SOCIAL SCIENCE (213) - April' 2013 | NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIAL SCIENCE (April’ 2013)
(213)
NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1. Which of the following is the length of land boundary of India?
                (A) 6100 km                        (B) 15200 km
                (C) 16200 km                      (D) 17200 km
Ans.:- (B) 15200 km
2. The word mausim belongs to which one of the following languages?
                (A) Hindi                             (B) Urdu
                (C) Arabic                            (D) Persian
Ans.:- (C) Arabic
3. Which of the following values is not taken in the preamble of our constitution?
                (A) Sovereignty                                (B) Socialism
                (C) Communism                               (D) Secularism
Ans.:- (C) Communism 
4. The word democracy has its origin in which ancient civilization of the world?
                (A) Persian                         (B) Greek
                (C) Roman                           (D) Egyptian
Ans.:- (B) Greek

5. Mention the names of two countries which had an advanced civilization during the Bronze Age?2
Ans.:- The two countries with advanced civilisation during the Bronze Age were Mesopotamia and Egypt.
6. Mention the two titles given by the British government to the Indians.                           2
Ans.:- Knighthood and Sir are the two titles given by British government to India.
7. Write two reasons responsible for the rise of communalism.                2
Ans.:- Some of the major causes of communalism in India are as follows:
a)      Presence of Communal Parties
b)      Isolation of Muslims
8. Define the term ‘sustainable development’. 2
Ans.:- The concept of sustainable development has emerged as an alternative model that will halt environmental degradation. Although sustainable development has been used in a number of contexts with different meanings, it has a particular meaning in the context of environment and development relationships.
9. Describe any four features of feudalism prevalent in Europe in the medieval period.               4
Ans.:- The feudal system was a pyramidal or a hierarchical system which flourished during medieval period in Europe. Its four main features were:
a)      The king was at the topmost level of the feudal system. Below him were nobles known as barons followed by knights.
b)      The serfs or the peasants occupied the lowest strata in the feudal system.
c)       The castle was the chief characteristic of feudalism. The feudal Lords lived in huge castles or forts. The living house and court of the Lord existed inside the castle.
d)      The King gave lands to barons and the latter provided troops to the king.
10. Explain any four reasons responsible for the commencement of Renaissance in Italy during the fourteenth century.                4
Ans.:- The Italian Renaissance is best known for its achievements in painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, philosophy, science and exploration. Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas by the late 15th century, during the Peace of Lodi (1454-1494) agreed between Italian states. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as domestic disputes and foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars (1494-1559). However, the ideas and ideals of the Italian Renaissance endured and spread into  the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance. Italian explorers from the maritime republics served under the auspices of European monarchs, ushering the Age of discovery. The most famous among them are Christopher Columbus who sailed for Spain, Giovanni da Verrazzano for France, Amerigo Vespucci for Portugal, and John Cabot for England. Italian scientists such as Falloppio, Tartaglia, Galileo, Torricelli, played a key role in the scientific revolution and foreigners such as Copernicus and Vesalius worked in Italian universities. Various events and dates of the 17th century, such as the conclusion of the European Wars f Religion in 1648, have been proposed for the end of the Renaissance.

11. Explain four reasons why Britain became the first country in Europe to have an industrial revolution.            4

Ans.:- The Industrial Revolution began first in Britain in the 1700s. Historians have identified several reasons for why the Industrial Revolution began first in Britain, including: the effects of the Agricultural Revolution, large supplies of coal, geography of the country, a positive political climate, and a vast colonial empire.

The Agricultural Revolution was a major event in world history and had a profound effect on life in Britain. For example, many historians consider the agricultural revolution to be a major cause of the Industrial Revolution, especially in terms of when and how it began in Britain. For instance, the Industrial Revolution began due in part to an increase in food production, which was the key outcome of the Agricultural Revolution.

The next main reason for why Britain was the first to industrialize was the large supplies of coal present in the country. Coal was a necessary ingredient in the industrial process as it fuelled the steam engines that were used in trains, ships and all other sorts of machinery. Not only did Britain have large supplies of the resource, but it was also easily obtainable.

The third main reason for Britain’s industrialization was the basic geography of the country. An important aspect of early industrialization was the ability of people to transport goods and resources easily across the country. For example, goods produced in factories needed to be able to be transported cheaply and reliably to market so that they could be sold for a profit.

The next major reason for Britain being the first country to industrialize was the political climate of the time. In the 1700s, Britain had a stable government after having gone through civil war and revolution in the decades before.

 

12. Why did the British feel a need to introduce new land settlements in India? Explain three revenue systems introduced by the British in India.           1+3=4

Ans.:- The main aim of the British in introducing Land Revenue Settlements, was to control the land and increase the flow of money into the British Treasury.

British mainly adopted three types of land tenure systems:-

a.       Permanent Settlement/Zamindari system:- It was introduced in Bengal, Orissa, Bihar and districts of Banaras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793. John shore planned the Permanent Settlement.

b.      Ryotwari System:- It was introduced in Bombay, Madras, Assam and Berar. Sir Thomas Munro introduced it in Madras. It was during the term of Lord Hastings.

c.       Mahalwari System:- In 1833, Mahalwari System was introduced under Wlliam Bentinck. This was basically a modified form of the zamindari system/settlement introduced in the Ganga valley, Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, parts of Central India.

 

13. Examine the state of indigenous education system of Hindus in India in the beginning of eighteenth century.          4

Ans.:- First it was the British who told Indians how they civilized them by bringing education to India. Today Christian missionaries and some Indian Christians (converts) keep on reminding Hindus of the pioneering role played by the Christian community in the field of education. I wondered!  If this were true how did knowledge contained in the Vedas, Shastras and on Ayurveda, Astronomy, steel making etc be carried forward through generations. If it is the Christians whom we have to credit with educating us, how did numerous schools of Indian thought come into being and importantly survive for thousands of years.

Having read Arun Shourie’s book ‘Missionaries in India’ I knew the missionary motive behind educating India but! Did not have knowledge of the system of education that existed in India before the Christians began to rule India. Therefore, I left inadequate when Christians claimed to have educated India till I read ‘The Beautiful Tree: Indigenous Indian Education in the 18th century” by Dharampalji. The book reproduces Reports of numerous Surveys undertaken in Bengal, Punjab and Madras Presidency by the British (between 1800-1830) to give you the state of education in India around 1800, number of schools/colleges, caste composition of students, how many Hindu & Muslim students, subjects taught and books used.

 The book is volume 3 in a series of five books titled “Dhrampal, Collected Writings”. Volume 1 is “Indian Science & Technology in the 18th century”.

 

14. Describe any four features of tropical evergreen forests of India.     4

Ans.:- Feature of tropical evergreen forests are:-

(i) Trees in these forests remain green all the year round as the climate of the region is warm and wet throughout the year.

(ii) The leaves of these trees do not fall in any particular season. Hence, they are evergreen.

(iii) These forests are found in the areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall with a short dry season.

(iv) The trees reach a height up to 60 meters or even more. It has a dense and mixed vegetation of all kinds including trees, shrubs, climbers, creepers, epiphytes and ferns giving it a multilayered structure.

 

15. Explain any two characteristics each of subsistence farming and commercial farming practised in India.        2+2=4

Ans.:- Characteristics of Subsistence farming:-

(i) the entire production is largely consumed by the farmers and their family and they do not have any surplus to sell in the market.

(ii) In this type of farming, landholdings are small and fragmented. Cultivation techniques are primitive and simple.

Characteristics of Commercial farming:-

(i) In this case, most of the produce is sold in the market for earning money.

(ii) In this system, farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and High Yielding Varieties of seeds etc.

 

16. How is the road transport significant in day to day life? Explain with four examples.               4

Ans.:- Road transport significant in our day to day life. The following are the examples why road transport significant in day to day life:

1.       Roads provide door to door service by means of a rickshaw, car, bicycle, bus, scooter or a truck.  The construction, repair and maintenance cost is less than other means of transport.

2.         It is the cheapest and the most convenient mode of transportation for a few people and relatively smaller amount of goods over shorter distances. 

3.       It is through roads that we reach railway stations, airports and seaports.  Perishable goods like milk, fruits and vegetables are quickly carried from nearby villages to the cities or metropolis or to other destinations.

4.        Roads connect rural areas to the urban areas and can be constructed in all types of terrains like hills, deserts, mountain and plateaus.

 

17. Describe any four features of the Directive Principle-Social and Economic equality.                4

Ans.:- The following are the four features of the Directive Principle- Social and Economic equality:-

i)                    It denotes the ideals that the State should keep in mind while formulating policies and enacting laws.

ii)                   It resembles the ‘Instrument of Instructions’ enumerated in the Government of India Act of 1935. In the words of Dr B R Ambedkar, ‘the Directive Principles are like the instrument of instructions, which were issued to Governor-General and the the Governors of the colonies of India by the British Government under the Government of India Act of 1935’.

iii)                 What is called Directive Principles is merely another name for the instrument of instructions. The only difference is that they are instructions to the legislature and the executive.

iv)                 It constitutes a very comprehensive economic, social and political programme for a modern democratic State which aimed at realising the high ideals of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as outlined in the Preamble to the Constitution. They embody the concept of a ‘welfare state’ which was absent during the colonial era.

 

18. Define Panchayti Raj. Describe its three tiers.            4

Ans.:- The Constitution states that the State shall take steps to organize Village Panchayats and empower them with such powers and authorities as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of local self government.

Panchayati Raj system is a three tier system, having Gram Panchayats at village level, Panchayat Samities at intermediate or Block level and Zila Parishad at destrict level. These institutions work for the welfare and social-economic development of the people of their respective areas. They also provide basic facilities such as safe drinking water, sanitation, dispensaries, paving of lanes & roads, primary schools, old age homes and other local needs of the areas.

 

19. Explain the composition of the Legislative Council of a state.             4

Ans.:- The Composition of Legislative Council is as follows:

a)      One-third members are elected by the members of local bodies i.e. Municipalities, District Boards and others in the State,

b)      Another one-third members are elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly,

c)       One-twelfth members are elected by the electorate consisting of graduates of the State of not less than three years standing,

d)      Another one-twelfth are elected by the electorate consisting of teachers having teaching experience of at least three years in the educational institutions within the State, but these institutions must not be lower in standard than secondary schools, and

e)      The remaining one-sixth members are nominated by the Governor of the State.

 

20. How is the President of India elected? Explain.         4

Ans.:- The President is indirectly elected by an Electoral College which consists of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament as well as of State Legislative Assemblies. Moreover, the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry (earlier known as Pondicherry) also participate in this election. The voting is by secret ballot. She/he is elected according to the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

 

21. Why are the political parties a must in a democracy? Explain four reasons.  4

Ans.:- Political Parties are essential for the proper functioning of representative democracy. They perform vital functions in every political system.

1. they nominate candidates during elections.

2. they campaign to obtain support for their candidates in the elections.

3. they place objective and programmes before the voters through their manifestos,

4. those securing the majority in elections form the government and enact and implement the policies.

22. How does the Indian constitution promote ‘national integration’? Explain four ways.            4

Ans.:- Many provisions under Fundamental Duties reinforce national integration. Following are important:

a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom

c) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

d) to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women

 

23. Explain any four strategies adopted by the centre and state governments to reduce dropout rate and improve the level of achievement in schools.              4

Ans.:- The Central and State governments over a period of time, evolved strategies to reduce drop-out rates and improve levels of achievements in schools. The steps taken in this direction are as follows:

i)                    Creating parental awareness and community mobilization

ii)                   Involvement of community and Panchayati Raj Institutions

iii)                 Economic incentives such as free education, free books and free uniforms

iv)                 Improvement in the content and process of schooling.

 

24. Give an account of the Santhal rebellion of 1855-57.               5

Ans.:- The Santhal Rebellion (1855-57): The area of concentration of the Santhals was called Damani Koh or Santhal Pargana. It extended from Bhagalpur in Bihar in the north to Orissa in the south stretching from Hazaribagh to the borders of Bengal. The Santhals like other tribes worked hard to maintain their lives in the forests and wild jungles. They cultivated their land and lived a peaceful life which continued till the British officials brought with them traders, moneylenders, zamindars and merchants. They were made to buy goods on credit and forced to pay back with a heavy interest during harvest time. As a result, they were sometimes forced to give the mahajan not only their crops, but also plough, bullocks and finally the land. Very soon they became bonded labourers and could serve only their creditors. The peaceful tribal communities were now up in arms against the British officials, zamindars and money lenders who were exploiting them. Sidhu and Kanu were leading Santhal rebel leaders.

25. Why and how was the Muslim League formed? Explain.       5

Ans.:- FORMATION OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE (1906) As the radical movement grew stronger the British began to look for ways and means to break the unity among Indian. They tried to do this through the partition of Bengal and by sowing the seed of communalism among Indian people. They motivated Muslims to form a permanent political association of their own. In December, 1906, during the Muhammadan Educational conference in Dacca, Nawab Salim Ullah Khan raised the idea of establishing a Central Muhammadan Association to take care of Muslim interests. Accordingly, on 30th December, 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded. Another prominent person, Aga Khan was chosen as its president. The main objective of the league was to protect and advance the rights of Muslims in India and represent their needs to the government. By encouraging the issue of separate electorates, the government sowed the seed of communalism and separatism among Indians. The formation of the Muslim League is considered to be the first fruit of the British master strategy of ‘Divide and Rule’. Mohammad Ali Jinnah later joined the League.

 

26. Examine the factors which influence the distribution and density of population in an area. 5

Ans.:- We can divide the factors which affect distribution and density of population into two broad categories: Physical and Socio-economic.

A. Physical Factors

Three important physical factors influence the distribution and density of population, namely relief, climate and soil.

(i) Relief: you may have visited a mountainous area or a valley and also a plain area and observed that the mountains are less populated than the plains. Relief which represents the differences in elevation and slope between the higher and lower parts of the land surface of a given area, directly affects the accessibility of the area. The areas, which are easily accessible, are most likely to be inhabited by people. that is why, we find that the plains are densely populated and areas of rugged relief like mountains and plateaus are not. If you compare the density and distribution of population in northern plain and those in Himalayan areas, you can find the effects of relief.

(ii) Climate: Climatic condition is one of the most important factors which affects density and distribution of population. Favourable climate provides convenient living conditions for human beings. The higher density of population is found in the areas where the climate is favorable. But areas with harsh climate, i.e., areas that are too hot, too cold, too dry or too wet have lower density of population. In India, the area having dry climate such as Rajasthan and the areas with extreme cold climate such as the Valley in Jammu and Kashmir, or Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand have low density of population.

(iii) Soil: Human beings depend upon the quality of soil for agriculture. Areas of fertile soil can, therefore, support larger population. That is why, the regions of fertile soil such as the alluvial plains of North India and coastal plains have higher density of population. On the other hand, the areas with less fertile soils like parts of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh have lower density of population.

B. Socio-economic Factors

The density and distribution of population also depend on the following socioeconomic conditions of the area:

(i) Industrialization and Urbanization: As you always find, large number of people reside in the area having industries. They also prefer to live in the urban areas, towns and cities. The areas which are rich in mineral resources also attract large population. The mining areas in Jharkhand are very densely populated. This is so because these areas support several economic activities and offer lots of employment opportunities. Moreover, the education and health facilities are better in these areas. We are aware that all large cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata and many more have high density of population.

(ii) Transport and Communication: Some parts of the country have better transport and communication facilities and other public utility services than the other parts. Areas of northern plain are very well connected, whereas north eastern areas have comparatively poor connectivity. All such areas where the public facilities are well developed have a comparatively higher density of population. Sometimes we find that the places of cultural and religious significance are also densely populated.

 

27. Assess the role of agencies which help in the formation of public opinion.  5

Ans.:- The following are some of the important agencies which help to formulate public opinion:

1. Print Media: Newspapers, periodicals, magazines and other print materials have been contributing to the formulation of public opinion since a long time. As you are very well aware, the news items, articles, news stories, letters to editors and several other published items on almost all the critical public issues update the individual views and opinions. These also assimilate and concretise varied views and opinions and help them evolve as public opinion. These media instruments also facilitate communication of public opinion to all concerned.

2. Electronic Media: Cinema, radio, T.V. channels and now cell phones have emerged as perhaps the most effective tools that contribute to the formulation of public opinion. Their audio-visual mode helps a great deal in assimilating views and opinions expressed even in the remotest part of the country. They help in converting views into the most representative public opinion and also in communicating it to all concerned.

3. Political Parties constitute an important agency for opinion formation. As you also may be experiencing, almost everyday, the political parties and their leaders feed the people with facts and ideas. We hear and see the leaders of political parties undertaking padyatras, rathyatras and workers of political parties conducting mass awareness activities about their programmes and policies. These contribute a great deal in the formulation of public opinion.

4. Legislatures: Legislatures, Parliament and State Legislatures in our country are the most effective institutions that make substantive contribution to the formation of public opinion. The impact of their contribution has increased manifold since the beginning of the live telecast of legislative debates. These are places where most of the discussions and debates on all the critical issues of public policy and public welfare take place. These are watched and heard by the vast majority of population.  Legislature’s platform provides authentic information and ideas on which public opinion is effectively formulated.

5. Educational Institutions: Different educational institutions also help create public opinion. Our schools, colleges, universities and professional institutes leave on our minds permanent impact. These formal educational institutions impart political education and contribute to the formation of public opinion as well.

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