SOCIAL SCIENCE (213) - April' 2012 | NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIAL SCIENCE (April’ 2012)
(213)
NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1.  Answer the following questions in one sentence each                            1x6=6
(i) Name any tow tributeries of river Ganga.
Ans.:- Left-bank tributaries include Gomati River and Right-bank tributaries include Yamuna River.
(ii) Define Bangar.
Ans.:- Bangar is the old alluvial soil. It is less fertile and has less fine particles than khaddar soil.
(iii) Which season is associated with Besant Panchmi?
Ans.:- Besant Panchmi is a famous festival that marks the end of the winter season and ushers in the springtime.
(iv) In which state the Hazaribagh wild life sanctuary is situated?
Ans.:- It extended from Bhagalpur in Bihar in the north to Orissa in the south stretching from Hazaribagh to the borders of Bengal.

(v) Give an example of a cooperative sector industry.
Ans.:- Sugar industry in Maharashtra,
(vi) Define District roads.
Ans.:- Zila Parisad has been made responsible for constructing roads that connect district headquarters with other cities and towns of the district. These roads are called district roads.
2. To which estate do the ordinary people of France belong to?                1
Ans.:- The ordinary people belong to, The third estate.
3. Give names of any two countries which signed the Triple Entente.    1
Ans.:- England, Russia and France signed the Triple Entente in 1907.
4. Define the term Death rate.  1
Ans.:- Death Rate: The number of deaths per thousand of population in a given year under a particular territory is called Crude Death Rate (popularly known as death rate).
5. What is meant by Endogamy?                  1
Ans.:- Endogamy: - Marriage within a specific group as required by custom or law.
6. What is the effect of early marriage on the growth of population of a country?            1
Ans.:- It increases the population.
7. Which monuments were built by the Buddhists?
                (A) Pyramids
                (B) Stupas
                (C) Great wall of China
                (D) Great Bath
Ans.:- (B) Stupas
8. Which one of the following is the standard Meridian of India?            
                (A) 82.5  east longitude
                (B) 82.5  west longitude
                (C) 68.7  east longitude
                (D) 68.7  west longitude
Ans.:- (A) 82.5  east longitude
9. Which state has the lowest density of population in India?
                (A) Andhra Pradesh
                (B) Arunachal Pradesh
                (C) Uttar Pradesh
                (D) West Bengal
Ans.:- (A) Andhra Pradesh
10. The First Anglo-Mysore War took place in the year:
                (A) 1757
                (B) 1764
                (C) 1766
                (D) 1775
Ans.:- (C) 1766

11. When did the Constitution of India come into force?

                (A) 22 January 1947

                (B) 15 August 1947

                (C) 26 November 1949

                (D) 26 January 1950

Ans.:- (D) 26 January 1950

 

12. In which year was constitutional status of self government accorded to the Panchayati Raj Bodies by 73rd Constitutional Amendment?

                (A) 1952

                (B) 1957

                (C) 1958

                (D) 1992

Ans.:- (D) 1992

 

13. Which one of the following is an omnivore?

                (A) Ferns

                (B) Wolves

                (C) Rats

                (D) Fungi

Ans.:- (C) Rats

14. Discuss any four significant results of the voyages undertaken during the age of season.      4

Ans.:- One of the most famous kings who sponsored the voyages was the Portuguese King Henry, who is also known as Henry the Navigator. The technological base for these discoveries came from the invention of the compass, astrolabe, astronomical tables and the art of map making.

(i) These voyages led to the establishment of trading outpost and colonial empires in different parts Africa, America and Asia.

(ii)Now commercial focus shifted from Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

(iii) Many new commodities were added to trade such as tobacco, molasses, ostrich feathers, potato, etc.

(iv) It also started the inhuman slave trade in America. Slaves were captured from Africa, transported across the Atlantic Ocean and sold to work in plantations in North America.

 

15. Examine any four major causes of the American Revolution.               4

Ans.:- American Revolution and the French Revolution. Through these revolutions, people asserted their rights and ended exploitation. Around the 16th century, many Europeans had settled in America because of religious persecution in England. Some of them were also attracted by economic opportunities. They had formed 13 colonies which had local assemblies to settle their problems. These colonies were suffering due to the British economic policy of mercantilism through which they tried to regulate colonial commerce in the British interest. The colonies were not permitted to set up industries as it would result in competition with the British industries like iron and textile. They had to export sugar, tobacco and cotton only to England, at prices determined by the mother country England. This provoked opposition from the British American colonies.

 

16. Explain any four different uses of computers.            4

Ans.:- Computer (Information Technology): Today, computer has become the basis of communication and economic development as it is used everywhere from homes, offices to shops, hospitals, railways, airports, banks, educational institutions, etc.

Uses of computers are

(a) Internet: It provides access to several kinds of information.It connects all types of computers across the world to obtain information at the click of a button.

(b) Video Conferencing: People sitting at far off places can talk and express their views with the help of telecommunication and computer.

(c) E-Commerce: Facility available for sale and purchase of goods through internet and fax.

(d) Internet Telephony: It is a software programme which makes a computer to work like telephone. This facility has reduced the call rates drastically.

 

17. Explain any four main attractions for Tourism in India.           4

Ans.:- Main attractions for tourism in India are

1) The Taj Mahal:- Perhaps Indian’s most recognizable building, the Taj Mahal is also the world’s most famous testimony to the power of love. Named after Mumtaz Mahal, the favourite wife of Emperor Shah Jahan, this most beautiful of mausoleums was begun upon her death in 1631 and took 20,000 workmen until 1648 to complete.

2) The Holy city of Varanasi:- A major pilgrimage center for Hindus, the holy city of Varanasi has long been associated with the might Ganges River, one of the faith’s most important religious symbols.  Dating back to the 8th century BC, Varanasi is one of the oldest still inhabited cities in the world.

3) Harmandir Sahib: The Golden Temple of Amritsar:- Founded in 1577 by Ram Das, Amritsar is an important hub of Sikh history and culture. The main attraction here is Harmandir Sahib, opened in 1604 and still often referred to as the Golden Temple for its beautiful gold decoration.

4) The Golden City: Jaisalmer:- So named for the yellow sandstone used in most of its buildings, the Golden City of Jaisalmer is an oasis of splendid old architecture that rises from the sand dunes of the Thar Desert.

18. What is meant by culture? Discuss three factors that influence regional cultures.     4

Ans.:- Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.

Factors that influence the culture are:-

(i) Language i.e. communication.

(ii) Dress

(iii) Food habits

(iv) Religion and religious faiths that is beliefs.

(v) Customs of marriages and religions and special social customs.

 

19. Explain any four features of kinship.               4

Ans.:- The following are the features of kinship:-

(a) Kinship assigns guidelines for interactions between persons. It defines proper, acceptable role relationship between father-daughter, brother-sister etc.

(b) Kinship determines family line relationships, gotra and kula.

(c) Kinship decides who can marry with whom and where marital relationship are taboo.

(d) Kinship helps us to determine the rights and obligations of the members in all the sacraments and religious practices starting from birth to death.

 

20. Examine any four reforms undertaken to improve the condition of women during 19th century in India.       4

Ans.:- The following reforms undertaken to improve the condition of women during 19th century in India:-

(a) Since women comprise the majority of the population below the poverty line, poverty eradication programmes are specifically addressed to their needs and problems.

(b) In view of the critical role of women in the agriculture and allied sectors as producers, concentrated efforts are being made to ensure that benefits of training, extension and various programmes reach them in proportion to their numbers.

(c) Efforts are being made to ensure equal access to education for women and girls, eliminate discrimination, universalize education, eradicate illiteracy, create a gender-sensitive educational system, increase enrolment and retention rates of girls and improve the quality of education to facilitate life-long learning as well as development of occupational/Vocational/technical skills by women.

(d) A holistic approach to women’s health which includes both nutrition and health services i being adopted and special attention is being given to the needs of women and girls at all stages of the life cycle.

 

21. Describe any four objectives of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha founded by Bhagat Singh and others.4

Ans.:- The Sabha was set up at a conference at Jallianwala Bagh on 12 April 1928 the aims and objectives of the Sabha were declared to be for

(a)    To establish a Complete Independent republic of worker and peasant of the whole of India.

(b)   To infuse the sprite of patriotism in to the heart of the youths of the country in orderto establish a united Indian nation.

(c)    To express sympathy with and to assist the economic, industrial and social movement.

(d)   Which while being free form communal sentiment, are intended to take us near to our ideal namely the establishment of a complete independent republic of labours and peasant to organise labourers and peasant?

 

 

22. What are the four essential qualifications required for becoming a judge of the Supreme Court of India? When can a Judge of the Supreme Court be removed?          2+2=4

Ans.:- Qualifications of Judges

i) He should be a citizen of India.

ii) He should have been a judge of a High Court (or high courts in succession) for five years.

iii) He should have been an advocate of a High Court (or High Courts in succession) for ten years.

iv) He should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the president.

                Judges may be impeached by majority vote of the legislature and removed with the concurrence of two thirds of the members of the court of impeachment. The supreme court sits as the court of impeachment, unless a supreme court justice has been impeached.

 

23. Describe any four functions of the Vice President of India.  1x4=4

Ans.:- The following are the functions of the Vice President of India:-

a)      To preside at all Meetings of the Academy and of the Council, and to regulate the proceeding at such Meetings.

b)      To ensure the implementation of the Rules, Regulations, and Guidelines framed by the Council under Rule 30, Clause (a).

c)       To be ex-officio Member of all the Committees appointed by the Council.

d)      In case of doubt in the interpretation of any Rule, to decide on the interpretation. In such case, the President’s interpretation shall hold until the next Meeting of the Council, when the interpretation of the Rule under consideration will be finally determined.

 

24. Explain how India is a Socialist Republic, in four points.         4

Ans.:- Indian political leaders were busy in drafting a Constitution. This is known as Nehru Report which formed the outline of the Constitution. Among its important recommendations were a declaration of rights, a parliamentary system of government, adult franchise and an independent judiciary with a supreme court at its head. Most of its recommendations formed the basis of the Constitution of independent India which was adopted more than twenty years later. At the historic annual session of Congress in Lahore in 1929, the Congress committed itself to a demand for PurnaSwaraj or complete independence and issued a call to the country to celebrate 26th January as Purna-Swaraj Day. On January 26, 1930, the Congress celebrated ‘Independence Day’. On the same day in 1950 the Constitution of Independent India was adopted, making India a sovereign, democratic socialist republic. Since then January 26th is celebrated as Republic Day.

25. Discuss any four features of the Fundamental Rights to freedom enshrined in our Constitution.4

Ans.:- Article 19 of the Constitution provides for the following freedoms:-

(a)    Freedom of speech and expression

(b)   Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms

(c)    Freedom to form Associations and Unions

(d)   Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.

 

26. Explain any four Fundamental Duties as enshrined in the Constitution of India.        4

Ans.:- The following are the duties have been listed in the Constitution of India:

1. to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions , the National Flag, National Anthem.

2. to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.

3. to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

4. to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do.

 

27. Assess any four features of the Immunization Programme in India. 4

Ans.:- Features of the Immunization Programme in India are:-

a)  Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992

b) It is currently one of the key areas under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) since 2005.

c)  The program now consists of vaccination for 12 diseases-tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B, diarrhoea,

d) Japanese encephalitis, rubella, pneumonia (Heamophilus Influenza Type B) and Pneumococcal diseases (Pneumococcal Pneumococcal and Meningitis).

 

28. Critically examine any four steps taken for the universalization of Elementary Education in India.4

Ans.:- The following programmes are specifically aimed at universalisation of elementary education:

(i) Enrollment of all 6-14 age group children in school/Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) Centre/ Bridge Course by 2005;

 (ii) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010;

(iii) Universal retention by 2010;

(iv) Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.

 

29. Suggest any four steps that can be taken to save environment.          4

Ans.:- Four steps that can be taken to save environment are:-

a)      We can use and promote eco friendly and biodegradable products.

b)      We can segregate our Home garbage to facilitate the recycling process.

c)       We can refuse products with plastic packing and depend on more traditional packing material like paper and cloth.

d)      We can demand eco-friendly refrigerators and air conditioning systems which do not use CFC’s.

 

30. Discuss the progress of Indian agriculture, trade and commerce during the medieval period.2+2+2= 6

Ans.:- This was a period of commercialization a lot of interest in the extension of cultivation into zones which were hitherto uncultivated or forest areas. It gave various incentives to pioneer agriculturists. The state also advanced to peasants loans as well as revenue relief in times of crop failure.

Trade and commerce which had declined greatly following the period of the Guptas saw a revival during this time. Urban centres flourished after a considerable period of decline. Inland trade increased in the 13th and 14th centuries as a result of this new urbanization. A vast network of road connecting these urban centers came up which also facilitated trade.

Cities like Delhi, Agra, Lahore, Multan , Dhaka, Ahmadabad, Surat and Bombay rose in importance. The merchandise from Punjab was sent to markets in West and Central Asia.

               

31. Examine any six political and social impacts of British Rule in India. 1x6=6

Ans.:- Indian society underwent many changes after the British came to India.

(a)    In the 19th century, certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy and a rigid caste system became more prevalent.

(b)   These practices were against human dignity and values.

(c)    Women were discriminated against at all stages of life and were the disadvantaged section of the society.

(d)    They did not have access to any development opportunities to improve their status.

(e)    Education was limited to a handful of men belonging to the upper castes.

(f)     Brahmins had access to the Vedas which were written in Sanskrit. Expensive rituals, sacrifices and practices after birth or death were outlined by the priestly class.

 

32. Describe the composition and functions of the Municipal Corporation. 2+4=6

Ans.:- After the 74th Amendment, the constitution of Municipalities is obligatory for every concerned city. Every Municipal Council has Councillors who are elected by the adult voters of the city for 5 years. Sources of income are as follows:

(i) Taxes: Taxes on properties, vehicles, entertainment and advertisement;

(ii) Rents and fess/charges: Charges for water supply, sewer system; Licenses fees, Rents of the community Halls, Brart Ghars and Shops etc;

(iii) Grants from the State government

(iv) Fines: Fines from the tax offenders, law breakers, on encroachments etc.

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