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POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2018 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 2018

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks: 100

Pass Marks: 30

Time: Three hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

PART – A: (Contemporary World Politics)

Marks: 50

1. Answer the following as directed:                                      1x6=6

a)      Write any one new threat to human security.

Ans:- Global Poverty: One of the causes of insecurity is global poverty. The disparities between the developed and developing nations are ever-increasing.

b)      Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’: China adopted an ‘open door’ policy.

Ans:- Yes.

c)       Write the full form of SAFTA.

Ans:- South Asian Free Trade Agreement

d)      What do you mean by ‘Operation Desert Storm’?

Ans:- Ans: - The liberation of Kuwait from Iraq by the United Nations is known as "Operation Desert Storm".

e)      Which of the following UN agency is concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology?

Ø  The UN Committee on Disarmament.

Ø  International Atomic Energy Agency.

Ø  UN International Safeguard Committee.

Ø  None of the above.

f)       Mikhail Gorbachev initiated the reforms in Soviet Union in 1985. (Fill in the blank)

2. Write two causes of Globalisation.                    2

Ans. The different factors that have facilitated the occurrence of globalization –

a)      Development in the fields of science and technology.

b)      Revolution in information technology and electronic media.

3. Mention two areas of conflict between India and Pakistan.   2

Ans. Kashmir issue and Border issue and problem of river water sharing have affected India-Pakistan relations.

4. When was ASEAN established and how many members were there at the beginning?                             1+1=2

Ans:- ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by the five original member countries - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

5. Write the name of two super powers emerged after Second World War.        2

Ans:- America and the Soviet Union were two superpowers that emerged after World War II.

6. Write two constraints of American hegemony.            2

Ans:- The first obstacle is the institutional architecture of the American state. The American system is based on the division of powers between the three organs of government i.e. the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. These organs imposed several restrictions on military powers, which was the second hurdle on American society.

7. Write two causes of disintegration of Soviet Union.                  2

Ans. The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

8. Discuss briefly about the relationship between India and China.         4

Ans. India and China are both ancient civilization, sharing a common border and having a relationship with each for thousands of years. Buddhism spread from India and China and many Chinese scholars visited India to learn Buddhism. National movements in the two countries against colonial oppression led to some renewed contacts in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

      Our relations with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on the part of India. India was one of the first countries to recognize Communist China and later we advocated her membership to the United Nations. During the Korean War of 1950, India established contacts with China and played a positive role in the UN in defence of Chinese interests. In 1951, India voted in the UN General Assembly against a resolution branding China as an aggressor in Korea. After independence, India renounced its extra-territorial rights in Tibet and accepted China’s suzerainty over Tibet.

9. Discuss briefly about the economic consequences of Globalisation.                  4

Ans:- The economic consequences of globalization are -

a) Globalization has involved more and more trade in goods worldwide.

b) The restrictions imposed by various countries on allowing imports from other countries have been reduced.

c) Restrictions on the movement of capital across the country have also been reduced.

d) Globalization has also flowed ideas across national boundaries. The proliferation of Internet and computer related services is an example of that.

10. Write briefly about global poverty.                     4

Ans: Global poverty is a traditional threat to security. Inequality between rich and poor countries is increasing. Poverty is the main factor of increasing population growth in third world countries. Global poverty has created some complex problems, such as illiteracy, development under the nutritional gap between rich and poor, etc.

11. What is the relationship between the rights of indigenous people and environment? Discuss briefly.     4

Ans:- All indigenous people share spiritual, cultural, social and economic connections with their traditional lands. ... For centuries, relations between indigenous peoples and their environment have been erased due to the controversial or forced removal of traditional lands and sacred sites.

The importance of traditional knowledge and practices of indigenous peoples was acknowledged, and the international community committed itself to promoting, strengthening and protecting the rights, knowledge, and practices of indigenous peoples and their communities.

During the Earth Summit, indigenous people and non-governmental organizations gathered in Kari-Oca, Brazil to share their concern about the environment. The Kari-Oka Declaration and the Swadeshi People's Earth Charter The people adopted in this meeting expressed the values ​​of the world's indigenous people and recognized them as a separate relationship with the earth. The united voice of the indigenous people helped influence the outcome of the Earth Summit.

12. Do you think that India should be given permanent membership in UN Security Council? Justify your answer.  4

Ans:- A permanent seat in the UNSC will provide India with much needed benefits to expand its geopolitical and geo-economics dominance globally. Inclusion of India in the UNSC will help change its position to become a global rule-maker as well as a responsible stakeholder (as per international standard).

13. Discuss the consequences of disintegration of Soviet Union.                              6

Ans. The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

c)       Economic stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and its Soviet Republics particularly the five Central Republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People of Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their Western adversaries.

Or

Discuss India’s Relationship with USA.      6

Ans: - India-US relations:

(A) Areas of conflict:

(i) India's friendship with the Soviet Union: America did not like the behavior shown by Indians during the Cold War era. It was displeased with India's proximity to the Soviet Union.

(ii) India's policy of non-alignment: America was also troubled by India's policy of non-alignment. It said that India is a diplomat on this issue.

(iii) US support to Pakistan: India did not like US supporting Pakistan and providing all the required assistance during Indo-Pak War.

(B) Areas of cooperation:

(i) Indian-American diaspore: This factor is providing a good platform for the development of Indo-US relations.

(ii) Trade relations: Trade relations between the two countries have been beneficial to both the countries and this relationship is improving.

14. Discuss critically about New International Economic Order.                                 6

Ans: - The new international economic order refers to an economic system to reduce the difference between the developed countries of the world and less developed countries.

The idea of ​​the New International Economic Order arose for the sustainable and equal economic development of the least developed countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development came out in 1972 with a report to give feedback on the new international economy.

The new international economic order is a tool for the least developed countries to achieve economic development and political independence. This non-alignment motive gradually changed the nature of NAM and by 1970 NAM became an economic pressure group.

Or

What was India’s stand in the Cold War era? Discuss.    6

Ans: - The salient features of the policy of non-alignment adopted by India in early times were as follows:

(i) India tried to stay away from the power politics of the two blocks out of fear that it could lead to large scale disaster. Instead, India tried to follow a policy of peaceful co-existence, cooperation and friendship.

(ii) The policy of non-alignment was not based on the principle of isolationism or inaction. On the contrary, it was a positive policy designed to promote national security and international peace.

(iii) The policy of non-alignment sought to promote peace and emphasized the peaceful resolution of disputes by states.

(iv) India opposed military and security alliances and refused to join these alliances because it restricted the independence of the country to act independently. Furthermore, these alliances created hatred and mistrust in the international arena and posed a serious threat to world peace.

PART – B: (Politics in India since Independence)

Marks: 50

15. Answer the following as directed:                    1x6=6

a)      In which year Planning Commission was established?

Ans:- The Planning Commission was established in 1950.

b)      In which district Anti Arrack movement took place?

Ans:- Nellore.

c)       First nuclear explosion undertaken by India was in the year 18 May 1974. (Fill in the blank)

d)      Write the name of any one State formed on the basis of State Reorganisation Act, 1956.

Ans:- Assam.

e)      The fourth general election of 1967 brought change in India’s political and electoral history. (Write ‘true’ of ‘false’)

f)       When was National Emergency due to internal disturbance declared for the first time in India?

Ans:- 25 June 1975.

16. Write two recommendations of Mandal Commission.            2

Ans:- The Mandal Commission therefore recommended that 27 percent of central and state government jobs should be reserved for OBCs, and that 27 percent of the figure should be applied to other "compensatory discrimination" or "compensatory protection" benefits, including universities and affiliates. For colleges.

17. India and Pakistan were the two nations included in ‘Two Nations Theory’ advanced by the Muslim League before independence.                   2

18. Write two features of Coalition Government.            2

Ans. A broad arrangement between two or more political parties to run a government is called Coalition Government. The following are the some important features of the Coalition Government-

1)      The parties agreeing to form coalition form a common minimum programme. It is formed taking some common goals into consideration.

2)      Coalition Governments are formed when no political party secures clear majority. The parties ideologically congruent or incongruent may come together for formation of government.

19. What were the two reasons which led to the midterm election in 1980?       2

Ans:- The two reasons of midterm elections in 1980:

(i) The Janata Party government was not unanimous. There was a struggle for power within the party.

(ii) Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and a common program.

20. Write any two features of India’s foreign policy.                       2

Ans:- Features of India's foreign policy are:

1. Honesty and integrity in each other's areas

2. Solve problems with dialogue

21. What is ‘Grand Alliance’ in the context of Indian Politics?                    2

Ans: The Grand Alliance was created by non-communist and non-Congress political parties. It was formed in 1971. The SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swatantra Party and Bharatiya Kranti Dal were members of the Grand Alliance. It was an electoral alliance aimed at opposing Indira Gandhi.

22. Discuss briefly about the reasons of Congress domination in the early years of India’s independence.      4

Ans: The Indian National Congress had unique political achievements. The Congress dominated the Indian political scene from 1947–1967. The factors responsible for its dominance are -

1) National Clash of Heritage: The Congress Party got a huge and rich legacy from the nationalist struggle. This brought political harmony in his goodwill. Party leaders like Nehru and Shastri were popular enough to spend years in jail and others were deprived. The legacy of the nationalist movement helped to create harmony and unity in view of the party's internal plurality.

2) Grassroots Organization: Congress was the only grassroots organization that existed at the time of its existence. Its federal structure had the basis of internal democracy. This helped resolve internal fights and cement party reconciliation. Internal party elections served as a means to legitimize party leadership and to train party workers in the skills of political leadership. This helped to reward mobile members.

3) Adjustment to local conditions: Congress is dominated by being competent in local conditions. The nobility fully descended to power within the Congress. Internal democracy in the party and the electoral gains of the Congress helped the Congress adjust to changes in the local balance of power. Furthermore, the broad base allowed the Congress to include successful opposition leaders in its fold. It acts as a channel to inform the party hierarchy about local conditions.

4) Attract new supporters: With the expansion of the development role of the state, the resources that could be distributed to party members also increased. A growing pool of resources and opportunities enhanced Congressional ability to accommodate conflicts among its members. The party reaped the benefits of a virtuous cycle in which electoral gains gave political supporters access to gain new supporters.

23. Discuss briefly about Chipko movement.      4

Ans: - The Chipko movement was an environmental movement that prevented the forest department from cutting ash trees for the production of agricultural commodities in rural areas, while they allotted land to a game maker for commercial use. This angered the villagers and thus started the movement.

The forest department prohibited the villagers of Uttar Pradesh from harvesting ash trees to make agricultural equipment. But the forest department allowed a game maker to make ash trees for commercial purposes. Villagers opposed this action of the forest department. The protest spread to many parts of the Uttarakhand region of Uttar Pradesh. This is known as the Chipko movement.

24. State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of Second Five Year Plan. 4

25. Discuss briefly about the secessionist movements in North East India.                           4

Ans:- Mass migration to the North-East gave rise to a particular type of problem that created a crisis for ‘local’ communities to be viewed as outsiders or migrants. These latecomers either from India or from abroad, encroach scarce resources such as land and potential competitors, are seen as employment opportunities and political power. The issue has taken a political and sometimes violent form in many states of the Northeast.

The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against 'outsiders'. Assamese suspected that there are a large number of illegal Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh. He felt that till these foreign nationals would not be traced and deported, they would not put indigenous Assamese in a minority. There were other economic issues. Assam had widespread poverty and unemployment despite the existence of natural resources such as oil, tea and coal. It was felt that people were of no avail.

26. Discuss briefly about India’s Nuclear policy.                4

Ans: When Communist China conducted a nuclear test in October 1964, the five nuclear weapons powers, the US, USSR, Britain, France and China (Taiwan then represented China), also five permanent members of the UN Security Council Attempted nuclear attack. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world. India considered the NPT to be discriminatory and refused to sign it.

India is the sixth country in the world to enjoy nuclear power in 1974 after a successful nuclear experiment. There are four nuclear power stations operating in India. After India's nuclear test in May 1998, the United States and other countries urged India to sign the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).

27. Discuss the controversies regarding emergency. Do you think it was necessary? Justify your answer.    5+1=6

Ans:- Disputes related to the Emergency in 1975–1977 were as follows:

Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister when the Emergency was declared. Emergency was declared due to "internal disturbances" in controversial circumstances of political instability.

It was almost 44 years ago when India declared its deepest site an emergency and it was issued by Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, who was the President under Article 352 (1) of the Constitution if the Constitution and for a long time 21 Lasts for months.

Since that time several other human rights violations were reported such as Justice Jugmohanlal Sinha finding the Prime Minister guilty in the Allahabad High Court on charges of misuse of government machinery.

Others including the forced sterilization campaign by Sanjay Gandhi, Indira Gandhi Putra.

In any case, any type of dispute is never necessary. This controversy was also not necessary but it was necessary for Indira Gandhi to defend her politics.

Anti-Indira Gandhi opponents were arrested, leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, who spent a long time in jail.

Or

Analyse the lessons India got from emergency.                                6

Ans: Following are the consequences of emergency -

a) Violation of Rights: During an emergency, the government has the power to prevent or restrict any fundamental right included in the Indian Constitution.

b) Use of preventive detention: The government made extensive use of preventive detention laws during the emergency. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed a crime, but out of fear that they may commit a crime.

c) Return of the awards: Many recipients of civil awards went to the central government as a mark of opposition to the Emergency. Those who received Bharat Tanta, Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan returned the award for expressing displeasure with the law imposed by Indira Gandhi.

d) Centralized administration: As soon as emergency was declared, the entire administration came under the central government. This structure is followed as a part of the constitutional provision. According to the Indian Constitution, when any type of emergency is declared, the whole of India turns into a centralized federation.

e) Communal Organization Restricted: During the Emergency all Hindu and Muslim communal organizations were restricted to maintain communal harmony in the society. Some such communal organizations were RSS, Jamaat-e-Islami etc.

f) Central Amendment: Many constitutional amendments were made during the Emergency. Indira Gandhi extended the term of the Lok Sabha, dividing the authority of the Supreme Court in relation to the election of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

28. What do you mean by planned development? Discuss the role of Planning Commission in the development of India. 1+5=6

Ans:- Planned development means that development is not only focused on the path of progress, but also eliminates the challenges of socio-economic issues.

Role of Planning Commission: -

(a) To assess the country's material, capital and human resources, including technical personnel, and to examine the possibilities of increasing such resources which are found to be deficient in relation to the needs of the nation.

(b) To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced use of the country's resources.

(c) Determining priorities, define the stage in which the plan should be completed and propose allocation of resources for the completion of each phase.

(d) Indicating the factors which are slowing down economic growth and determining the circumstances which should be established for successful implementation of the scheme in view of the present social and political situation.

(e) To determine the nature of machinery which will be necessary to ensure successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects.

Or

What is Green Revolution? Discuss critically about green revolution in India.                                    1+5=6

Ans: In the 1960s, India was facing a food crisis due to several reasons. The government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Therefore, in the mid-1960s, the growing use of traditional varieties of seeds and fertilizer and irrigation is called the Green Revolution. As a result of the Green Revolution, the area of ​​improved seeds increased from about 15 million hectares during 1970–71 to about 75 million hectares in 1995–96.

The major benefits of the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and north-western India. There is unprecedented enthusiasm among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western UP. For the new variety of wheat, a situation developed in which the demand for seed by the farmers exceeded the supply.

The Green Revolution has positive consequences: The Green Revolution has created a concentration of wealth in the hands of the top 10% of the rural population. The Green Revolution widened the gap between the poor and small farmers and the rich landlords, and the Green Revolution proved beneficial for the middle class peasants, as they could get the benefit of mediation between the small farmers and the rich landlords.

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