NIOS Free Solved Assignments (2019 - 2020): POLITICAL SCIENCE 317 ENGLISH MEDIUM

1. Answer any one out of the following question in about 40-60 words.
(a) Suggest any two measures to protect the environment from pollution.
Ans.:- Two measures to protect the environment from pollution are
1)      Reducing the use of personal vehicles and using mass transportation facilities.
2)      Using battery operated vehicles and using sustainable energy.
(b) A child of 10 years age is working as a help at a dhaba. Identify any two fundamental rights of the child which are being violated.
Ans.:- Two fundamental rights of the child which are being violated are
1)      Right to Protection:- Right to freedom of opinion, Right to freedom of expression, Right to freedom of association etc.
2)      Right to development:- Right to education, Right to learn, Right to relax and play etc.
2. Answer any one out of the following questions in about 40-60 words.
(a) Choose and write any two Directive Principles of state policy which are based on Gandhian Principles.

Ans.:-  Two Directive Principles based on Gandhian ideals are:
Article 40 which mentions that the State would take steps to establish Village Panchayats as units of local self-government and endow them with necessary powers.
Article 45 which says that the state would promote the educational interests of the weaker sections and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
(b) Assess the Right to Constitutional Remedies as the soul of Fundamental Rights.
Ans.:- It is possible that sometimes our rights maybe violated by fellow citizens on by the government.  when any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy though courts if it is a Fundamental rights we can directly approach the supreme court, on the high court of a state.  There can be on law or action that violated the fundamental rights.
3. Answer any one out of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.
(a) Analyse any two effects of the National Emergency (Article 352) on the people of India.
ans.:- The declaration of National Emergency has far-reaching effects both on the rights of individuals and the autonomy of the states in the following manner:
a.       The most significant effect is that the federal form of the Constitution changes into unitary. The authority of the Centre increases and the Parliament assumes the power to make laws for the entire country or any part therefore, even in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List.
b.      The President of India can issue directions to the states as to the manner in which the executive power of the states is to be exercised.
(b) “Right to freedom of Religion has laid down the foundation to secularism in India.” Justify the statement.
Ans.:- India is a multireligious state. Besides Hindus, there are Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and many others residing in our country. The Constitution guarantees to every person freedom of conscience and the right to practice and propagate any religion.
It also permits every religious group, the right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion. Every religious sect has the right to establish and maintain in situations for religious and charitable purposes. Each religious group is also free to purchase and manage its movable and immovable property in accordance with law, for the propagation of its religion.
4. Answer any one out of the following question in about 100-150 words
(a) Analyse the role of ‘Caste in Indian Politics.
Ans.:- Caste began to play an important role after independence as its involvement in politics increased. The fact that it existed as easily identifiable social cluster of people made it an easy object of political mobilization by political parties in their quest for political support and votes. While the political parties sought to exploit caste for its own electoral purposes, caste groups by making politics their sphere of activity got a chance to assert their identity and bargain for benefits and position in society. Thus, caste and politics interaction has been a two-way process.
In politicizing the castes, the caste associations played a crucial role. Caste associations were quasi-voluntary associations in the sense that its membership was open only to the individuals of the caste community. These associations sere formed to secure economic benefits or educational openings or for more clearly political purpose of uniting to fight the hegemony of the upper castes. In either case, involvement in politics was considered necessary for securing the specific purpose for which they were formed. Thus, once formed on the basis of caste identity, caste associations went on to acquire non-caste functions.
(b) Evaluate the ‘Right to Equality’ as an instrument to protect the citizens against any discrimination by the state.
Ans.:-No Discrimination on Grounds of Religion, Race, Caste, Sex, Place of Birth or any of them:- No citizen shall be denied access to shops, restaurants and places of public entertainment. Neither shall any one be denied the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads etc. maintained wholly or partly out of State funds. However, the State is empowered to make special provisions for women, children and for the uplift of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward classes (OBC’s). The State can reserve seats for these categories in educational institutions, grant fee concessions or arrange special coaching classes. 

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