early afternoon, late afternoon, immediately after sunset, and before retiring), while facing the Ka’ bah at Mecca.

c)       Paying welfare tax (zakat) for poor.

d)      Fasting during Ramadan (the ninth month of the Islamic lunar year) with no eating, drinking, smoking, or sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset.

e)      Performing the annual pilgrimage to the Ka’ bah once in one’s adult lifetime provided one can afford the journey and has provision for one’s family.

 

5.       List the provisions of Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.  4

Ans.:- Child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 has considered the child labour to a person who has less than 14 years of age but earns little wages.

The Act has prohibited child labour to work in Railways and its campus, Biri making, carpet making, cement production, weaving, dyeing and printing of clothes, preparation of explosive materials, lac industry, soap industry, leather industries and building construction.

 The Act has decided 6 hours as the maximum hours of service rendered by a child labour per day with a rest period of half an hour.

The Act has forbidden services of child labour from 7 P.M. to 8 P.M. In the Act, there is provision of one-day holiday per week.

Keeping of employment register and age certificate of child labour have been made mandatory.

 

6.       What are primary institutions? Explain with examples.        6

Ans.:- According to some sociologists, institutions are basic constituents of any society. They are found in all cultures and in all societies. Some of the institutions are basic to the survival of any society. Some sociologists call them primary institutions. There are six primary institutions found in all societies. They are:

1)      Economic institutions (e.g. agriculture, industry or any other occupation),

2)      Social institutions (e.g. family, marriage and kinship)

3)      Political institutions.

4)      Education or socialization.

5)      Religion, and

6)      Expressive institutions such as music, dance, fine arts and literature, etc.

 

7.       Enumerate the factors that have brought about changes in the family.          6

Ans.:- Family, traditional as well as modern, has been undergoing changes under the impact of following factors:-

(i)      Industrialization

(ii)    Urbanization

(iii)   Western culture

(iv)  Modern education

(v)    Legislative measures

(vi)  Quarrels in the family

(vii) Emergence of various associations to perform different functions of family.

 

8.       Highlight the importance of values in our society.   6

Ans.:- Values are important for the following reasons:-

1)      Values provide stability in group interaction. They hold the society together because they are shared in common. Since they are shared, the members of a society are likely to see others as “people like themselves.”

2)      Values bring legitimacy to the rules that govern specific activities. The rules are accepted and followed because they embody the values.

3)      Values help to bring about some kind of adjustment between different sets of rules. For example, if India cherish the values of equality then they will have to modify the rules governing the interpersonal relationships between husband and wife and man and woman and between castes.

 

9.       How is corruption manifested in our society and how can it be eradicated?                6

Ans.:- In our country corruption is existing in every sphere of life. The practice of nepotism, favouritism, dowry, dishonesty, immorality and foeticide are example of social corruption.

Payment of illegal gratification for getting work done in offices is the most common form of corruption. Making money from misuse of office and power to contest election, utilising criminals to win election, looting polling booths, giving tickets to criminals, giving bride to legislators to get required number for making and unmaking a government, etc. are political forms of corruption.

Taking bribe and commission for getting the fund sanctioned, looting public money with the trader, etc. are examples of bureaucratic and administrative forms of corruption.

Admission on donation, free degree, diploma and certificate, mass copying, leak of question papers, bribing examiners, supply of answer materials from outside and all kinds of cheating are examples of educational corruption.

Corruption prevalent in development programme is example of developmental corruption.

 

10.   Explain briefly the problems faced by Scheduled Castes.     6

Ans.:- We can understand the problems of Scheduled Castes  under the following three sections:-

a)      Problem of Untouchability (pollution):- On account of the practice of untouchability traditionally the Scheduled Cates had to suffer from the following types of disabilities:-

1.        No physical contact:-The persons belonging to untouchable Scheduled Castes did not participate in village meeting and worship. They lived in a separate hamlet. Their children did not attend school and play with children of higher castes.

2.       Ban on the use of common wells and tanks:- The members belonging to Scheduled Cates were not allowed to use common village wells and tanks for fetching water. They had separate wells and ponds or depend on the courtesy of some are to pur water in their kitchens.

b)      Problem Poverty Generated by:- The problem associated with the poverty of Scheduled Castes are as follows:-

1.       Material Deprivation:- The Scheduled Castes were not allowed to have house, land, animals, ornaments, etc. So, they were deprived of material possessions.

2.       Landlessness:- The Scheduled Castes did not own land for the purpose of residence an agriculture. They lived in huts erected on the land of the master and worked as agricultural labour as good as a bounded labour.

c)       Untouchability (Offences) Act 1955:- Article 17 of the Constitution of India declares abolition of untouchability an offence. An Act untouchability (offences Act 1955) was also promulgated declaring untouchability an offence. This Act has banned the practice of untouchability in the matters of employment, drinking water supply, offering worships, services in tea shop and hotels, journey by bus or train, use of public places, meeting of Gram Panchayat, refusing to sell goods or rendering services and admission in hospital. The act has made the practice of untouchability punishable in the form of fine and punishment.

 

SECTION – B

OPTION – I

(STATUS OF WOMEN)

 

11.   What is feminism? 1

Ans.:- Feminism is both a concept and practice. Broadly defined, it is a state of awareness that women are oppressed and exploited in all social institutions.

 

12.   Why has child sex ratio declined sharply during last decade?             2

Ans.:- The situation is worse for the child sex ratio (CSR). According to the decadal Indian census, the sex ratio in the 0-6 age group went down from 962 girls per 1000 boys in 1981, to 914 girls per 1000 boys in 2011.

 

13.   List any two ways to check domestic violence.          2

Ans.:- How could domestic violence be countered?

1)      First and foremost, cases of domestic abuse must be treated as crimes against women and not as a ‘personal matter’ between the residents of the household.

2)      Women must learn to bring the existence of violence to the notice of their parents, friends, women’s organizations and the police.

 

14.   What were the highlights of Eighth Five-Year Plan?               4

Ans.:- Highlights of Eighth Five-Year Plan:- The Eight Plan (1990-95) period saw the creation of two major organizations, one aimed at social empowerment and the other at economic development of women. The National Commission on Women is a statutory body constituted under the National Commission for Women Act 1990. Its main duties are the protection of the interests of women by safeguarding their rights. The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh was set up in 1993 mainly to facilitate credit support and micro-finance to poor women.

 

15.   Explain briefly the laws implemented for protecting the rights of women. 6

Ans.:- The laws implemented for protecting the rights of women are:-

1.       The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006:- According to the IDNTERNATIONAL Research Centre for Women, almost 47 percent of girls are married before the age of 18. Currently, India ranks 13 in the world when it comes to child marriages. Since child marriage has been steeped into the Indian culture and tradition since centuries, it has been tough eliminating it. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act was made effective in 2007. This act defines child marriage as a marriage where the groom or the bride are underage, that is, the bride is under 18 years of age or the boy is younger than 21 years.

2.       Special Marriage Act, 1954:- The objectives of this act is to provide- a special form of marriage in certain cases, provide for registration of certain marriages and, to provide for divorce. In a country like India and with the diverse religions and cast, when people from different faiths and caste chose to get married they do it under the special Marriage Act.

3.       Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961:- According to this act, taking or giving of dowry at the time of the marriage to the bride or the bridegroom and their family is to be penalised. Dowry system, giving and taking of dowry, is norm in India. Dowry is often asked of the bride and her family by the groom and his family. The system has taken strong roots because women after marriage move in with their spouse and in –laws. Also, over the centuries, the lack for economic independence of women and the taboo towards divorce has resulted in bride burning. It is one of the major challenges that our society is grappling

 

OPTION – II

(CULTURE)

 

25. Who authored two great scientific works Aryabhattiya and Surya Siddhanta?             1

Ans.:- Varahamihira

 

26. Culture is learned behaviour. Explain briefly.                             2

Ans.:- Culture is a learned behaviour: When we greet others we fold our hands. In other words, we can say that we have learnt to greet with namaskar because we have seen others doing in the same manner or we have been told by our elders to do so.

 

27. What do you understand by cultural pluralism?         2

Ans.:- While discussing cultural pluralism, we should first understand the term ‘pluralism’ which means many. Cultural pluralism originates when two or more culture groups occupy a single geographical area, and participate in some common activity/activities, borrow elements of culture from each other, but continue to maintain their respective cultural autonomy.

 

28. Highlight the role of mass media in diffusion of Culture.      4

Ans.:- Diffusion describes the spread of cultural trait from the point of origin throughout an area and into the neighbouring regions or to the neighbouring societies.

The spread of habits of aerated drinks (soft drinks) having tea coffee, smoking certain brands of cigarettes, using certain brands of toilet soaps, detergents, hair oil, shampoo, tooth paste, tooth brush and hair dye is decidedly due to the impact of television in recent times. For example-scenes of revelry displayed in small screen in commercial breaks have definitely added to the widespread intake of aerated drinks of different brands i.e. cocacola, ppepsi, frooti etc. covering almost every walk of life. Idli and dosa, supposed to be a south Indian preparation of light food, have now become almost international, largely because of mass media. In the closing decades of the last century, the small screen played no less significant role in carrying messages of Ramayana and Mahabharata to almost every individual, irrespective of caste, religion, community, age and gender.

 

29. Ancient India was rich in the field of art and architecture. Explain with suitable examples.  6

Ans.:- Ancient India was as rich in the domain of sculpture and architecture as in the field of art and literature. The Vishnu temple at Deogarh, the Sun temple at Konark, the famous temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri are admired as gems of ancient Indian architecture. Khajurajo temples in Bundelkhand built of buff-coloured sandstones are still standing as loud witness to the outstanding architecture of ancient India. The Jain Dilwara temples of Mount Abu exhibit sculptural decoration of most marvellous richness and delicacy. The temples of Orissa have special place in the field of Indian architecture. The Orissan temples are characterized by the absence of pillars in the halls, an adorned interior and a lavishly adorned exterior. Among the finest of these are Lingaraj temple, Mukteswara temple and Rajarani temple at Bhubaneswar besides the Sun temple of Konark and the Jagannath temple of Puri. The strong and magnificent forts of Chittorgarh, Gawalior, the grand fort of Jodhpur the Hawa Mahal, and Amar Palace of Jaipur, the palaces of Jaipur, Udaipur and Gawalior, and the towns like Jaisalmir, Kota and Udaipur are some of the examples of architectural skill of India.

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