## Friday, February 21, 2020

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ECO-07: ELEMENTS OF STATISTICS
For July 2019 and January 2020 admission cycle
School of Management Studies
Indira Gandhi National Open University
Maidan Garhi, New Delhi -110068
Elective Course in Commerce
ECO – 07: ELEMENTS OF STATISTICS
ASSIGNMENT- 2019-20
Dear Students,
As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course.
Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.
This assignment is valid for two admission cycles (July 2019 and January 2020). The validity is given below:
1)         Those who are enrolled in July 2019, it is valid up to June 2020.
2)         Those who are enrolled in January 2020, it is valid up to December 2020.
You have to submit the assignment of all the courses to The Coordinator of your Study Centre. For appearing in June Term-End Examination, you must submit assignment to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th March. Similarly for appearing in December Term-End Examination, you must submit assignments to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th September.

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code : ECO - 07
Course Title : ELEMENTS OF STATISTICS
Assignment Code : ECO - 07 - 11/TMA/2019-20
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions
1. What is statistical survey? Discuss the steps to be followed while conducting statistical survey.          (20)
Ans: Statistical Survey/Investigation: Statistical investigation is the search of information with the help of statistical devices. The general procedure in a statistical investigation is collection of data, classification and tabulation of data, presentation and comparison of data and interpretation of results. A statistical investigation or survey passes through several stages. These stages can be summarised under two broad heads:
a)      Planning the investigation.
b)      Executing the investigation.
(A) Planning The Investigation: Proper planning of a survey is of great importance because the quality of a survey depends mostly on planning. The matters which require careful consideration at the planning stage are:
1. Purpose of the survey: The purpose or objective of the survey must be very specific. We must be very clear about the type of information needed and the use to which the information obtained will be put.
2. Scope of the survey: The scope of the survey relates to the coverage with respect to the type of information, subject matter and geographical area. Three factors that exert great influence on scope are – the object of enquiry, availability of time and availability of resources. The investigation should be carried out within a reasonable period of time, otherwise the information collected may become out-of-data and hence of little use.
3. Unit of data collection: To carry out a statistical investigation the statistical unit or units must be clearly defined. The unit in terms of which the investigation counts or measures the variable or attributes selected for enumeration, analysis and interpretation is known as statistical unit. For example, in a population census the statistical unit is a person.  To be an ideal statistical unit it must process the following qualities:
1)         It should be clear and unambiguous.
2)         It should be specific.
3)         It should be stable.
4)         It should be uniform.
5)         It should be appropriate to the enquiry.
a)         Units of collection and
b)         Units of analysis and interpretation.
(a) Units of collection: Data for the enquiry are collected in terms of units of collection. The units of collection may be simple, compound or composite. A simple unit represents a single condition without qualifications. Example of such units are – house, worker, hours etc. A simple unit with some qualifying words is called a compound unit. Example of such units are – skilled worker, man-hours etc.
(b) Units of analysis and interpretation: Statistical data are ultimately analyzed and interpreted with the units of analysis and interpretation. These units facilitate comparisons between different sets of data with respect to time and place. Generally the units of analysis are – rates, ratios, percentage and coefficients.
4. Source of data: For any statistical investigation the source of data may be either primary or secondary. Data is termed primary when the reference is to data collected for the first time by the investigator and termed secondary when the information are taken from available records on published material or data already available. The census department at regular intervals collects data on population of the country. These constitute primary data to the census department. But these data will be secondary to someone who is using them for some other investigation. The choice of the source of data depends largely on purpose and scope of the survey.
5. Technique of data collection: Mainly there are two techniques of data collection, namely (1) Census technique and (2) Sample technique. In census technique, information is obtained from each and every unit of the population which forms the subject matter of the study. Whereas, in the sample technique, information is obtained only from a representative part of the population and based on that, inference is drawn for the entire population. The census method is costlier and more time consuming. The choice of technique of data collection depends upon factors like – (a) the availability of resources, (b) the time factor, (c) degree of accuracy desired and (d) nature and scope of investigation.
6. Choice of frame: The term frame or population frame refers to all the units in the population under study. The whole structure of enquiry is to a considerable extent determined by the frame. Detailed planning of a survey cannot be undertaken unless we know the nature and accuracy of the available frame. If there does not exist any frame, then the construction of a frame suitable for the purpose of the enquiry will constitute a major part of planning.
7. Degree of accuracy desired: The investigator must determine the degree of accuracy he wants to attain. In any statistical work, it is very difficult to attain cent percent or 100% accuracy. The object of enquiry primarily determines the degree of accuracy. A very high degree of accuracy may mean a lot of time and cost. The necessary degree of accuracy in counting or measuring depends upon practical value of accuracy in relation to its cost.
8. Miscellaneous considerations: A decision has to be taken as to whether the enquiry has to be (1) regular or adhoc, (2) direct or indirect, (3) official, semi-official or non-official and (4) confidential or non-confidential.
(B) Executing The Investigation: After planning the survey the next step is to execute the plan. The various phases of work at execution stage are as follows:
1)         Setting up an administrative organization.
2)         Designing of forms.
3)         Selection, training and supervision of field investigators.
4)         Control on the quality of field work.
6)         Processing of data.
7)         Preparation of report.
1. Selling up an administrative organization: An administrative organization is needed for an investigation. The size of the organization depends upon the nature and scope of the enquiry. If the scope is wide and covers a large geographical area, regional offices may be set up, apart from a central office. The complete control and administration of the enquiry fall on the administrative team.
2. Designing of forms: The various forms specially the forms of questionnaires that is used in the course of enquiry should be designed with utmost care and caution. The questionnaire is the medium of communication between the investigator and the respondents and hence must be designed and drafted by skilled and experienced persons.
3. Selection, training and supervision of field investigators: The success of a survey depends upon the work of the enumerators. Therefore, these enumerators should be properly selected and thoroughly trained for the field work. Constant supervision is essential to achieve high quality work.
4. Control on the quality of field work: Steps must be taken to ensure that the survey is under statistical control, i.e., the errors if any, in the survey are due to the presence of random variation and no assignable causes of variation are present. A system of field checks by the supervisors should also be introduced to maintain the standard. The field checks should preferably be carried out on a random sub-sample of units, and should be conducted without any prior notice.
5. Follow up of non-response: In spite of best efforts in the data collection, there may be respondents, who do not supply the desired information. To deal with the problem of non-response a list of non-respondents is made and a sub-sample of them is taken. Then with the help of supervisory staff efforts can be made for securing response from the members of the sub-sample.
6. Processing of data: After collection of data, the processing of data takes place. The data are generally coded, transferred to punched cards or tapes with the help of punching machines or computers. Classification and tabulation are important processes in any statistical investigation. Through these processes collected data are summarised and arranged in a systematic order.
7. Preparation of report: After the data have been collected and analyzed, the results of the survey is drafted in the form of a report. The preparation of report is the final step in execution of a survey. Two kinds of reports may be presented – a general report giving a description of the survey or a technical report giving detailed of the sample design, computational procedures, accuracy and allied aspects.