SOCIAL SCIENCE (213) - Oct' 2015 | NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers

SOCIAL SCIENCE (Oct’ 2015)
(213)
NIOS SECONDARY Solved Papers
Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 100


1. Which one of the following states has a bicameral legislature?
                (A) Odisha                          (B) Tamil Nadu
                (C) Gujarat                          (D) Bihar
Ans.:- (D) Bihar
2. Which one the following was not a result of voyages of discovery?
                (A) Setting up of colonies in Latin America and Australia
                (B) End of the slave trade
                (C) Rise in the prosperity of the colonies
                (D) Expansion of European commerce
Ans.:- (C) Rise in the prosperity of the colonies

3. Why did European coined Medieval Period in Europe as a Dark period?
                (A) There was no significant development during this period.
(B) They saw it as a period of interruption between classical period of ancient Greek and Roman civilisation and their own modern age.
(C) There was significant development in Islamic world and India in comparision to Europe.
(D) All of the above
Ans.:- (A) There was no significant development during this period.
4. Which one of the following was not a tribal revolt?
                (A) The Sanyasi Rebellion            (B) The Santhal Rebellion
                (C)  The Munda Rebellion            (D) The Kol uprising
Ans.:- (A) The Sanyasi Rebellion
5. Name the two important city states in Greece.            2
Ans.:- Two important city states were Athens and Sparta.
6. Define imperialism.  2
Ans.:- Imperialism is defined as the practice of extending control or rule over the political and economic life of another country.
7. How are human rights universal, fundamental and absolute?               2
Ans.:- Human Rights are universal, absolute and fundamental moral claims, in the sense that they belong to all human beings, they are inalienable and are basic to a real living. Human Rights are basic rights of the people that advocate fairness, equality, freedom and respect for all.
8. Though Simla and Ludhiana are located almost in the same latitude, Simla is cooler than Ludhiana during the summer season. Why?   2
Ans.: - Shimla and Ludhiana lie on the same latitude but Shimla is cooler than Ludhiana because Shimla is located at a higher altitude, i.e. at 2205 m above the sea level while Ludhiana is only 244 m above the sea level. Land gets heated up more rapidly and quickly as compared to the oceans.
9. State any four demands of the early congress leaders as they placed before the British Indian Government.                4
Ans.:- Initial stages of Indian National Congress The congress placed its demands before the government always in the form of petitions and worked within the framework of law.  It was for this reason that the early Congress leaders were referred to as ‘Moderates’ They asked for:
(a) representative legislatures,
 (b) Indianization of services,
 (c) reduction of military expenditure,
(d) education, employment and holding of the ICS  (Indian Civil Services) examination in India,
10. Describe any four economic impacts of British rule on various Indian Industries and trade in India.  4
Ans.:- Earlier, Indian handloom had a big market in Europe. Indian textiles such as cotton, linen, silk and woollen goods already had markets in Asia and Africa. Economic impacts of British rule on various Indian Industries and trade in India are:
(a) With the coming of industrialisation in England, the textile industry there made important headway. There was now a reverse of the direction of textile trade between Britain and India.
(b) There was massive import of machine made clothes from English factories to Indian markets. This import of large amount of products manufactured by mechanical looms in England led to increase threat for the handicraft industries as the British goods were sold at a much cheaper price.
(c) The British succeeded in selling their goods at a cheap price as foreign goods were given free entry in India without paying any duty. On the other hand, Indian handicrafts were taxed heavily when they were sent out of the country.
(d) Under the pressure of its industrialists, British government often imposed a protective tariff on Indian textiles. Therefore, within a few years, India from being an exporter of clothes became an exporter of raw cotton and an importer of British clothes.

11. Describe any four characteristics of tidal forests.      4

Ans.:- Following are the four characteristics of tidal forests

(i) As suggested by the name, these forests are found in tidal creeks and swamps influenced by the tides and wetland topography.

(ii) These areas are characterized by mud, silt and water accumulated on the surface.

(iii) Roots and branches of the trees are submerged under water for specific period of time.

(iv) They are also called mangrove forests. Mangroves are practically evergreen with thick leathery leaves.

 

12. State any four fundamental duties as listed in the Constitution of India?      4

Ans.:- The following are the duties have been listed in the Constitution of India:

1. to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions , the National Flag, National Anthem.

2. to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.

3. to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

4. to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do.

  

13. Describe any four causes of regional disparities in India.       4

Ans.:- Four causes of regional disparities in India are:-

1. Historical perspective:-  During the colonial rule in the pre-independence era, the areas which were not important from commercial or political angles, received little attention and remained under developed.

2. Geographical factors:-  Topography  of a region can constrain its development. The desert region of Rajasthan and difficult hilly terrains of north-eastern regions are examples of such cases.

3. Remote areas from national markets:-  The distance of the region from the national markets have also affected the development of economy in those areas especially the north eastern region, making it difficult to alter their growth process.

4. Lack of basic infrastructure:-  The states that have developed infrastructure facilities like roads, electricity and transportation facilities have made speedy progress in terms of socio-economic development. The States that lack these facilities find it difficult to adequately utilize the allocated investments and also to attract private investors. 

 

14. How did growth of transport and communication coincided with the growth of imperialism? Give any four reasons.                4

Ans.:- The growth of Imperialism coincided with the growth of transport and communication.

(a)    Good roads, steamships, railways and canals were being built by industrialised nations in their own countries and in the colonies.

(b)   Easy transportation of goods to and from the colonies made things easier for these countries.

(c)    Troops could also be easily sent to colonies. With the development of telegraph and telephone, messages could be sent easily.

(d)   Almost every country now came within the easy reach of imperial countries.

15. Explain any four consequences of World War I.         4

Ans.:- World War I was one of the most disastrous and frightening events the world had witnessed.

(i) A million people including innocent civilians lost their lives.

(ii) There was a large scale damage of property in most of the European countries.

(iii) The total expenditure was estimated at a staggering figure of 180 billion dollars.

(iv) The economy of most of the countries was shattered resulting in social tension, unemployment and poverty.

 

16. Explain any four contributions by Swami Vivekanand in the areas of socio-religious reforms.4

Ans.:- Swami Vivekanand was the first cultural ambassador to the west.

(a) He showed that India has much to contribute to world culture. He also showed that Science and Religion is not contradictor but complimentary.

(b) He gave an identity of who we are and what is Hinduism. He showed the common bases in different sections of Hinduism.

(c)He played a major role in unification of Hinduism. In words of sister Nivedita, ”it may be said that when he began to speak it was of the religious ideas of the Hindus,’ but when he ended, Hinduism had been created.”

(d) He founded Ram Krishna Mission to propagate the teachings of his Guru (teacher) Sri Ram Krishna Pramhans and interpreted many ancient Hindu scriptures in context of the modern world.

 

17. Explain any four points of importance of roads in term of connecting people and ensuring socio-economic growth in the country.       4

Ans.:- Roads play an important role in connecting people and also in ensuring socio-economic growth of a country as under:

a) Roads provide door to door service by means of a rickshaw, car, bicycle, bus, scooter or a truck.

b) The construction, repair and maintenance cost is less than other means of transport.

c) It is the cheapest and the most convenient mode of transportation for a few people and relaticely smaller amount of goods over shorter distances.

Perishable goods like milk, fruits and vegetables are quickly carried from nearby villages to the cities or metropolis or to other destinations.

 

18. Bring out any four differences between political parties and pressure groups.                           4

Ans.:- Differences between political parties and pressure groups are as under:

a) Pressure groups are not primarily political in nature. For example, although Rashtriya Swayamak Sangh  (RSS) supports the Bharatiya Janta Party, it is, by and large, a cultural organization. The political parties are basically political

b) Pressure groups do not seek direct power, they only influence those who are in power for moulding decisions in their favour. The political parties seek power to from the government.

c) Pressure groups do not contest elections, they only support political parties of their choice. Political parties nominate candidates, contest elections, and participate in election campaigns.

d) Pressure groups do not necessarily have political ideologies. Political parties are always wedded to their ideologies of socialism, secularism and democracy the Communists advocate the interests of workers, peasants and other weaker sections.

  

19. Explain in brief any two agencies which help to formulate public opinion. 2+2=4

Ans.:- Two agencies which help to formulate public opinion are:-

1) Print Media:- Newspapers, periodicals, magazines and other print materials have been contributing to the formulation of public opinion since a long time. As we are very well aware, the news items, articles, news stories, letters to editors and several other published items on almost all the critical public issues update the individual views and opinions.

2) Electronic Media:- Cinema, radio, T.V. channels and now cell phones have emerged as perhaps the most effective tools that contribute to the formulation of public opinion. Their audio-visual mode helps a great deal in assimilating views and opinions expressed even in the remotest part of the country.

 

20. Classify environment on the basis of evolution. Explain them with examples from your surroundings.          4

Ans.:- It includes all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth. It comprises the nature of the living space. The living space may be land or sea, that is, it may be soil or water. It also includes the chemical constituents and physical properties of the living space, the climate, and a variety of organisms. Natural environment includes both biotic and a biotic components has been done by nature, and not by any human intervention or support. It is true that human beings live in an environment where both biotic and a biotic factors influence them and they learn to adapt themselves to these in several ways. But human beings have no role to play in the creation and evolution of natural environment.

 

21. Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow:

Station A

Temperature (in Celsius) and Rainfall (in cm)

 

Months

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Temperature

24

24

24

28

30

29

27

27

27

28

27

25

Rainfall

4

2

2

2

18

465

613

329

286

65

18

2

 

                (I) Calculate the annual average temperature of Station A.

                (ii) Calculate the annual average rainfall of Station A.

                (III) Name two months in which Station A receives more than 400 cm rainfall.

                (iv) What type of climatic condition Station A represents?

 

Ans.:- (i) Annual average temperature of Station A.

                                = Total temperature/total months

                                = 320/12

                                = 26.67

                (ii) Annual average rainfall of Station A.

                                = Total Rainfall/total months

                                = 1806/12

                                = 150.5

                (iii) Two months in which Station A receives more than 400 cm rainfall are June and July.

                (iv) Station A represents average climate i.e. neither hot nor cold climate.

 

22. ‘Rights have real meaning only if individuals perform duties’. Justify the statement with any four arguments.          4

Ans.:- ‘Rights have real meaning only if individuals perform duties’. A duty is something that someone is expected or required to do. Parents, for example, have a duty to take care of their child. we have duties towards our parents. A teacher has a duty to educate students. In fact, rights and duties are two wheels on which the chariot of life moves forward smoothly. Life can become smoother if rights and duties go hand in hand and become complementary to each other. Rights are what we want others to do for us whereas the duties are those acts which we should perform for others. Thus, a right comes with an obligation to show respect for the rights of others. If we have the right to enjoy public facilities like transport or health services, it becomes our duty to allow others to avail the same.

  

23. Suggest any four measures that would empower women economically in our society.           4

Ans.:- Four measures that would empower women economically in our society are

a) Since women comprise the majority of the population below the poverty line, poverty eradication programmes are specifically addressed to their needs and problems.

b) In view of the critical role of women in the agriculture and allied sectors as producers, concentrated efforts are being made to ensure that benefits of training, extension and various programmes reach them in proportion to their numbers.

c) Comprehensive support in terms of labour legislation, social security and other support services is provided to women to enable them to participate in various industrial sectors, especially electronics, information technology, food processing, agro industry and textiles.

d) The provision of support services for women, like child care facilities, including crèches at work places and educational institutions, homes for the aged and the disabled are being improved to create an enabling environment and to ensure their full cooperation in social , political and economic life.

 

24. State any five main features of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, 1992.   5

Ans.:- Main features of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, 1992

(i) establishment of a three-tier structure: Village Panchayat (Gram Panchayat); intermediate panchayat (Panchayat Samiti; and the district panchayat (Zila parishad);

(ii) regular elections, every five years;

(iii) reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population;

(iv) not less than one-third reservation of seats for women at three different levels of PRIs;

(v) establishment of State Finance Commissions to recommend measures to improve the finances of panchayats;

 

25. How did Medieval Indian culture represent a harmonious synthesis of traditions in the fields of religion, arts, architecture and music. Support your answer with any five examples.  5

Ans.:- Medieval Indian culture represent a harmonious synthesis of traditions in the fields of religion, arts, architecture and music.

Language, literature, art, architecture, music and dance also bore out this trend of synthesis between different traditions. In the area of language and literature, classical languages like Persian and Sanskrit flourished. But, the real remarkable development was in the growth of regional languages.

Under the Mughals, painting was organized in the royal karkhanas and painters were on government payroll. The Mughal School of painting represented a complete assimilation of the Persian and Indian styles.this to some extent was a result of the fact that the artists of this school brought with them elements off the various traditions to which they belonged like Rajputana, Gujarat, Malwa, etc. some famous painters were Daswant, Basavan, Mukund and Kesav.

Another fascinating aspect of cultural life in Medieval India is visible in its Indo-Islamic architecture. It is characterized by the adaptation of Indian resources, expertise, motifs and designs to Persian styles.

Music was also patronized by most medieval rulers in India. Indian system of vocal and instrumental musical interfaced with Arab, Iranian and Central Asian traditions of music. New ragas came to be composed. The Bhakti and Sufi traditions also gave an impetus to new devotional styles of music.

 

26. Explain any five major challenges faced by Indian agriculture.            5

Ans.:- Major challenges faced by Indian agriculture are

a) Stagnation in Production of Major Crops:- Production of some of the major staple food crops like rice and wheat has been stagnating for quite some time. This is a situation which is worrying our agricultural scientists, planners and policy makers. If this trend continues, there would be a huge gap between the demand of ever growing population and the production.

b) High cost of Farm Inputs:- Over the years rates of farm inputs have increased manifold. Farm inputs include fertilizer, insecticide, pesticides, HYV seeds, farm labour cost etc. such an increase puts low and medium land holding farmers at a disadvantage.

c) Soil Exhaustion:- On one hand green revolution has played a positive role in reducing hunger from India. On the other hand, It has also led to negative consequences. One of which is Soil exhaustion. Soil exhaustion means loss of nutrients in the Soil from farming the same crop over and over again.

d) Depletion of Fresh Ground Water:- The second major negative consequence of green revolution is depletion of fresh ground water. We would remember that areas where green revolution was successful, it was due to the use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation. Most of the irrigation in dry areas of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh was carried out by excessive use of ground water.

e) Adverse impact of Global Climatic Change:- Among various challenges, global climatic change is the re3cent one. It has been predicted that its impact on agriculture would be immense. Since, 70% of Indian population is engaged in agricultural activities, we can imagine the consequences. It is predicted that due to climate change, temperature would increase from 2dgree C to 3dgree C, there would be increase in sea level, more intense cyclones, unpredictable rainfall etc. These changes would adversely affect the production of rice and wheat.


27. What kind of relationship exists between the Governor and the Council of Ministers of a State in India? Explain it in atleast five points.          5

Ans.:- The State executive consists of the Governor, the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers. Normally, the Governor exercises all his/her powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers. We know that when the Chief Minister is sworn in, the Governor simply performs a formal duty. He/she invites the leader of the majority in the State Legislative Assembly to be sworn in as the Chief Minister. The members of the Council of Ministers are also appointed by the Governor on the recommendations of the Chief Minister. The majority can consist of members of Legislative Assembly belonging to one party or a group of parties and independents. However, when there is no clear majority in the House electing one candidate as its leader, the Governor can exercise his/her discretionary power. Similarly, although theoretically the Ministers hold their offices during the pleasure of the Governor, in practice the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers remain in office till they enjoy the support of the majority in the Legislative Assembly.

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