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POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2017 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 

2017

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks – 100

Pass Marks - 30

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

PART – A: (Contemporary World Politics)

1. Answer the following as directed:                                      1x6=6

a)      Write the full form of NIEO.

Ans:- Full form of (NIEO) New International Economic Order.

b)      What do you mean by Unipolar World?

Ans: - There is a heterogeneous (dominant) state in the unipolar world which holds significant amount of power economically, militarily and politically.

c)       Rio summit approved a developmental programme name an ‘Agenda – 21’. (Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’)

d)      In which year did India start its economic reform?

Ans:- 1999.

e)      There are 5 numbers of permanent members in the Security Council of UNO. (Fill in the blank)

f)       Which among the following is NOT an outcome of the disintegration of Soviet Union?

                                 i.            End of the ideological war between USA and Soviet Union.

                               ii.            Birth of CIS.

                              iii.            Change in the balance of power in the world order.

                             iv.            Crisis in the Middle East.

Ans:- (iv) Crisis in the Middle East.

2. Write two differences between migrants and refugees.                          2

Ans: The differences between Migrants and Refugees are –

1)      Migrants are those who voluntarily leave their home countries. Refugees are those who flee for war, natural disaster or political persecution.

2)      Migrants are not accepted by the state. But states are supposed to accept refugees.

3. In which year the World Bank was created? Mention any one activity of World Bank.               1+1=2

Ans. The World Bank was created in 1944.

The following are the functions of the World Bank:

The World Bank works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, infrastructure and governance.

4. When and where was the first NAM summit held?                    1+1=2

Ans: - The first Non-Aligned summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. And this conference was attended by African and Asian countries.

5. In which year was Kyoto Protocol signed? The Protocol dealt with which problem of the environment?     1+1=2

Ans:- India signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in August 2002. Protocol dealt with global warming. (year 1991).

6. What are the two military alliances signed by the USA and Soviet Union with their respective friendly countries during Cold War?           1+1=2

Ans: - Two military alliances signed by United States and Soviet Union:

(i) Nuclear non-proliferation.

(ii) Limited Test Ban Treaty.

7. Mention two major areas of influence of European Union.                    2

Ans: - Two major spheres of influence of the European Union:

(i) Economic power of the European Union.

(ii) Political power of the European Union.

8. What is common but differentiated responsibility? Discuss briefly.   4

Ans: (i) Given the various contributions of global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities.

(ii) This argument states that the development, application and interpretation of international environmental laws should take into account the special needs of developing countries, this is called the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities'.

(iii) The developed countries have accepted the responsibility that they are in the international pursuit of global development and sustainable development in place of the technical and financial resources directed by them, given the pressure of their societies.

(iv)The 1992 UNFCCC also provides that parties should act on the basis of "equity and their common but differentiated responsibilities and related capabilities for the protection of the climate system".

9. Why did big powers need to have alliance with smaller countries? Write four reasons.           4

Ans: The superpowers entered into military alliances with smaller countries for the following reasons:

a) Small states helped the superpowers in their access to important resources such as oil and minerals.

b) Access to the places or areas from which the superpowers could launch their weapons and soldiers.

c) Reached places from where they could spy on each other.

10. Discuss briefly about restructuring and the future of the United Nations Organization.          4

Ans:- Introductory commentary is in order. One is related to the use of the term "United Nations system", the other to the term "reform". Since neither term is clearly defined, some comments are needed. The United Nations system, also known as the "United Nations System" or "United Nations Family", is a complex and diffused structure. It is a kind of network, a structure of very few interrelated agencies that function autonomously, partly to real, partly to blame. This so-called system has become more and more misleading, pointless and inefficient during its historical development. But it did not come without government demand; It was created by member states whose numbers have almost quadrupled since the creation of the United Nations.

11. Discuss briefly about the recent relationship between India and Pakistan.                   4

Ans: Since the birth of Pakistan in 1947, relations between India and Pakistan have never been cordial. Partition and problems arising from the country affected the relationship between the two states. Relations between India and Pakistan remained tense due to displaced property, constitutional location of Indian states, demarcation of borders and frequent clashes over the disputes of Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. There were two wars between the two countries on Kashmir issue first in 1948 and then in 1965.

In 1971, India and Pakistan fought another war on the Bangladesh issue. Also on the use of Indus water, a canal water dispute arose between the two countries. The long-running dispute over the sharing of river water was resolved through mediation by the World Bank. The Indo-Pakistan Indus Water Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub Khan in 1960.

12. What is the relationship between human security and health? Discuss.                        4

Ans:-Safety is usually defined as the state of being in or not in contact with a threat or threat. Human security includes freedom from desire and freedom from fear. It means the absence of hunger and disease as well as violence and war. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 1994 Human Development Report is considered a landmark publication in the field of human security, where the concept received international acceptance.

The UNDP report states that there are two basic pillars in human security: freedom from desire and freedom from fear. This means that with the absence of hunger and disease, as violence and war were further considered, potential threats to human security were classified into seven main categories: economic, food, health environment, per sonal community, and Political security.

Gender means national security and foreign policy thinking for security in international relations, or the protection of the state from military violence or intimidation used by another state. This state-centered violence paradigm shaped how leaders and governments envisioned national security.

Whatever falls outside the threat of military violence from another state, by definition, was not a security issue. Thus, public health problems, such as the communicable disease epidemic, were traditionally outside the purview of security policy. Historically, safety and health have never developed any kind of policy relationship.

13. What is ASEAN? Discuss the three pillars of ASEAN.                        1+5=6

Ans: As ASEAN had some of the fastest growing economy, it expanded its objectives beyond the scope of social and economic cooperation. In 2003, ASEAN followed the European Union path by establishing an ASEAN community with three pillars. They are -

ASEAN has three pillars - the security community, the economic community and the socio-cultural community.

ASEAN Security Community:

a) The ASEAN security community aims to maintain peace and security in South-Asian countries. For this they meet often to resolve their security issues.

b) ASEAN nations also want to make their place an area of ​​peace. So they cooperate with each other to end extremism and terrorist activities.

Asian Economic Community:

a) ASEAN's goal to create a common market and production base within the ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.

b) This investment also focuses on creating a free trade zone for labor and services.

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community:

a) ASEAN countries have tried to maintain close cultural ties with all regions of the world. Sports and cultural terms have often been exchanged between ASEAN and non-ASEAN countries.

b) They also aim that closer cultural ties will strengthen relations between ASEAN countries. The organization has started giving literary awards to people in the ASEAN region.

Or

      Discuss the role and limitations of SAARC as a forum of regional cooperation.             4+2=6

Ans: - The following role and extent of SAARC: -

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation was formally inaugurated in December 1985. SAARC has played a very important role in the area of ​​economic development of South Asian countries. SAPTA and SAFTA is a step towards economic cooperation between the SAARC nation. Cooperation in the economic sphere is of great importance among the SAARC nation.

Economic cooperation will raise the standard of living of the people of South Asia. This has accelerated the pace of economic development of the region. Economic cooperation will promote collective self-sufficiency among countries in South Asia. Economic cooperation will bring SAARC countries closer to mutual trust and strengthen. Areas of mistrust and conflict will be minimized.

Economic cooperation between SAARC countries will reduce the involvement of external forces in the region. Economic cooperation will bring a respectable life to the region. Economic cooperation will also support other areas such as social, cultural, educational etc. Thus, cooperation in the core economic zone between SAARC countries is a sure way of developing the region. SAARC countries have recognized this fact and signed SAPTA and SAFTA to promote their cooperation.

But SAARC has not achieved much success due to continuing political differences. Also some of our neighbors fear that SAFTA is a way for India to capture their markets and influence their society and politics through economic activities and trade. However, India feels that all countries will benefit from SAFTA.

14. Why did Soviet Union disintegrate? Discuss elaborately.                      6

Ans: The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

c)       Economic stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and its Soviet Republics particularly the five Central Republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People of Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their Western adversaries.

Or

Discuss US hegemony as hard power. Do you think that US hegemony is good for the World? Give justification. 4+2=6

Ans: US military dominance is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, there is US military capability that can reach any point on the planet in precise, lethal and real time. The military dominance of the US military is not only based on high military spending, but at a qualitative endpoint, a technical trench that currently holds no other power.

No, because it dominates America in all areas - military, economic, good life ideas, etc.

PART – B: (Politics in India since Independence)

15. Answer the following as directed:                                    1x6=6

a)      Panchsheel principle was jointly declared by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. (Fill in the blank).

b)      In which year era of coalition government started in centre?

Ans: - In 1967, the era of coalition government started at the Center.

c)       In which state Navnirman Movement took place?

Ans: - Navnirman movement took place in Gujarat.

d)      In the first General Election of 1952, election was held simultaneously for Lok Sabha and ____. (President/State Legislative Assembly/Rajya Sabha/Prime Minister). (Choose the correct one)

e)      Write one feature of New Economic Policy of India.

Ans: - One main features of the new economic policy:

(i) Six industries were placed under distribution only licensing scheme.

f)       At present which institution has replaced Planning Commission in India?

Ans: - Currently NITI Aayog institution has replaced Planning Commission in India.

16. What is Narmada Bachao Movement? Who was the leader of this movement?         1+1=2

Ans: The Narmada Bachao Andolan was a type of social movement led by Medha Potkar, who had agitated for over twenty years against the major scams being built on the Narmada River and its tributaries. It opposed the clam projects as it would lead to displacement of several lakh people. This raised the issue about the rehabilitation of project affected people. 

17. When was the State Reorganization Act passed? Name any one state created under this Act.    1+1=2

Ans: - The State Reorganization Act 1955 was passed. According to this act, states were created on the basis of language.

18. Who introduced Twenty Point Programme in India? Why was it introduced?                                              1+1=2

Ans. The congress government led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi introduced the twenty point programme to bring law and order and store efficiency.

19. Write two causes of the emergence of communalism in India.           2

Ans: - (a) Due to social division (b) British policy of partition and governance.

20. Write two reasons responsible for growing importance of regional political parties in Indian Politics.      2

Ans:-The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. As we have seen, large societies need representative democracy. As societies grew larger and more complex, they also required some agency to collect different views on various issues and present them to the government. They needed a mechanism to support or curb the government, formulate policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties meet these needs which every representative government has.

21. When was Election Commission in India formed? Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India? 1+1=2

Ans:- The Election Commission in India was formed in January 1950. Mr. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner.

22. Discuss briefly the result of Green Revolution in India.          4

Ans: In the 1960s, India was facing a food crisis due to several reasons. The government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Therefore, in the mid-1960s, the growing use of traditional varieties of seeds and fertilizer and irrigation is called the Green Revolution. As a result of the Green Revolution, the area of ​​improved seeds increased from about 15 million hectares during 1970–71 to about 75 million hectares in 1995–96.

The Green Revolution has positive consequences: The major achievement of the Green Revolution was to promote the production of staple grains i.e. wheat and rice, and the Green Revolution has resulted in significant changes in cropping patterns in India.

The Green Revolution has two negative consequences: The Green Revolution has created a concentration of wealth in the hands of the top 10 percent of the rural population. The Green Revolution widened the gap between the poor and small farmers and the rich landlords, and the Green Revolution proved beneficial for the middle class peasants, as they could get the benefit of mediation between the small farmers and the rich landlords.

23. Do you think that anti-arrack movement is a women movement? Justify your answer.           4

Ans: Yes. The antiwar movement was definitely a women's movement. This is due to the fact that women came together in District Nellore to protest the sale of arrack and the closure of liquor shops. When this news spread, women from about 5000 villages were inspired and together they completed prohibition and sent them to the District Collector. As a result, the crack in Nellore district was postponed 17 times. Later, this movement gradually spread throughout the state.

24. Discuss briefly about the initiatives taken by Janata Government.                   4

Ans:- Chander Shekhar is the 'Dum' of 1977-79 Janata Party which came into existence due to 'Emergency'. According to some critics, the incident was a result of national conflict.

The Janata Party's main programs and policies were democratic socialism, civil liberties and cleaner politics, etc. It offers something distinctive and attractive and provides organizational vitality to its people. The credit goes to the Janata Party that it has not lost the national alternative to the Congress (I).

Many of its nationally respected politicians are Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde, Mr. Madhu Dandavate, Mr. Surinder Mohan, Mr. Madhu Limaye and Chander Shekhar, who are known to respect norms and values ​​in the conduct of public affairs. Another strong point in its favor is that it is not going to provoke violent retaliation. This could be as the head of the national coalition of anti-Congress forces.

Some policies and programs of the Janata Government are:

(i) The Janata Party wants to give the country a 'responsible' and 'respectable' government for its constitution and democratic freedom.

(ii) It promises to create a common cause with the people for the creation of a united nation by equality, justice and egalitarianism and is governed by the true representative of the people through democratic processes.

25. What were the consequences of fourth General Election of 1967? Discuss briefly.                   4

Ans: - Features of the fourth general election:

(a) Election context: The 4th general elections were fought in a very delicate political and economic environment. The country had a severe price rise of essential commodities, food shortages, rising unemployment and the overall economic situation.

(b) Non-Congressism: In the fourth general elections, anti-Congress parties formed anti-Congress fronts. The coming together of anti-Congress parties is called the strategy of non-Congressism.

(c) Electoral decision: The 1967 election decision gave a shock to the Congress party. In the 4th general elections, Congress was facing voters for the first time without Nehru.

(d) Coalition form of government: The election of 1967 brought out the coalition incident. Since no single party had got a majority, various non-Congress parties formed a joint legislative party.

(e) Defection: Another feature of politics after the 1967 elections was his role in forming and unmatched government in the states.

26. Mention any four regional political parties of India.                4

Ans. Four Regional Political Parties of India are – National Conference of Jammu and Kashmir, Assam Gana Parishad of Assam, Akali Dal of Punjab and D.M.K. of Tamilnadu.

27. How far planning is relevant in the era of globalization? Discuss.      6

Ans:- As you prepare your specification, it is necessary to have a preliminary understanding about globalization. Ensuring that all language versions of your software have the same inherent ability to support all target languages ​​and locations is known as "globalization".

Globalization is essentially a process involving the following common tasks:

(a) Identifying languages ​​and locations to be supported.

(b) Designing features that support target markets, languages ​​and locations.

(c) Writing code that works equally well in any supported location.

Or

Discuss the main controversies around planned development in early years of India’s independence.                 3+3=6

Ans: - Development strategy in the early years gave rise to two big controversies. These included-

(a) Agriculture vs. Industry: There was a lot of debate among the planners as to which of the two was to be given priority in planning the agricultural industry. Many scholars thought that the Second Five-Year Plan had done more harm to the suffering industry in agriculture and rural India. An eminent Gandhian j. C. Kumarappa provided an alternative blueprint that could bring India on the path of rural industrialization. Congress leader and later Bharatiya Lok Dal leader Chaudhary Charan Singh stressed the need to make agriculture the backbone of the economy. Mr. Singh thought that planning led to prosperity and industrialization in rural areas to urban areas. There were others who believed that poverty could not be eliminated without industrialization. The state enacted laws to implement land reforms and distribute resources among the poor in the villages. Large funds were looted for proposals and irrigation projects on the community. However, all these policies failed because they were never implemented. This was because the zamindar classes had social and political power. Furthermore, this class argued that even if the government spends a large amount on agriculture, the problem of major poverty will not be solved.

(b) Public vs Private Sector: India adopted a mixed model of economy. The adoption of a mixed economy was subject to criticism from both left and right. Critics say that the private sector was not given enough space and incentive for development. The active, increased role for the public sector created powerful vested interests that created barriers to private capital using license permit monarchy and permits for investment. In addition, the state's policy of restricting the good produced by the private sector in the domestic market left the private sector with no incentives and competitions to improve its goods. This led to inefficiency and corruption. In addition, critics point out that the state has not spent enough on public health and education. The intervention of the state was only in those areas where the private sector did not interfere. Thus, the state helped the private sector benefit. No help was given to the poor and a new middle class was created due to the intervention of the state. This class enjoyed power and privileges without much accountability. Furthermore, even though the proportion of the poor decreased, their number continued to increase.

28. Discuss the regional movements of North East India. What are the reasons of these movements in this area? 4+2=6

Ans:- Mass migration to the North-East gave rise to a particular type of problem that created a crisis for ‘local’ communities to be viewed as outsiders or migrants. These latecomers either from India or from abroad, encroach scarce resources such as land and potential competitors, are seen as employment opportunities and political power. The issue has taken a political and sometimes violent form in many states of the Northeast.

The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against 'outsiders'. Assamese suspected that there are a large number of illegal Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh. He felt that till these foreign nationals would not be traced and deported, they would not put indigenous Assamese in a minority. There were other economic issues. Assam had widespread poverty and unemployment despite the existence of natural resources such as oil, tea and coal. It was felt that people were of no avail.

In 1979, the All Assam Students Union (AASU), a group of students not associated with any party, led an anti-foreign movement. The movement was against illegal migrants, against the domination of Bengalis and other outsiders, and against faulty voter registrations in the names of millions of voters. The movement demanded that all outsiders entering the state after 1951 should be deported. The movement followed many novel methods and united all sections of the Assamese people, gaining support across the state. It also included many tragic and violent incidents that led to the loss of property and human life. This movement tried to stop the movement of trains in Bihar and the supply of oil from Assam.

Or

Discuss elaborately about the Kashmir problem.                       6

Ans: The two provisions which reflect special status to Jammu and Kashmir are:

1)      Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir companies to other states of India. The state has its own constitution.

2)      All Provisions of the India Constitution are not applicable to the state. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to Jammu and Kashmir only if the state agrees.

Article 370 of Indian Constitution gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Under Articles 370 Jammu and Kashmir is given greater compared to other states of India. The special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the state with India. This section feels that Article 370 should therefore be revoked and Jammu and Kashmir should be like any other state in India.

The issue of Jammu and Kashmir is also of regional aspiration. The Kashmir issue is always seen as a major issue between India and Pakistan. But the political situation in the state has many dimensions, like external and internal. It involves the issue of Kashmiri identity knows as Kashmiriyat and the aspiration of the people of Jammu and Kashmir for political autonomy.

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