SOCIAL SCIENCE (213) - Oct' 2019 | NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIAL SCIENCE (Oct’ 2019)
(213)
NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1. Identify the major aim of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
(A) To make India a Welfare State
(B) To raise the economic growth of India
(C) To make India a sustainable developed country
(D) To increase globalization in India.
Ans.:- (A) To make India a Welfare State
2. Identify the scanty area of natural vegetation of India from the following.
(A) Interior parts of Peninsular India
(B) The Western Ghats
(C) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(D) The North-Eastern Region
Ans.:- (D) The North-Eastern Region

3. Which one of the following States has the highest literacy rate?
(A) Tamil Nadu                 (B) Kerala
(C) Karnataka                     (D) Andhra Pradesh
Ans.:- (B) Kerala
4. Which of the following is a man-made disaster?
(A) Landslide
(B) Volcanic eruption
(C) Gas tragedy
(D) Earthquake
Ans.:- (C) Gas tragedy
5. Explain any two features of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment in the Panchayati Raj Institution. 2
Ans.:- Main features of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, 1992
(i) establishment of a three-tier structure: Village Panchayat (Gram Panchayat); intermediate panchayat (Panchayat Samiti; and the district panchayat (Zila parishad);
(ii) regular elections, every five years;
6. Name any two major beverage crops of India.                              2
Ans.:- Two beverage crops of India are Tea and Coffee.
7. Why was Tsar Nicholas II responsible for the Russian Revolution?      2
Ans.:- Even after the 1905 of Revolution, the civil rights and democratic representation was limited and hence the unrest continued.In 1917, occurred another revolution in Russia. It happened because the condition of the Russian workers and peasants, and non Russians living in Russia had become quite miserable under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II.
8. Name the two hostile groups of the First World War.               2
Ans.:- In 1882, Germany, Austria and Italy signed the Triple Alliance pledging mutual military assistance against rival powers. England, Russia and France signed the Triple Entente in 1907. Emergence of two mutually opposed groups divided Europe into hostile camps leading to tension and conflicts among European powers.

9. “A major impact of the British rule in India was the beginning of new middle class.” Elaborate.4
Ans.:- A major impact of the British rule in India was the beginning of a new middle class. With the rise of the British commercial interests, new opportunities opened to a small Impact of British Rule on India: Economic, Social and Cultural (1757-1857) section of the Indian people. They often acted as the agents and intermediaries of the British traders and thus made huge fortunes. The new landed aristocracy, which came into being after the introduction of Permanent Settlement, also formed a part of this new class. A major section of the old landowning aristocracy lost ownership of their land and in many cases were replaced by a new class of land owners.
10. Describe any four objectives OF Indian Foreign Policy.           4
Ans.:- Four objectives of Indian Foreign Policy are
(i) maintenance of freedom in policy formulation;
(ii) promotion of international peace and security;
 (iii) good relationships with other nations and especially with our neighbours;
(iv) support to the United Nations;

11. Explain the role of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in the religious and social awakening of India.  4

Ans.:- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan believed that the religious and social life of the Muslims could be improved only by imbibing modern western scientific knowledge and culture. His major concern was the removal of social and educational backwardness among the Muslims. He worked hard to raise the status of the Muslim women. He was against the purdah system, polygamy, easy divorce and lack of education among the girls. Though he was opposed by the orthodox Muslims, he made commendable efforts in promote women’s education. He tried to interpret the Quran in the light of reason and spoke out against fanaticism and ignorance. He also initiated social reforms for the upliftment of Muslim society.

 

12. Describe any four features of the Central Highlands of India.              4

Ans.:- The central Highlands: It extends from Narmada river and the northern plains. A ravallis is the important mountain which extends from Gujrat through Rajasthan to Delhi. The highest peak of the Aravallis hills is Gurushikhar (1722m) near Mt. Abu. The Malwa Plateau and Chhota Nagpur plateau are parts of the central highlands. River Betwa, chambal and  Ken are the important river of Malwa plateau while Mahadeo, Kaimur and Maikal are the important hills of chhota Nagpur plateau. The valley of Narmada is lies between the Vindhyas and the satpura which flows east to west and joins the Arabian sea.

 

13. Examine the role of Moderates in the Indian National Struggle.        4

Ans.:- In the beginning, the Britishers had a favourable attitude towards the Congress. But, by 1887, this attitude began to change. They did not fulfill the demands of the Moderates. The only achievement of the Congress was the enactment of the Indian Councils Act, 1892 that enlarged the legislature by adding a few nonofficial members and passing of a resolution for holding Indian Civil Services Examination simultaneously in London and in India. Many leaders gradually lost faith in the Constitutional process. Even though the Congress failed to achieve its goal, it succeeded in creating national awakening and instilling in the minds of the Indian people a sense of belonging to one Nation. They provided a forum for the Indians to discuss major national issues. By criticizing the government policies, they gave the people valuable political training. Though, They were not ready to take aggressive steps which would bring them in direct conflict with the Government. The most significant achievement was the foundation of a strong national movement.

 

14. Explain the uniqueness of the Revolt of 1857.            4

Ans.:- The revolt of 1857 started on 10th May when the Company’s Indian soldiers at Meerut rebelled. Called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British, it is now recognised as the First War of Independence against the British rulers. Indian soldiers killed their European officers and marched towards Delhi. They entered the Red Fort and proclaimed the aged and powerless Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar, as the Emperor of India. This rebellion was a major anti-colonial movement against the aggressive imperialist policies of the British. In fact, it was an economic, political and social struggle against the British rule. This severe outburst of anger and discontent shook the foundations of colonial rule in large parts of India.

 

15. Explain the significance of Radio as a means of Mass Communication.           4

Ans.:- Means of Mass Communication:- The means by which information can be communicated to a very large number of people are called Media or Mass Communication, such as radio, television, newspaper, cinema, books, magazines, traditional folk modes and satellite communication.

 Radio:- Radio transmission in India started in 1927 from Mumbai and Kolkata to entertain educate and apparise the people of the country with important information. Today the program of All India Radio (AIR)are available to 90% parts of the country to 98.8% of our people.


16. Describe four steps taken by the Indian Government to control population.               4

Ans.:- The following are the steps taken by the Indian Government to control population:

a)      Minimum Age of Marriage:- As fertility depends on the age of marriage. So the minimum age of marriage should be raised. In India minimum age for marriage is 21 years for girls.

b)      Raising the Status of Women:- There is still discrimination to the women. They are confined to four walls of house. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. So women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. Free education should be given to them.

c)       Spread of Education:- The spread of education changes the outlook of people. The educated men prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family norms. Educated women are health conscious and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate..

d)      Adoption:- Some parents do not have any child, despite costly medical treatment. It is advisable that they should adopt orphan children. It will be beneficial to orphan children and children couples.

 

17. Describe the ‘powers’ of High Court.              4

Ans.:- The jurisdiction of the High Court extends up to the territorial limits of the concerned State/States or Union Territories. The High Court has original and appellate jurisdictions. Under the original jurisdiction certain types of cases may be brought directly before a High Court. The High Court exercises original jurisdiction for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights and other legal rights. In this respect High Court has the power to issue writs. These writs go a long way in protecting the rights of the individual against encroachment by the legislature, the executive or any  other authority. The High Court may also hear election petitions under its original jurisdiction challenging election of a member of State Legislature.

 

18. How is rainfall distribution in India highly uneven? Explain with examples.                4

Ans.:- Rainfall in India is highly uneven over a period of time in a year. As we move from East to West in Northern plains, we observe that in central India rainfall decreases. In peninsular region, India’s rainfall decreases from coast to interior parts. In North-East India, the rainfall increases with altitude. India is the unique example of rainfall distribution with marked contrasts. Both, one of the rainiest and driest places of the world are located in India itself. Can you think why? Spatial variations in rainfall in India can be shown under the following headings.

(a) Areas of heavy rainfall (more than 200cm): Maximum rainfall in India occurs in the western coast, sub Himalayan regions of north-east and Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya.

(b) Area of Moderate rainfall (100-200cm): Areas receiving 100 to 200cm rainfall in India include some parts of the Western Ghats, West Bengal, Odisha and Bihar and many states.

 

19. Explain the importance of ‘equality’ in the Indian Constitution.        4

Ans.:- Right to equality is very important in a society like India. The purpose of this right is to establish the rule of law where all the citizens should be treated equal before the law. It has five provisions (Articles 14-18) to provide for equality before law or for the protection lf law to all the persons in India and also to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

(i)                  Equality before Law:- The Constitution guarantees that all citizens will be equal before law.

(ii)                No Discrimination on the basis of Religion, Race, Caste, Sex or Place of Birth:- The State cannot discriminate against a citizen on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

(iii)               Equality of Opportunity to all Citizens in matter of Public Employment:-  The State cannot discriminate against anyone in the matter of public employment. All citizens can apply and become employees of the State.

 

20. Explain the causes of environmental degradation in India.   4

Ans.:- Causes of environmental degradation are as follows:-

A. Social Factors:

i) Growing Population:- Population is the greatest resource of any country and a major contributory factor for development, and yet it is a major cause of environmental degradation. As we find, the rapid pace of population growth has led to the excessive utilization of natural resources.

ii) Poverty:- Poverty is said to be both the cause and effect of environmental degradation. We may have seen that the poor people use natural resources more than the rich. They use these for building their huts, for cooking, for their food and for meeting many other needs.

B. Economic Factors:

i)Agricultural Development:- Agricultural development is so important for a country like India. But this has been affecting the environment adversely. Various kinds of farming activities especially directed towards increasing agricultural production have a direct impact on environment.

ii) Industrialization:- Rapid industrialization has been the foremost contributor to environmental degradation. Based on the information collected through various sources, we find that most of the industries adopt the technologies that place a heavy load on environment. This technologies lead to intensive use of resources and energy.

 

21. Explain how the Parliament maintains its control over the Council of Ministers.       4

Ans.:- The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to Lok Sabha. It means that the responsibility of every Minister is the responsibility of the entire Council of Ministers. It is responsible to Rajya Sabha also. In fact, both the Houses have powers to control the Council of Ministers. They do it by asking questions and supplementary questions on the policies, programmes and functioning of the government. They debate on the proposals of the government and also subject its functioning to intensive criticism. They can move adjournment motion and calling attention notices. No bill tabled by the Council of Ministers can become law unless it is approved by the Parliament. The annual budget also is to be passed by the Parliament.

22. Explain the policies of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).         4

Ans.:-The following are the policies of Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP):-

a)      BJP’s origin can be traced to Bhartiya Jana Sangh which was formed in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.

b)      Founded in 1980, the party aims at building a strong nation based on its ideology of Hindutva.

c)       Wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.

d)      Is in favour of uniform civil code and is against religious conversions.

e)      Economic development, empowerment of minorities and women is one of its key polices.

 

23. Explain any four stages of the electoral process in India.       4

Ans.:- The election process is a considerably long process having numerous stages. It is important for you to recognize various stages of the electoral process, which are as follows:

1. Delimitation of constituencies is the first step which is undertaken by the Delimitation Commission.

2. Preparation and revision of the electoral roll constitute the next step done under the supervision of the Election Commission periodically.

3. Consequent upon the President’s and Governor’s notifications, the Election Commission undertakes the task of conducting elections in the country.

4. The election schedule is announced indicating the dates for filling the nomination papers, their scrutiny, withdrawals, polling, counting of the votes, and declaration of the election results.

 

24. Describe the religious and cultural features of the Harappan Civilization.     5

Ans.:- Religion and Culture:-  The cult of Mother Goddess seems to have been very popular among them. Many figurines of Mother Goddess have been found. One male deity has also been found at Mohenjo-Daro which has been called the prototype of Lord Shiva (Pashupati). This deity is represented in a seal, sitting in a yogic posture and surrounded by animals.

Lingam worship and nature worship of trees were prevalent. Can you see the similarities in the religious practices among the Hindus in India even today? When you visit a Shiva temple, you can see that Shiva lingam is worshipped. You must be aware that Hindus also worship trees like Peepal.

25. Explain the relationship between Rights and Duties.              5

Ans.:- Relation between Rights and Duties:

a)      Rights and Duties always go together:- Rights and duties are closely related and cannot be separated from one another. Both go side by side. These are the two sides of the same coin. If the state gives the right to life to a citizen, it also imposes an obligation on him to not to expose his life to dangers, as well as to respect the life of others. If I have a right to work and earn, it is also my duty to recognize the same right of others.

b)      Right of One is the Duty of Others:- Rights can be enjoyed only in the world of duties. For every right there is corresponding duty. When the people fail to discharge their duties properly, the rights all become meaningless. “I can enjoy my rights only if the others allow me to do the same. I have “the right to life and it is the duty of others to respect my life and not to cause any harm to me.”

c)       Rights of a Citizen also implies Duties for him:- Rights are not the monopoly of a single individual. Everybody gets these equally. This means that “others also have the same rights which I have, and it is my duty to see that others also enjoy their rights.”

d)      Rights are to be used for Social Good:- Rights originate in society. Therefore, while enjoying rights, we must always try to promote social interest. It is the duty of every one of us to use our rights for promotion the welfare of the society as a whole.

e)      Duty towards the State:- Since state protects and enforces rights, it also becomes the duty of all citizens to be loyal to the state. It is their duty to obey the laws of the state and to pay taxes honestly. Citizens should always be ready to defend the state. Thus a citizen has both Rights and Duties. He enjoys rights and performs his duties. Rights and Duties are the two sides of the same coin.

 

26. Explain the importance of National Integration.        5

Ans.:- National integration is essential for any nation with socio-cultural, religious, linguistic and geographical diversities. And for a country like ours, it is still more necessary. As we know, India is a very large country. We have the second largest population in the world. A unique feature of our country is that all the major religions of the world are practiced here such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism. There are more than one thousand languages that people of India speak. There are also great varieties in costume, food habits, and social customs. Geographically, our land is diverse and there are amazing differences in climate. Despite all these differences India is one political entity. We have to co-exist with each other peacefully, respect the culture and religion of our fellow Indians. This is possible only when national integration is realised in true sense of the term.

 

27. Describe the hierarchical organization of Feudalism.              5

Ans.:- The resulting political chaos led to the emergence of a new kind of political order called Feudalism. It was a hierarchical or graded organization of political sovereignty. This hierarchical structure can be understood easily if we visualize a ladder or a flight of steps. At the top of the ladder stood the King, below him stood the big lords known as the Dukes and Earls. Below these lords were a number of lesser lords known as the Barons. Below these were the Knights, who were perhaps the lowest category of lords. The lords derived their authority from and owned their loyalty to the lord just above them and were known as the vassals of their lord. This pattern of relationship between lords and vassals, that is, between bigger lords and lesser lords was the same from the top of the ladder to the bottom. These lords were all powerful in their respective local areas. Thus political power was widely dispersed unlike in the Roman Empire where it was concentrated mainly in the hands of the king.

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