SOCIOLOGY (331) - Oct' 2017 | NIOS SENIOR SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIOLOGY (Oct’ 2017)
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100

1.       Who was the author of Arthashastra?    1
Ans.:- The author of Arthashastra was Kautilya also known as Chanakya.

2.       List any tow factors of social change.      1
Ans.:- Two factors of social change are
a.       Cultural factor and
b.      Political factor

3.       What is the push factor of migration?    1
Ans.:- Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities are strong push factors for migration.

4.       What is the scope of sociology?                               2
Ans.:- Sociology is systematic and objective study of human society. Sociologists study individual’s social actions. Social relationships such as between husbands and wife, teacher and student, buyer and seller, and social processes, namely, cooperation, competition, conflict and organization, communities and nations, and social structures (family, class and state), are the basis of sociological enquiry.

5.       Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy.                             2
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.

6.       What is an empirical method in social research?                              2
Ans.:- The empirical method refers to the collection of data from the field. The facts of social life are studied and described as they exist. The techniques used in this method are observation, survey, experimental, case studies.

7.       How do you differentiate between primary and secondary cooperation?                  2
Ans.:- The co-operation found in primary groups such as family and peer groups (friends) is called primary co-operation where people have to choose face to face relations. In these cases, the interests of the individual merge with the interests of the primary group.
Secondary co-operation is found in the secondary group such as government, industrial houses, voluntary organization and trade union, etc where people co-operate for certain interests.

8.       List the factors affecting integration.     2
Ans.:- Factors affecting integration
i.                     Size of a group: It is easier to integrate small size of groups for many kinds of activity than a large group.
ii.                   The primary group has greater potential to integrate.

9.       What do you mean by social structure?                2
Ans.:- Social structure refers to the way the units of a group or a society relate to one another. According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups.

10.   Describe the relationship between sociology and political science.        4
Ans.:- Political science is mainly concerned with political institutions. Sociology does not give primacy to any institution. For it, all institutions are equally important because each contributes in its own significant way to the functioning of society. Thus, for sociology, political institution is one of the institutions of society and should be analysed in relationship with other institutions. The specialized study of political institution that sociologists undertake is known as political sociology. It more than political science the social bases of the distribution of power, control mechanisms, and the system of laws. Questions dealing with the relationship between social stratification sand the distribution of power, or the role of taboos and other prohibitions in the maintenance of social order, or the place of kinship in political system are sociological questions.

11.   Explain Karl Marx views on stratification.            4
Ans.:- Karl Marx made a seminal contribution to the concept of social stratification. For him, stratification divides the society into two mutually opposed or contrary social categories where one exploits the other. In this view, there are two main social groups in society. First, there are those who own and control resources, technology, and valued goods. These things are collectively called means of production. The second group is of those who do not have any ownership or control over these things. They work for the members of the first category, who own and control resources and thus survive on the wages they receive from their employers for rendering their labour. For both the social categories, Marx used the word ‘class’, which is defined in terms of the ownership and non-ownership of the means of production. Thus, class is a social group whose members share a similar relationship to the means of production.

12.   List the causes of juvenile delinquency.               4
Ans.:- No child is delinquent by birth. But the behaviour of society makes him delinquent. Ill-treatment by parents, step-parents, kin, neighbours and community members makes a child delinquent. Poverty and lack of basic amenities also lead to juvenile delinquency. Denial of share in paternal property also makes a child delinquent. Misbehaviour of class mates and teachers also cause juvenile delinquency. Physical deformity is also responsible for the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. Industrialisation, urbanisation and modernisation have enhanced the incidence of juvenile delinquency in our country.

13.   Differentiate between status and role. 4
Ans.:- A distinction between status and role is simplified by Ralph Linton when he said, ‘you occupy a status, but you play a role’ Every position or status in society carries with it a set of expected behaviour patterns. Status and role are ‘two sides of the same coin’ says Linton.
Although all statuses and roles derived from social patterns are integral parts of patterns, they have an independent function with relation to the individuals who occupy particular statuses and exercise their roles.
The concepts of status and role are the initial tools for the analysis of social structure. A status is simply a position in society or in a group. Every society and every group has many such positions and every individual occupies as many positions as there are groups to which he belongs.

14.   How are schools and educational institutions seen as agents of socialization?  4
Ans.:- School/Institution:- Schools and educational institutions are important agents of socialization. They provide learning situations and environment to the child which impart discipline and inculcate certain qualities which enable him to develop his personality. This way he learns to discover his own needs and needs of the group to which he belongs. Thus, he learns to conform to the norms set by the school and other institutions.
Education plays an important role in the development of the human behaviour. After family, it is the class room, the peer group, and the teachers who exercise influence on a child. Education gives moral, intellectual and social insight to the individual. It links one to one’s heritage and sets a perspective before him.

1.       Explain the effects of environment on human society.          4

Ans.:- Effects of environment on human society has been emerging as a major challenge for quite sometime. Development was for long associated with under exploitation of natural resources. We have seen that man, equipped with modern technologies and advanced scientific knowledge, has become an important factor in changing the environmental processes. It has to be realized that disturbances in one of the elements of nature i.e. air, water, land, flora and fauna gives rise to an imbalance in others. Natural processes or human factors sometimes aggravate natural environmental process to cause disaster for human society like (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, cyclones etc). They result in heavy loss of life and property. Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:

(i)      Air pollution causes respiratory diseases.

(ii)    Water pollution causes enteric diseases.

(iii)   Solid waste pollution causes vector-borne diseases.

(iv)  Toxic waste causes cancer and neurological disorders.


2.       In what way is regionalism a threat to national integration?               4

Ans.:- Regionalism, like communalism and linguism, is also a challenge to national integration. Regional aspirations of the people articulated by their leaders threaten national integration. The regional aspirations and loyalty hurt the feeling of national integration. Regionalism is responsible for the existence of a number of regional political parties. It has sponsored the demand of regional autonomy. It has created new States and is working for the creation of more states.


3.       What do you mean by modernization.          4

Ans.:- Modernization: It is a process which primarily relies on scientific outlook, rational attitudes, high social mobility, mass mobilisation, empathy, belief in liberty, equality and fraternity, high level of motivation to do everything with perfection, specialisation and super-specialisation in work, active participation, and dealing with complex organisations. It also requires changes in institutional, structural, attitudinal, and organisational aspects at the social, cultural and personal level. This has affected greatly the caste system in the sense that it has become more flexible. In urban areas castes are gradually becoming classes. 


4.       Give reasons for the decline of Buddhism in India. 4

Ans.:- In northern India, Harshavardhana and the Pala emperors provided a lot of patronage to Buddhism. But the other royal families were staunch adherents of the Brahmanical sects.

At one time, it was believed that once Buddhism had adopted the Tantric practices, it started degenerating. Today, this explanation is not held. The other reason given was that Buddhist communities were peace loving and defenceless. The monasteries were the strongholds of Buddhism. The hordes of Muslim warriors that invaded India destroyed the monasteries, leading to a crumbling of Buddhism. Another explanation is that Hinduism offered a colossal challenge to Buddhism. Many of the Buddhist ideas and practices were absorbed into Hinduism. Not only that Hinduism adopted Buddhist practices and ideology, Buddhism also adopted certain Hindu practices, thus began the process of the Hinduization of Buddhism. Besides these, there were some internal causes that led to its decline.


5.       List any four reasons of Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.              4

Ans.:- Child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 has considered the child labour to a person who has less than 14 years of age but earns little wages.

The Act has prohibited child labour to work in Railways and its campus, Biri making, carpet making, cement production, weaving, dyeing and printing of clothes, preparation of explosive materials, lac industry, soap industry, leather industries and building construction.

 The Act has decided 6 hours as the maximum hours of service rendered by a child labour per day with a rest period of half an hour.

The Act has forbidden services of child labour from 7 P.M. to 8 P.M. In the Act, there is provision of one-day holiday per week.

Keeping of employment register and age certificate of child labour have been made mandatory.


6.       What are primary institutions? Explain with examples.        6

Ans.:- According to some sociologists, institutions are basic constituents of any society. They are found in all cultures and in all societies. Some of the institutions are basic to the survival of any society. Some sociologists call them primary institutions. There are six primary institutions found in all societies. They are:

1)      Economic institutions (e.g. agriculture, industry or any other occupation),

2)      Social institutions (e.g. family, marriage and kinship)

3)      Political institutions.

4)      Education or socialization.

5)      Religion, and

6)      Expressive institutions such as music, dance, fine arts and literature, etc.


7.       Describe the changes in the structure and functions of family.          6

Ans.:- The change in the structure and functions of family

1.       Size of the family has been considerably reduced under the impact of urbanization and industrialization. In urban areas, it is very difficult to find large accommodation for large-sized families. Moreover, the income of an individual is not sufficient to meet the requirements of large families. Hence, families in modern times consist basically of husband, wife and their unmarried children. Such families are known as nuclear families.

2.       Rise of nuclear families has changed the inter-relationship among its members. The members of nuclear family interact with each other on more equal terms. They no longer have t o follow the dictates of the elders blindly.

3.       Sometimes, conflict between older and younger generation is seen in the family because of their inability to understand each other’s point of view. As a result, the level of discipline and devotion towards each other has declined.

4.       Some parents do not take care of children adequately because of their jobs, busy schedule or desire of freedom from responsibilities of children.

5.       Boys and girls do not find it necessary to marry the mates selected by their parents. They choose their marital partners on the basis of mutual attraction, career and occupational similarity, financial benefits and so on. Class, caste and compatibility between family-values are no longer very important.

6.       Kinship-ties are not very strong in today’s family set-up. The family members have become more self-centred and self-reliant. They do not spare much time, energy and money for their relatives or kinsmen.


8.       Highlight the importance of values in our society.   6

Ans.:- Values are important for the following reasons:-

1)      Values provide stability in group interaction. They hold the society together because they are shared in common. Since they are shared, the members of a society are likely to see others as “people like themselves.”

2)      Values bring legitimacy to the rules that govern specific activities. The rules are accepted and followed because they embody the values.

3)      Values help to bring about some kind of adjustment between different sets of rules. For example, if India cherish the value of equality then they will have to modify the rules governing the interpersonal relationships between husband and wife and man and woman and between castes.


9.       Explain briefly the problems faced by scheduled castes.      6

Ans.:- We can understand the problems of Scheduled Castes  under the following three sections:-

a)      Problem of Untouchability (pollution):- On account of the practice of untouchability traditionally the Scheduled Cates had to suffer from the following types of disabilities:-

1.        No physical contact:-The persons belonging to untouchable Scheduled Castes did not participate in village meeting and worship. They lived in a separate hamlet. Their children did not attend school and play with children of higher castes.

2.       Ban on the use of common wells and tanks:- The members belonging to Scheduled Cates were not allowed to use common village wells and tanks for fetching water. They had separate wells and ponds or depend on the courtesy of some are to pur water in their kitchens.

b)      Problem Poverty Generated by:- The problem associated with the poverty of Scheduled Castes are as follows:-

1.       Material Deprivation:- The Scheduled Castes were not allowed to have house, land, animals, ornaments, etc. So, they were deprived of material possessions.

2.       Landlessness:- The Scheduled Castes did not own land for the purpose of residence an agriculture. They lived in huts erected on the land of the master and worked as agricultural labour as good as a bounded labour.

c)       Untouchability (Offences) Act 1955:- Article 17 of the Constitution of India declares abolition of untouchability an offence. An Act untouchability (offences Act 1955) was also promulgated declaring untouchability an offence. This Act has banned the practice of untouchability in the matters of employment, drinking water supply, offering worships, services in tea shop and hotels, journey by bus or train, use of public places, meeting of Gram Panchayat, refusing to sell goods or rendering services and admission in hospital. The act has made the practice of untouchability punishable in the form of fine and punishment.


10.   Discuss the socio-economic problems of population explosion.       6

Ans.:- Population explosion gives birth to a number of socio-economic problems such as lack of shelter, landlessness, poverty, illiteracy, low standard of living, unemployment, malnutrition, under nourishment, ill health insufficient infrastructure over growing migration and crimes.

Large families have created problems of housing and home-stead land. It creates the situation of landlessness due to division of land in each generation among brothers. Landlessness results in poverty. Poverty increases illiteracy because poor families send their children to work instead of sending them to schools. It comes in the way of proper nutrition and nourishment of family members. In fact, quality of Frequent births affect the health of mother and children. It also affects feeding and nourishment processes. Rapid increase in population creates situation of unemployment and low wages. It also leads to crimes.






11.   What is a patriarchal family?              1

Ans.:- The arrangement of relationships, which upholds male superiority and female subordination (submissiveness), is called patriarchal family.


12.   Distinguish between sex and gender.            2

Ans.:- Sex is determined by biological characteristics, and gender is socially constructed (it is the creation of society). The differences between men and women as created by society is gender and Biological difference between men and women is sex. 


13.   List the two strategies for women’s empowerment by autonomous women’s groups. 2

Ans.:- The autonomous women’s groups have two strategies for women’s empowerment- awareness and action.


14.   What were the highlights of Eighth Five-Year Plan?               4

Ans.:- Highlights of Eighth Five-Year Plan:- The Eight Plan (1990-95) period saw the creation of two major organizations, one aimed at social empowerment and the other at economic development of women. The National Commission on Women is a statutory body constituted under the National Commission for Women Act 1990. Its main duties are the protection of the interests of women by safeguarding their rights. The Rashtriya Mahila Kosh was set up in 1993 mainly to facilitate credit support and micro-finance to poor women.


15.   Explain briefly the laws implemented for protecting the rights of women. 6

Ans.:- The laws implemented for protecting the rights of women are:-

1.       The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006:- According to the IDNTERNATIONAL Research Centre for Women, almost 47 percent of girls are married before the age of 18. Currently, India ranks 13 in the world when it comes to child marriages. Since child marriage has been steeped into the Indian culture and tradition since centuries, it has been tough eliminating it. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act was made effective in 2007. This act defines child marriage as a marriage where the groom or the bride are underage, that is, the bride is under 18 years of age or the boy is younger than 21 years.

2.       Special Marriage Act, 1954:- The objectives of this act is to provide- a special form of marriage in certain cases, provide for registration of certain marriages and, to provide for divorce. In a country like India and with the diverse religions and cast, when people from different faiths and caste chose to get married they do it under the special Marriage Act.

3.       Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961:- According to this act, taking or giving of dowry at the time of the marriage to the bride or the bridegroom and their family is to be penalised. Dowry system, giving and taking of dowry, is norm in India. Dowry is often asked of the bride and her family by the groom and his family. The system has taken strong roots because women after marriage move in with their spouse and in –laws. Also, over the centuries, the lack for economic independence of women and the taboo towards divorce has resulted in bride burning. It is one of the major challenges that our society is grappling with. Women openly complaining about it has helped to spread the world and encourage other women to take a stand.





25. Give one example of material culture.           1

Ans.:- Material culture consists of things that are created by humans. Example car.


26. Culture is a learned behaviour. Explain briefly.          2

Ans.:- Culture is a learned behaviour: When we greet others we fold our hands. In other words, we can say that we have learnt to greet with namaskar because we have seen others doing in the same manner or we have been told by our elders to do so.

27. What do you understand by cultural pluralism?         2

Ans.:- While discussing cultural pluralism, we should first understand the term ‘pluralism’ which means many. Cultural pluralism originates when two or more culture groups occupy a single geographical area, and participate in some common activity/activities, borrow elements of culture from each other, but continue to maintain their respective cultural autonomy.


28. Highlight the role of mass media in diffusion of culture.       4

Ans.:- Diffusion describes the spread of cultural trait from the point of origin throughout an area and into the neighbouring regions or to the neighbouring societies.

The spread of habits of aerated drinks (soft drinks) having tea coffee, smoking certain brands of cigarettes, using certain brands of toilet soaps, detergents, hair oil, shampoo, tooth paste, tooth brush and hair dye is decidedly due to the impact of television in recent times. For example-scenes of revelry displayed in small screen in commercial breaks have definitely added to the widespread intake of aerated drinks of different brands i.e. cocacola, ppepsi, frooti etc. covering almost every walk of life. Idli and dosa, supposed to be a south Indian preparation of light food, have now become almost international, largely because of mass media. In the closing decades of the last century, the small screen played no less significant role in carrying messages of Ramayana and Mahabharata to almost every individual, irrespective of caste, religion, community, age and gender.


29. Ancient India was rich in the field of art and architecture. Explain with suitable examples. 6

Ans.:- Ancient India was as rich in the domain of sculpture and architecture as in the field of art and literature. The Vishnu temple at Deogarh, the Sun temple at Konark, the famous temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri are admired as gems of ancient Indian architecture. Khajurajo temples in Bundelkhand built of buff-coloured sandstones are still standing as loud witness to the outstanding architecture of ancient India. The Jain Dilwara temples of Mount Abu exhibit sculptural decoration of most marvellous richness and delicacy. The temples of Orissa have special place in the field of Indian architecture. The Orissan temples are characterized by the absence of pillars in the halls, an adorned interior and a lavishly adorned exterior. Among the finest of these are Lingaraj temple, Mukteswara temple and Rajarani temple at Bhubaneswar besides the Sun temple of Konark and the Jagannath temple of Puri. The strong and magnificent forts of Chittorgarh, Gawalior, the grand fort of Jodhpur the Hawa Mahal, and Amar Palace of Jaipur, the palaces of Jaipur, Udaipur and Gawalior, and the towns like Jaisalmir, Kota and Udaipur are some of the examples of architectural skill of India.


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