SOCIAL SCIENCE (213) - April' 2016 | NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIAL SCIENCE (April’ 2016)
(213)
NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


Instructions : (1) All Questions are compulsory and carry marks as indicated against each question. (2) For Multiple Choice Questions four options are given.  You have to choose right option and indicate it in your answer-book. (3) Attach the map with answer script.
1. In the given political outline map of India locate and label the following : (i) Cardamom Hills (ii) Kosi River (iii) Tadoba National Park (iv) Major wheat producing area of Himachal Pradesh
2. Identify and write in your answer-book the correct names of four major International Airports of India shown as (1), (2), (3) and (4) in the given political outline map of India. 1x4=4
Note : The following questions are for Visually Impaired candidates only in lieu of questions no.1 and 2.  Answer to these questions must not be in more than one sentence.
(1.1) Name any two hill ranges of Meghalaya plateau. 2
(1.2) Name the southern most major Peninsular  river. 2
(1.3) Write names of any two types of animal species found in Dudhwa wild life sanctuary.
(1.4) Name any two regions of India where tidal forests are found. 2

3. In which of the following years was the radio transmission started in India ? 1
 (A) 1925 (B) U1927 (C) 1929 (D) 1931
Ans.:- (B) U1927
4. Which of the following factors does not affect the population change in any country ?
(A) Birth rate (B) Death rate (C) Migration (D) Tourism
Ans.:- (D) Tourism
5. Which of the following is the tenure of a Vidhan Sabha of any Indian state ?
(A) Three years (B) Four years (C) Five years (D) Six years
Ans.:- (C) Five years
6. Which of the following does not contaminate water bodies ?
(A) Growing Population (B) Urbanisation
(C) Industrialisation (D) Recycling of Resources
Ans.:- (D) Recycling of Resources
7. Name the two Western thinkers who encouraged vernacular languages and literature in India.
Ans.:- Marx Mueller and Annie Besant were the two Western thinkers who encouraged vernacular languages and literature in India.
8. How do both the Houses of Parliament maintain their control over the Council of Ministers ?  Highlight any two ways.
Ans.:- The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to Lok Sabha. It means that the responsibility of every Minister is the responsibility of the entire Council of Ministers. It is responsible to Rajya Sabha also. In fact, both the Houses have powers to control the Council of Ministers. They do it by asking questions and supplementary questions on the policies, programmes and functioning of the government. They debate on the proposals of the government and also subject its functioning to intensive criticism. They can move adjournment motion and calling attention notices. No bill tabled by the Council of Ministers can become law unless it is approved by the Parliament. The annual budget also is to be passed by the Parliament.
9. Define the term ‘democracy’.
Ans.: Abraham Lincoln said, “Democracy is a government of the people, for the people, and by the people.” The term ‘democracy’ come from the Greek world demokratia which means “rule of the people.” It was coned from two words: demos that means “people” and kratos which refers to “power”. That is, in a democracy the power rests with the people.
10. Explain any two major challenges which our country faced after independence.
Ans.: Two major challenges which our country faced after independence are
A.      Communalism:- Communalism has been one of the most complex problems that India has been facing. This is generated when individuals belonging to one religion develop excessive affinity to their religion and hatred towards other religions. This kind of feeling promotes religious fundamentalism and fanaticism and proves to be dangerous for the unity and integrity of the country. It is more so for a country like India where people practise all the major religions of the world. But India has been suffering from communalism since independence.
 B. Regionalism:-  Regionalism is another obstacle in the way of national integration. On many occasions it encourages people to promote regional interests even at the cost of national priorities. One may think that raising the problems of a particular region is needed to attract the attention of the decision makers and to compel them to fulfill justified regional demands. This thinking is reasonable, because such demands may be based on genuine grievances of the regions and States that have been denied fair shares of projects and industries in the overall structure of development.

11. Describe the features of agriculture practiced in the Harappan civilization. 4

Ans. The following are the features of agriculture practiced in the Harappan civilization:-

a)They produced wheat, barley, peas, lentils, linseed and mustard.

b) They might have grown cotton as traces of cotton have been found.

c) Rice husks have been found at Lothal & Rangpur

d) They grew crops in the river plains. Due to annual floods the land was fertile vecause of deposition of silt.

e) At Banawali a Terracotta plough was found suggesting they might have used it for agriculture.

f) They used Canals and artificial water reservoirs for irrigation purposes. Water reservoir has been found at Dholavira.

 

12. Explain the Mansabdari System of Mughals. 4

Ans.:- The Mughal system was more penetrative with control over the revenue and landed network going much deeper right to the village level. The Mughals appointed mansabdars who performed military and civil duties. The mansabs were actually ranks of position which was fixed according to the position of the officers in Mughal bureaucracy and the military contingents under their command. These mansabdars were mostly paid through land assignments called jagirs which were frequently transferable. These were similar to iqtas, with the difference that while iqtas combined administrative charge, jagirs did not. The Mughal system was crucially dependent on the smooth functioning of Mansabdari and Jagirdari Systems.

13. Describe main ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy which made him a prominent thinker ahead of his time.

Ans.:- Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in a Brahmin family of Bengal. He knew many languages and had read Quran, Bible and the New Testament along with Hindu scriptures in great depth. Liberal education exposed him to different cultures and philosophies.  Deeply moved by the plight of his brother’s widow, who had been forced to commit Sati, he was determined to uproot this social practice. This led him to challenge other unfair social and religious practices prevalent at that time.  He founded Brahmo Samaj in 1828. He was the first person to take an initiative to challenge the practice of Sati and it soon became his life-long crusade. He mobilized public opinion and cited the scriptures to show that this practice had no sanction in Hindu religion.

 

14. Describe the Faqir and Sanyasi Rebellions of 1770 - 1820s. 4

Ans.:- (i) The Faqir and Sanyasi Rebellions (1770–1820s):

The Faqirs were a group of wandering Muslim religious mendicants in Bengal. Two famous Hindu leaders who supported them were Bhawani Pathak and a woman, Devi Choudhurani. They attacked English factories and seized their goods, cash, arms and ammunition. Maznoom Shah was one of their prominent leaders. They were finally brought under control by the British at the beginning of the 19th century.

The Sanyasi Uprisings took place in Bengal between the periods of 17701820s. The Sanyasis rose in rebellion after the great famine of 1770 in Bengal which caused acute chaos and misery. However, the immediate cause of the rebellion was the restrictions imposed by the British upon pilgrims visiting holy places among both Hindus and Muslims.

 

15. Explain the formation of Muslim League in India. 4

Ans.:- FORMATION OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE (1906) As the radical movement grew stronger the British began to look for ways and means to break the unity among Indian. They tried to do this through the partition of Bengal and by sowing the seed of communalism among Indian people. They motivated Muslims to form a permanent political association of their own. In December, 1906, during the Muhammadan Educational conference in Dacca, Nawab Salim Ullah Khan raised the idea of establishing a Central Muhammadan Association to take care of Muslim interests. Accordingly, on 30th December, 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded. Another prominent person, Aga Khan was chosen as its president. The main objective of the league was to protect and advance the rights of Muslims in India and represent their needs to the government. By encouraging the issue of separate electorates, the government sowed the seed of communalism and separatism among Indians. The formation of the Muslim League is considered to be the first fruit of the British master strategy of ‘Divide and Rule’. Mohammad Ali Jinnah later joined the League.

 

16. Explain the specific features of the ‘Thar Desert’ of India. 4

Ans.:- The Indian Desert lies towards the western margin of Aravali Hills. It is also called Thar Desert. It is the ninth largest desert in the world. It spreads over the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. This region has semi-arid and arid weather conditions. It receives less than 150 mm of rainfall per year. The vegetation cover is low with thorny bushes. Luni is the main river in this area. All other streams appear only at the time of rainfall otherwise they disappear into the sand.

1. I remain dry most of the year. The moisture bearing winds goes parallel to Aravalli so I receive scanty rainfall.

2. I am pierced by cactus and other thorny bushes on my body.

3. If you are thirsty, you will have to walk several kilometers to reach an oasis and sinduates (small water body).

 

17. What  type of weather conditions prevail during the month of October in different parts of India ?  Explain.

Ans.:- October and November are the months of post (or retreating) monsoon season. The temperatures during September-October start decreasing in north India. Monsoonal trough also becomes weak over North-West India. This is gradually replaced by a high pressure system. The South-West monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually from North Indian Plains by November. In October the weather remains humid and warm due to continuing high temperature and moist land in month of October. In Northern plains hot and humid weather becomes oppressive at this time. It is commonly called ‘October Heat’.

 

18. Explain the main features of the ‘Tidal forests’ in India. 4

Ans.:- Following are the four characteristics of tidal forests

(i) As suggested by the name, these forests are found in tidal creeks and swamps influenced by the tides and wetland topography.

(ii) These areas are characterized by mud, silt and water accumulated on the surface.

(iii) Roots and branches of the trees are submerged under water for specific period of time.

(iv) They are also called mangrove forests. Mangroves are practically evergreen with thick leathery leaves.

 

19. Why is a Constitution must for a democratic country ?  Explain four reasons. 4

20. Why is the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’ a very important right given to Indian citizens ?  Give four arguments.

Ans.:- Since Fundamental Rights are justiciable, they are just like guarantees. They are enforceable, as every individual has the right to seek the help from courts, if they are violated. But in reality it is not so . encroachment or violation of Fundamental Right in our day to day life is a matter of great concern. Which is why, our Constitution does not permit the legislature and the executive to curb these rights. It provides legal remedies for the protection of our Fundamental Rights. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies stipulated in Article 32. When any of our rights are violated, we can seek justice through courts. We can directly approach the Supreme Court that can issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

 

21. Explain the ideas behind Directive Principles related to Gandhian thought reflected in the Indian Constitution.       4

Ans.: -Directive Principles of State Policy:- In addition to Fundamental Rights, the Constitution also has a section called Directive Principle of State Policy. It is a unique feature of the Constitution. It is aimed at ensuring greater social and economic reforms and serving as a guide to the State to institute laws and policies that help reduce the poverty of the masses and eliminate social discrimination. In fact, as you will study in the lesson on “India-A Welfare State”, these provisions are directed towards establishment of a welfare state.

 

22. Describe the functions of political parties in the formation of government in India.

Ans.:- The functions of political parties in the formation of government in India are

a)      To contest elections:- In most democracies, elections are fought mainly, among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections,

b)      Forming policies and programmes:- Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society.

c)       Making laws:- When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions.

d)      Parties form and rung governments:-Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

e)      Role of opposition: Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies.

 

23. Analyse any four issues which are considered as undesirable during election and demand immediate attention for reform.

Ans.:- Issues which are considered as undesirable during election and demand immediate attention for reform are:-

(a) rigging of the elections - fake and bogus voting, impersonation,

(b) violence during elections,

 (c) adverse role of money and muscle power,

(d) intimidation of voters especially the people of weaker sections,

 

24. Explain the changes in the Indian economy in the last decade of 20th century.

25. How is ‘dynamism’ a very significant characteristic of environment ?  Explain with examples.

Ans.:- THE DYNAMISM AND THE VARIETY OF THE ENVIRONMENT As you yourself observe and find that the environment is never static. One of its most significant characteristics is its dynamism. It is continuously changing.  Both the biotic and the abiotic elements in the environment are dynamic by their nature. Let us understand what is this dynamism and how it works. The environment differs from place to place and also from one time in history to another. For example, the environment of the Himalayas is different from that of the Great Indian Desert, and even there it is not the same over the years and decades. Climatic conditions change in different places in different seasons. If you observe the evolution of the environment of the same place, say over a period of 20 or 30 years, you will find that the environment of that place has changed. Some changes take place naturally, while others are caused by the activities of human beings. Even the human-made environment has been undergoing changes over a period of time and space.

 

26. Describe about the changes which helped in the economic growth of Italy during the Renaissance period.

Ans.:- It started in Italy around 14th Century AD. Italy was divided into small city states at that time. Many of them were built on the ruins of ancient Roman buildings. The geographical position of Italian cities made them great trading and intellectual centers. Moreover, the position of Italian cities such as Venice made them centers of trade and intellectual crossroads. Many great ideas, along with wealth, were brought by merchants from far corners of the globe. The new form of political and social organization gave political freedom and a suitable atmosphere for academic, artistic and cultural advancement. People had more leisure time for study and other activities. This was also a period of great economic expansion. Many commercial and financial techniques were developed for trade practices like book keeping, bills of exchange and public debt. This enabled Italy to become the centre of Renaissance. The major developments of this time were the revival of urban life, commerce based on private capital, banking, formation of nation states, explorations to find new routes and territories and the development of vernacular literature which was popularized by the printing press.

27. Analyse the contribution of Bismarck in the unification of Germany. 5

Ans.:- Unification of Germany After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, many Germans wanted an independent Germany. Germany was a confederation of 39 small states, led by Austria and Prussia. These states were always at war with one another, deterring the economic progress of Germany. The King of Prussia, Kaiser William I, chose a Prime Minister Bismarck to unify Germany under the rule of Prussia, and excluding Austria and France completely. Bismarck was fearless and believed in the urgent need for unification in Germany. He started with the modernisation of the army, defying the parliament in collecting taxes. His policy came to be known as ‘Blood and Iron’ policy and earned him the nickname of the ‘Iron Chancellor’. With this improved army, Bismarck encouraged the German population of Schleswig and Holstein to revolt against their ruler Denmark.

 

28. Describe the geographical conditions required for the production of cotton in India. 5

Ans.:- Some of the geographical conditions are as follows:

(a) Temperature: Cotton is the crop of tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C.

(b) Rainfall: It grows mostly in the areas having at least 210 frost free days in a year.

It requires modest amount of rainfall of 50 to 100cm. However, cotton is successfully  grown with the help of irrigation in the areas where rainfall is less than 50 cm.High amount  of rainfall in the beginning and sunny and dry weather at the time of ripening are very useful for a good crop.

(c) Soil: Cotton cultivation is very closely related to Black soils of Deccan and Malwa plateau. However, it also grows well in alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga plain and red and laterite soils of the peninsular region.

 

29. Examine the significance of local government in modern democracies. 5

Ans.:-The significance of local government in modern democracies are:-

a)      The application of resources must satisfy the collective needs of individuals. The object of local government is to serve individuals in communities. In democratic theory, local government exists for the sake of the individual and the individual does not exist to support ht e local government financially or otherwise.

b)      Direct participation in decision-making by citizens. This could be achieved through town meetings in small communities and through ratepayer associations, vigilante groups and social/political associations in larger communities. Direct or indirect public participation and decision making in an imperative for democratic local government.

c)       Valuing responsibility and accountability arising from the tenets of democracy. Councillors must be sensitive to public problems and needs, feel responsible for satisfying those needs and problems and realize their accountability to the public. This calls for frequent interaction between councillors and the electorate.

d)      Taking responsibility for management of programme effectiveness in order to ensure that needs are satisfied efficiently and effectively and

e)      Social equity emanating from the tenets of democracy. The conventional and classical philosophy of local government and management revolves around the following: Do municipal services rendered by local authorities enhance social equity? One of the main principles of social equity is the maintenance of high ethical and moral standards.

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