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POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2019 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 

2019

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks: 100

Pass Marks: 30

Time: Three hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

PART – A: (Contemporary World Politics)

1. Answer the following as directed:                                      1x6=6

(a) Write the full form of SEATO.                        

Ans:- Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.

(b) The collapse of which country is known as the collapse of “Second World”?

Ans:- The Soviet Union                                             

(c) First Gulf War is also known as Operation Desert Storm. (Write ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)                                        

(d) Agra Summit took place between India and Pakistan. Write the name of the Indian Prime Minister who participated in the Summit.                  1

Ans:- Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

(e) Rio Summit approved a developmental programme named ‘Agenda – 21’. (Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’)                    

(f) The World Council of Indigenous People was formed in the year 1974/1975/1976 (Choose the correct answer)    

2. Mention two reforms Mikhail Gorbachev initiated in the Soviet Union.          2

Ans: - In the USSR, two reforms initiated by President Gorbachev are Perestroika and Glasnost.

3. Mention two areas of conflict between India and Bangladesh.                             2

Ans: - For cooperation:

(i) See prior policy,

(ii) Disaster Management.

For disagreement:

(i) The division of the Ganges and Brahmaputra waters.

(ii) Migrating from Bangladesh.

4. Write the name of two conflicting communities of Sri Lanka.                                2

Ans:- Tamil community and the Singhalese community.

5. Write the name of two non-governmental organizations which concerned with Protection of Human Rights all over the world.   2

Ans: There are two famous NGOs related to the protection of human rights around the world. Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International

6. Write two distinctions between migrants and refugees.         2

Ans. The differences between Migrants and Refugees are –

1)      Migrants are those who voluntarily leave their home countries. Refugees are those who flee for war, natural disaster or political persecution.

2)      Migrants are not accepted by the state. But states are supposed to accept refugees.

7. In which year was Kyoto Protocol signed? The Protocol dealt with which problem of the environment?      2

Ans:- India signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in August 2002. Protocol dealt with global warming. (year 1991).

8. Discuss briefly about the new International Economic Order.                                4

Ans: - The new international economic order refers to an economic system to reduce the difference between the developed countries of the world and less developed countries.

The idea of ​​the New International Economic Order arose for the sustainable and equal economic development of the least developed countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development came out in 1972 with a report to give feedback on the new international economy.

The new international economic order is a tool for the least developed countries to achieve economic development and political independence. This non-alignment motive gradually changed the nature of NAM and by 1970 NAM became an economic pressure group.

9. What 9/11 indicated in world politics? Discuss briefly.             4

Ans:- The attacks brought significant and widespread changes in American politics and foreign policy. Domestically, both parties strengthened new or anti-terrorism legislation. The majority of this legislation has been funded by Western countries. As of 9/11 and 2011, 119,044 counter-terrorism arrests and 35,117 convictions in 66 countries. Conversely, only a few hundred terrorists were convicted every year before 9/11.

In recent years, the war in Afghanistan, once largely seen as a "just war", lost popularity. As of 2011, more than 60% of Americans opposed the war.

10. Discuss briefly the functions of the World Bank.       4

Ans: Following are the functions of World Bank:

1) The World Bank works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, infrastructure and governance.

2) It provides loans and grants to member countries. In this way it highly affects the economic policies of developing countries.

3) The World Bank promotes long-range balanced development of international trade and maintenance of equilibrium in the balance of payments by encouraging international investment of productive resources.

4) To assist in the reconstruction and development of members' areas for capital investment.

11. Discuss briefly about the components of the Security Strategy of India.         4

Ans: - India's security strategy is a combination of four components that change from time to time. This includes -

1) Strengthen military capability: The first component was strengthening military capabilities as India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbors - Pakistan in 1947–48, 1965, 1971 and 1999; And China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the South Asian region, the 1998 decision by the Indian government to conduct tests in India was justified to protect national security, the first time India launched a nuclear device. Time. 1974. Tested.

2) Internal Security: The second component of India's security strategy has been prepared for challenges within the country with several terrorist organizations in Kashmir, Punjab, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, which at times threaten to create chaotic problems for India. Give. Give. Give. Giving is internal security. India has tried to stabilize national unity by adopting a democratic political regime, which allows various groups and communities to express their grievances freely and share political power.

3) Strengthening international norms and international institutions: The third component of India's security strategy is to strengthen international standards and institutions to protect its security interests. India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, supported Asian solidarity, disintegration, disarmament and the support of the United Nations as a platform in which international confrontations can occur. India has taken the initiative in nuclear non-proliferation. India has agreed to a similar new international economic order. Most importantly, it uses non-alignment to help the two superpowers create a zone of peace outside of block politics. India joined 160 countries to sign and ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions of harmful gases. Indian troops have been sent abroad on UN peace operations in support of cooperative security initiatives.

4) Economic Development: A growing effort has been made to develop the Indian economy so that poverty, misery and inequalities are eliminated and people can raise their standard of living. Despite many efforts, India is still a poor country, but the democratic system also allows for the least benefit to express its voice. Democratic governments are always under pressure to accelerate development. Thus, democracy in India is not only a political ideal, but also a means of ensuring greater security.

12. Discuss about the cultural consequences of globalization.                    4

Ans: The results of globalization differ about the three dimensions -

a) Due to the advent of globalization, the entry and inter-case role of multinationals around the world has reduced the government's ability to make its own decisions, with states gradually carrying out economic and earlier social welfare functions. With the coming back Thus, the 'welfare state' has been replaced by a market factor that has become the major determinant of social and economic priorities.

b) Economic globalization promotes trade in countries, so supporters have agreed that this trade between countries allows each economy to do what it does best. This will benefit the whole world.

c) The impact of globalization has led to the emergence of a common culture, known as cultural homogenization.

d) Advocates argue that economic globalization leads to greater economic growth and welfare for a larger segment of the population where there is corruption.

13. Why did Soviet Union disintegrate? Discuss elaborately.      6

Ans: The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

c)       Economic stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and its Soviet Republics particularly the five Central Republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People of Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their Western adversaries.

Or

Discuss elaborately the U.S. hegemony as an Economic Super Power.                 6

Ans:- The world was left with only one superpower America and came to be known as American hegemony to show the superiority of its military power. American hegemony also shaped the world economy and emerged as military supremacy, economic system, political supremacy and cultural superiority.

Domination as a structural power means the economic perspective of the world economy. This can be expressed in the following ways:

1. An open world economy needs a large force to support its creation and survival.

2. Hegman must have both the ability and willingness to set certain standards for order and the Bretton Woods system should be maintained by the US after World War II.

3. America demonstrates this hegemony by providing global public goods that can be used by one person without reducing the amount of goods available to another person.

4. A classical example of America's structural power is a Master of Educational degree in Business Administration (MBA) to sharpen business skills at a university.

14. What are the main pillars of ASEAN? Discuss elaborately.                    6

Ans: As ASEAN had some of the fastest growing economy, it expanded its objectives beyond the scope of social and economic cooperation. In 2003, ASEAN followed the European Union path by establishing an ASEAN community with three pillars. They are -

ASEAN has three pillars - the security community, the economic community and the socio-cultural community.

ASEAN Security Community:

a) The ASEAN security community aims to maintain peace and security in South-Asian countries. For this they meet often to resolve their security issues.

b) ASEAN nations also want to make their place an area of ​​peace. So they cooperate with each other to end extremism and terrorist activities.

Asian Economic Community:

a) ASEAN's goal to create a common market and production base within the ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.

b) This investment also focuses on creating a free trade zone for labor and services.

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community:

a) ASEAN countries have tried to maintain close cultural ties with all regions of the world. Sports and cultural terms have often been exchanged between ASEAN and non-ASEAN countries.

b) They also aim that closer cultural ties will strengthen relations between ASEAN countries. The organization has started giving literary awards to people in the ASEAN region.

Or

Discuss the rise of China as an Economic Power.                         6

Ans: - The rise of Chinese economy has made it the third option of world power. The growth of China's stable economy is projected to grow the US as the world's largest economy, with China's economic integration into the region making it a driver of great influence in regional affairs. The strength of its economy, along with other factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location, and political influence, has connected it in significant ways and made it the third alternative power in the world.

China's population of 1.3 billion calls it the most populous country on Earth, accounting for one-fifth of the world's population; While it is the third largest country after Russia and Canada in about 10 million square kilometers. Its 2.25 million soldiers make up the world's largest armed force. China's reputation as a major military power comes from the possession of nuclear weapons capable of all range and delivery modes.

Economically, it is the fourth largest trading country in the world, ranking 32nd in 1978 and 10th in 1997. 13% of world output (at purchasing power parity), second only to the US with its GDP.

China, the successor of 5,000 years of civilization, is the fastest developing economy in the world even in the present era, an average of 9.5% annually for the last 20 years. Such high growth rates, low labor costs and a huge emerging market have attracted the world's highest level of FDI. After China joined the World Trade Organization in December 2001, it has become one of the most open economies in the developing world, with the average tariff falling from 41% to 6% after the World Trade Organization access in 1992.

PART – B: (Politics in India since Independence)

15. (a) Write the full form of N.D.A.        1

Ans:- National Democratic Alliance.

(b) Write the name of the party that won the second largest number of Lok Sabha seats in the First General Election of India.    1

Ans:- Indian National Congress (INC).

(c) In which year Election Commission started using E.V.M.?                   1

Ans:- In 1990.

(d) Who was the Prime Minister of the coalition government of 1989?           1

Ans: - Vishwanath Pratap Singh was the Prime Minister of the 1989 coalition government.

(e) The Government of India appointed Mandal Commission in the year 1979. (Fill in the blank)                       1

(f) Write one feature of New Economic Policy of India.           1

Ans: - One main features of the new economic policy:

(i) Six industries were placed under distribution only licensing scheme.

16. When was Bharatiya Jana Sangha formed? Who was the founder President of Jana Sangha?                               2

Ans:- Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed in 1951. The founder president of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh was Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.

17. On which date was the draft of the Indian Constitution signed and when it came into force?                              2

Ans: - The draft Indian Constitution was signed on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950.

18. Write two reasons responsible for growing importance of regional Political Parties in Indian Politics.      2

Ans:-The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. As we have seen, large societies need representative democracy. As societies grew larger and more complex, they also required some agency to collect different views on various issues and present them to the government. They needed a mechanism to support or curb the government, formulate policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties meet these needs which every representative government has.

19. Which two union territories were given the status of statehood in 1972?     2

Ans: - In 1972, Manipur and Tripura were given statehood.

20. Write any two causes of conflict between India and Pakistan.            2

Ans. Kashmir issue and Border issue and problem of river water sharing have affected India-Pakistan relations.

21. Give two suggestions to curb communalism in India.                              2

Ans: - (a) Due to social division (b) British policy of partition and governance.

22. Discuss briefly about the challenges faced by India immediately after independence.                           4

Ans. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in independent India that needed a solution. The challenges are the following –

a)      To shape of nation: The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying sizes and population. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears. Hence there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e. would Indian survive as a unified country.

b)      To establish democratic form of government: The second challenge was to establish a democratic form of government. Democracy in function according to constitutional norms. This means India will have representative democracy based on the Parliamentary form of government.

23. Discuss briefly about defection in the Party System of India.                 4

Ans:- The politics of defection began in India after the fourth general election in 1967 and continued to attract public attention thereafter. Even before when there was a political lapse in DRS. T. like Raghu Veera, Ashok Mehta and Prakasam. Individuals had left their parties. But the problem was not really serious at the time because such examples were few and far between.

This defection as either voluntarily giving up membership of your party or disobeying (voting or voting) against the party leadership's directives (political whip) on the legislature's vote.

24. Why did India adopt the policy of non-alignment? Discuss briefly.   4

Ans: - India decided to follow the policy of non-alignment based on foreign policy. After independence from British colonialism, India wanted to maintain independence in the decision to forge external relations with various countries. At the time of India's independence, the Cold War between the two superpowers had started. India decided to remain independent of super-power rivalry and decided to frame foreign policy, which could protect its national interests. Therefore, India adopted non-alignment as the basis of foreign policy. India wanted peace and friendly relations between all the countries of the world.

25. Write the main objectives of the National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2001.                   4

Ans:- The National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, passed in the year 2001, aimed at the advancement, development and empowerment of women and specifically includes:

(i) Creating an environment for positivity through positive economic and social policies enables women to realize their full potential.

(ii) de jure and de facto enjoyment by all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Political, economic, social, cultural and civic based on women with men in all fields.

(iii) equal participation in women's participation, decision and social, political and economic life of the nation.

(iv) Women's health care, equal access to quality education, career and business at all levels. Guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office, etc.

26. Discuss briefly about the initiatives taken by Janata government.    4.

Ans:- Chander Shekhar 1977-79 is the 'Dam' of Janata Party which came into existence due to 'Emergency'. According to some critics, the incident was a result of national conflict. The Janata Party's main programs and policies were democratic socialism, civil liberties and clean politics. It offers something unique and attractive and provides organizational vitality to its people. The credit goes to the Janata Party that it has not lost the national alternative to the Congress (I). It has many nationally respected politicians - Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde, Mr. Madhu Dandavate, Mr. Surindra Mohan, Mr. Madhu Limaye and Chander Shakar - known as honors of norms and values ​​in the conduct of public affairs. Another strong point in its favor is that it is not going to provoke violent retaliation. This could be as the head of the national coalition of anti-Congress forces.

Some policies and programs of the Janata Government are -

1) The Janata Party wants to give the country a 'responsible' people and a 'respectable' government for its constitution and democratic freedom.

2) It promises to create a common cause with the people for the creation of a united nation by equality, justice and egalitarianism and is governed by the true representative of the people through democratic processes.

27. Discuss the role of Planning Commission in India. Write the name of the organization which has replaced the Planning Commission.                     5+1=6

Ans. Planning is the systematic regulation of a purposeful activity. It is an invaluable aid to policy and helps to active national goals and is a continuous process. Planning is a rational process and concerns itself with the proposals for the future with the evolution of alternate proposals and the methods with which these proposals may be achieved. The Planning commission was set up in India in 1950.

The functions of planning commission are listed below –

a)      To make an assessment of the materials capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nations’ requirements.

b)      To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilization the country’s resources.

c)       Determination of priorities define the stage in which the plans should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.

d)      To indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development and determine the cancelation which in view of the current social and political situations should be established for the successful execution of the plan.

e)      To determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects?

f)       To appraise from time to time the progress achieved is the execution of each stage of the plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary.

Or

Discuss the main controversies around planned development in early years of India’s independence.         6

Ans: - Development strategy in the early years gave rise to two big controversies. These included-

(a) Agriculture vs. Industry: There was a lot of debate among the planners as to which of the two was to be given priority in planning the agricultural industry. Many scholars thought that the Second Five-Year Plan had done more harm to the suffering industry in agriculture and rural India. An eminent Gandhian j. C. Kumarappa provided an alternative blueprint that could bring India on the path of rural industrialization. Congress leader and later Bharatiya Lok Dal leader Chaudhary Charan Singh stressed the need to make agriculture the backbone of the economy. Mr. Singh thought that planning led to prosperity and industrialization in rural areas to urban areas. There were others who believed that poverty could not be eliminated without industrialization. The state enacted laws to implement land reforms and distribute resources among the poor in the villages. Large funds were looted for proposals and irrigation projects on the community. However, all these policies failed because they were never implemented. This was because the zamindar classes had social and political power. Furthermore, this class argued that even if the government spends a large amount on agriculture, the problem of major poverty will not be solved.

(b) Public vs Private Sector: India adopted a mixed model of economy. The adoption of a mixed economy was subject to criticism from both left and right. Critics say that the private sector was not given enough space and incentive for development. The active, increased role for the public sector created powerful vested interests that created barriers to private capital using license permit monarchy and permits for investment. In addition, the state's policy of restricting the good produced by the private sector in the domestic market left the private sector with no incentives and competitions to improve its goods. This led to inefficiency and corruption. In addition, critics point out that the state has not spent enough on public health and education. The intervention of the state was only in those areas where the private sector did not interfere. Thus, the state helped the private sector benefit. No help was given to the poor and a new middle class was created due to the intervention of the state. This class enjoyed power and privileges without much accountability. Furthermore, even though the proportion of the poor decreased, their number continued to increase.

28. Discuss the consequences of National Emergency declared on 25th June, 1975.                          6

Ans: Following are the consequences of emergency -

a) Violation of Rights: During an emergency, the government has the power to prevent or restrict any fundamental right included in the Indian Constitution.

b) Use of preventive detention: The government made extensive use of preventive detention laws during the emergency. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed a crime, but out of fear that they may commit a crime.

c) Return of the awards: Many recipients of civil awards went to the central government as a mark of opposition to the Emergency. Those who received Bharat Tanta, Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan returned the award for expressing displeasure with the law imposed by Indira Gandhi.

d) Centralized administration: As soon as emergency was declared, the entire administration came under the central government. This structure is followed as a part of the constitutional provision. According to the Indian Constitution, when any type of emergency is declared, the whole of India turns into a centralized federation.

e) Communal Organization Restricted: During the Emergency all Hindu and Muslim communal organizations were restricted to maintain communal harmony in the society. Some such communal organizations were RSS, Jamaat-e-Islami etc.

f) Central Amendment: Many constitutional amendments were made during the Emergency. Indira Gandhi extended the term of the Lok Sabha, dividing the authority of the Supreme Court in relation to the election of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Or

Discuss elaborately about the Secessionist Movement of North-East India.                    6

Ans:- Mass migration to the North-East gave rise to a particular type of problem that created a crisis for ‘local’ communities to be viewed as outsiders or migrants. These latecomers either from India or from abroad, encroach scarce resources such as land and potential competitors, are seen as employment opportunities and political power. The issue has taken a political and sometimes violent form in many states of the Northeast.

The Assam movement from 1979 to 1985 is the best example of such movements against 'outsiders'. Assamese suspected that there are a large number of illegal Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh. He felt that till these foreign nationals would not be traced and deported, they would not put indigenous Assamese in a minority. There were other economic issues. Assam had widespread poverty and unemployment despite the existence of natural resources such as oil, tea and coal. It was felt that people were of no avail.

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