NIOS Solved Papers: Sociology (331) - Oct' 2017


1.       Who was the author of Arthashastra?    1
Ans.:- The author of Arthashastra was Kautilya also known as Chanakya.

2.       List any tow factors of social change.      1
Ans.:- Two factors of social change are
a.       Cultural factor and
b.      Political factor

3.       What is the push factor of migration?    1
Ans.:- Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities are strong push factors for migration.

4.       What is the scope of sociology?                               2
Ans.:- Sociology is systematic and objective study of human society. Sociologists study individual’s social actions. Social relationships such as between husbands and wife, teacher and student, buyer and seller, and social processes, namely, cooperation, competition, conflict and organization, communities and nations, and social structures (family, class and state), are the basis of sociological enquiry.

5.       Differentiate between exogamy and endogamy.                             2
Ans.:- Exogamy: (Exo=outside, gamy=marriage) Exogamy is a custom which requires an individual to marry outside a specific group of which he is a member such a kinship group, a family, a clan, a village group or any other social group to which he may belong.
Endogamy: (Endo=within, gamy=marriage) Endogamy is a custom that requires marriage within one’s own social group. The social group may be one’s own tribe or caste or religious group but not clan in most cases. Very rarely the clans are endogamous. Mostly, they are exogamous.

6.       What is an empirical method in social research?                              2
Ans.:- The empirical method refers to the collection of data from the field. The facts of social life are studied and described as they exist. The techniques used in this method are observation, survey, experimental, case studies.

7.       How do you differentiate between primary and secondary cooperation?                  2
Ans.:- The co-operation found in primary groups such as family and peer groups (friends) is called primary co-operation where people have to choose face to face relations. In these cases, the interests of the individual merge with the interests of the primary group.
Secondary co-operation is found in the secondary group such as government, industrial houses, voluntary organization and trade union, etc where people co-operate for certain interests.

8.       List the factors affecting integration.     2
Ans.:- Factors affecting integration
i.                     Size of a group: It is easier to integrate small size of groups for many kinds of activity than a large group.
ii.                   The primary group has greater potential to integrate.

9.       What do you mean by social structure?                2
Ans.:- Social structure refers to the way the units of a group or a society relate to one another. According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups.

10.   Describe the relationship between sociology and political science.        4
Ans.:- Political science is mainly concerned with political institutions. Sociology does not give primacy to any institution. For it, all institutions are equally important because each contributes in its own significant way to the functioning of society. Thus, for sociology, political institution is one of the institutions of society and should be analysed in relationship with other institutions. The specialized study of political institution that sociologists undertake is known as political sociology. It more than political science the social bases of the distribution of power, control mechanisms, and the system of laws. Questions dealing with the relationship between social stratification sand the distribution of power, or the role of taboos and other prohibitions in the maintenance of social order, or the place of kinship in political system are sociological questions.

11.   Explain Karl Marx views on stratification.            4
Ans.:- Karl Marx made a seminal contribution to the concept of social stratification. For him, stratification divides the society into two mutually opposed or contrary social categories where one exploits the other. In this view, there are two main social groups in society. First, there are those who own and control resources, technology, and valued goods. These things are collectively called means of production. The second group is of those who do not have any ownership or control over these things. They work for the members of the first category, who own and control resources and thus survive on the wages they receive from their employers for rendering their labour. For both the social categories, Marx used the word ‘class’, which is defined in terms of the ownership and non-ownership of the means of production. Thus, class is a social group whose members share a similar relationship to the means of production.

12.   List the causes of juvenile delinquency.               4
Ans.:- No child is delinquent by birth. But the behaviour of society makes him delinquent. Ill-treatment by parents, step-parents, kin, neighbours and community members makes a child delinquent. Poverty and lack of basic amenities also lead to juvenile delinquency. Denial of share in paternal property also makes a child delinquent. Misbehaviour of class mates and teachers also cause juvenile delinquency. Physical deformity is also responsible for the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. Industrialisation, urbanisation and modernisation have enhanced the incidence of juvenile delinquency in our country.

13.   Differentiate between status and role. 4
Ans.:- A distinction between status and role is simplified by Ralph Linton when he said, ‘you occupy a status, but you play a role’ Every position or status in society carries with it a set of expected behaviour patterns. Status and role are ‘two sides of the same coin’ says Linton.
Although all statuses and roles derived from social patterns are integral parts of patterns, they have an independent function with relation to the individuals who occupy particular statuses and exercise their roles.
The concepts of status and role are the initial tools for the analysis of social structure. A status is simply a position in society or in a group. Every society and every group has many such positions and every individual occupies as many positions as there are groups to which he belongs.

14.   How are schools and educational institutions seen as agents of socialization?  4
Ans.:- School/Institution:- Schools and educational institutions are important agents of socialization. They provide learning situations and environment to the child which impart discipline and inculcate certain qualities which enable him to develop his personality. This way he learns to discover his own needs and needs of the group to which he belongs. Thus, he learns to conform to the norms set by the school and other institutions.
Education plays an important role in the development of the human behaviour. After family, it is the class room, the peer group, and the teachers who exercise influence on a child. Education gives moral, intellectual and social insight to the individual. It links one to one’s heritage and sets a perspective before him.

15.   Explain the effects of environment on human society.  4
Ans.:- Effects of environment on human society has been emerging as a major challenge for quite sometime. Development was for long associated with under exploitation of natural resources. We have seen that man, equipped with modern technologies and advanced scientific knowledge, has become an important factor in changing the environmental processes. It has to be realized that disturbances in one of the elements of nature i.e. air, water, land, flora and fauna gives rise to an imbalance in others. Natural processes or human factors sometimes aggravate natural environmental process to cause disaster for human society like (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, cyclones etc). They result in heavy loss of life and property. Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:

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