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Contemporary World Politics

1. Answer the following:              1x6=6

a)      When did Cold War begin?

Ans: The cold war began in the year 1945.

b)      How many members signed in UN Charter when it was set up?

Ans: 51 members signed the UN Charter when it was set up.

c)       Write the full form of SAARC.

Ans: South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation is the full form of SAARC.

d)      When did India start its economic reform?

Ans: In 1991 India starts its economic reform.

e)      Who was the leader of Communist Revolution in China?

Ans: Mao-Tse-Tung was the leader of Communist Revolution in China.

f)       Which event does ‘9/11’ refer to in the context of contemporary world politics?

Ans: On 11 September 2001, nineteen hijackers hailing from a number of Arab countries took control over four American commercial aircraft shortly after takeoff and flew them into important buildings in the US.

2. Write the names of permanent members of UN Security Council.      2

Ans. The names of the permanent members of Security Council are –

Russia, USA, China, Britain and France

3. What are the causes of globalization?              2

Ans. The different factors that have facilitated the occurrence of globalization –

a)      Development in the fields of science and technology.

b)      Revolution in information technology and electronic media.

c)       Advances in the field of transport and communication.

d)      Growth of MNCs and efforts by developed nations make the whole world, one single market.

4. Name the two places where atom bombs were dropped in the Second World War.     2

Ans. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the two famous places where atom bombs were dropped in the Second World War.

5. Mention two reforms which President Gorbachev initiated in the USSR.         2

Ans. The two reforms which Gorbachev initiated in the USSR are:

a)      He reforms the economy, catch up with the west and loosen the administrative system.

b)      Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reform and democratization within the country.

6. Environmental issues have become a matter of serious concern in global politics. Why?         2

Ans. Environmental issues have become a matter of serious concern in global politics because of the growing focus on environmental issues within the area of global politics was firmly consolidated at the United Nation Conference on environment and development. The different conventions like – Brundtland Report, Rio-Summit, Kyoto Protocol discussed about this issue.

7. Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from 1947 to 1971. (Fill in the blanks)            2

8. Discuss the role of Non Aligned Movement (NAM) during the Cold War era.                     4

Ans. NAM played on significant role in the cold war era. The role of NAM can be mentioned the like way –

a)      The policy of Non-Alignment soughs to promote peace and laid emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes by the states.

b)      Nam was entrusted with the tasks of social and economic reconstruction which could be done only in a world free from war and tension.

c)       The newly independent countries were aware of the danger of imperialism. So they wanted to come together and bring world peace.

d)      The significant role played by NAM was to maintain peaceful coexistence between nations, condemnation of racial discrimination etc.

9. What are the four components of traditional notion of security from external threats? Give examples.    4

Ans. The four components of traditional notion of security are the following –

1)      Deterrence: This means preventing an outbreak of major military conflict or war.

2)      Defence: It refers to limiting or ending the war. Defence also means retaliating a war when it breaks out.

3)      Balanced of Power: A country which is bigger and stronger may be seen as a threat in future by another country. Governments are therefore very sensitive to balance of power between their country and other countries. Balance of power reduces military attacks.

4)      Alliance Building: An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack. Ideologically aligned countries go for alliance building especially military regional organizations like NATO, SEATO, Warsaw Pact to defect their common enemy.9

10. Briefly discuss about the consequences of disintegration of the USSR.           4

Ans: The following are the two consequences:

(a) Liquidation of military blocs: Cold war had triggered massive arms race and accumulation of nuclear weapons and existence of military blocs. The whole world almost got divided into two power blocs. But with the disintegration of Soviet Union the military blocs were liquidated.

(b) Emergence of uni-polar world: The breakdown of Soviet Union has led to end of bipolarity and began the era of unipolarity where USA has remained as the sole super power.

11. What is meant by ‘Global Commons’? Suggest two steps for protection of ‘Global Commons’.          1+3=4

Ans. The regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of anyone state, hence, require common governance by the international community are termed as ‘Global Commons’. They cover the earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor and enter space.

Following are the steps, for the protection of Global commons –

a)      Antarctic Treaty in 1959.

b)      Montreal Protocol, 1987.

c)       Antarctic Environmental Protocol 1991.

12. In which year the World Bank was created? Discuss its activities.        1+3=4

Ans:- July 1944 The World Bank was created soon after World War II.

The following are the functions of the World Bank:

1)      The World Bank works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection, infrastructure and governance.

2)      It provides loans and grants to the member countries. In this way it exercises enormous influence on the economic policies of developing countries.

3)      The World Bank promotes the long range balanced growth of international trade and maintenance of equilibrium in the balance of payments by encouraging international investment of productive resources.

4)      To assist in the reconstruction and development of the territories of the members by facilitating investment of capital.

13. What are different types of hegemony? Give examples of each of them.     3+3=6

Ans. Hegemony is three types. These are –

         i.            Hegemony as hard power.

       ii.            Hegemony as soft power.

      iii.            Hegemony as structural power.

Hegemony as hard power:

a)      American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US both has military capacities that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time.

b)      The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm that no other power can at present concavely span.

Hegemony as soft power:

a)      The predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military power and economic powers but also on its cultural presence.

b)      All ideas of the good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth century in America.

Hegemony as structural power:

a)      Internet: Although interest is sun today as making the virtual world of www possible, we would not forget that the internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in 1950. Even today, the internet relies on a Global Network of Satellites, most of which are owned by the US government.

b)      Technical Educations like M.B.A: The idea that business is a profession that depends upon skills that can be taught in a university is uniquely American. Today, there is no country in the world in which MBA is not a prestigious academic degree.


      Discuss the role and limitation of SAARC as a forum of regional cooperation.               4+2=6

Ans: - The following role and extent of SAARC: -

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation was formally inaugurated in December 1985. SAARC has played a very important role in the area of ​​economic development of South Asian countries. SAPTA and SAFTA is a step towards economic cooperation between the SAARC nation. Cooperation in the economic sphere is of great importance among the SAARC nation.

Economic cooperation will raise the standard of living of the people of South Asia. This has accelerated the pace of economic development of the region. Economic cooperation will promote collective self-sufficiency among countries in South Asia. Economic cooperation will bring SAARC countries closer to mutual trust and strengthen. Areas of mistrust and conflict will be minimized. Economic cooperation between SAARC countries will reduce the involvement of external forces in the region. Economic cooperation will bring a respectable life to the region. Economic cooperation will also support other areas such as social, cultural, educational etc. Thus, cooperation in the core economic zone between SAARC countries is a sure way of developing the region. SAARC countries have recognized this fact and signed SAPTA and SAFTA to promote their cooperation. But SAARC has not achieved much success due to continuing political differences. Also some of our neighbors fear that SAFTA is a way for India to capture their markets and influence their society and politics through economic activities and trade. However, India feels that all countries will benefit from SAFTA.

14. Write a note on India-China relations.           6

Ans. India and China are both ancient civilization, sharing a common border and having a relationship with each for thousands of years. Buddhism spread from India and China and many Chinese scholars visited India to learn Buddhism. National movements in the two countries against colonial oppression led to some renewed contacts in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

      Our relations with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on the part of India. India was one of the first countries to recognize Communist China and later we advocated her membership to the United Nations. During the Korean War of 1950, India established contacts with China and played a positive role in the UN in defence of Chinese interests. In 1951, India voted in the UN General Assembly against a resolution branding China as an aggressor in Korea. After independence, India renounced its extra-territorial rights in Tibet and accepted China’s suzerainty over Tibet.


      What changes occurred in United Nations Organization (UNO) after the Cold War?                  6

Ans. The UN was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War. They way it was organized and the way it functioned reflected the realities of world politics after the Second World War. After the cold war, those realities are different.

      Here are some of the changes that have occurred after the cold war –

a)      The Soviet Union has collapsed.

b)      The US is the strongest power.

c)       The relationship between Russia, the successor to the Soviet Union and the US is much more cooperative.

d)      China is fast emerging as a great power, and India also is growing rapidly.

e)      The economics of Asia are growing at an unprecedented rate.

f)       Many new countries have joined the UN (as they became independent from the Soviet Union or former communist states in Eastern Europe).


Politics in India since Independence

15. Answer the following:           1x6

a)      In India, which decade was labeled as the ‘dangerous decade’?

Ans. In India 1960’s were labeled as the dangerous decade.

b)      Name the leader of Narmada Bachao Andolan.

Ans. Medha Potkar was the leader of Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA).

c)       Which party led the National Democratic Alliance (NDA)?

Ans. Bharatiya Janata Party led the National Democratic Alliance.

d)      When did the first Five Year Plan Start?

(Choose the correct answer)

                                 i.            1961

                               ii.            1965

                            iii.            1951

                             iv.            1975

e)      Name the Indian President who proclaimed Emergency in 1975.

Ans. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was the Indian President who proclaimed Emergency in 1975.

f)       Name the two cities which became divided into ‘Communal Zones’ at the time of partition.

Ans. The two cities which became divided into communal zones at the time of partition are Amritsar and Lahore.

16. What was Bombay Plan?         2

Ans. A section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called Bombay Plan. The Bombay Plan wanted the state to make major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments.

17. Who introduced twenty point programme and why?              1+1=2

Ans. The congress government led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi introduced the twenty point programme to bring law and order and store efficiency.

18. When and why Mandal issue was raised in Indian Politics?    1+1=2

Ans: The Mandal Commission was set up in 1979 by the Morarji Desai government to identify socially or educationally backward classes for people to consider the question of seat reservation and quota for the prevention of caste discrimination and to determine backwardness used eleven social, economic and educational indicators for.

19. What does the word ‘Political Earthquake’ signifies in Indian Politics?           2

Ans. The word ‘Political Earthquake signifies the Political disaster of congress in the fourth general election in Indian Politics. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated. Many senior and experienced congress men like Kamraj, S.K. Patil, Atulya Ghosh and K.B. Sahay.

20. Mention two important basic principles of India’s Foreign Policy.    2

Ans. Non-alignment, Friendly relation with all the country

21. On which date was the draft of the Indian Constitution signed and when it came into force?     1+1=2

Ans. The draft of the Indian Constitution was signed on 26th November 1949 and it came into force on 26th January 1950.

22. Write any four features of coalition government.     4

Ans. A broad arrangement between two or more political parties to run a government is called Coalition Government. The following are the some important features of the Coalition Government-

1)      The parties agreeing to form coalition form a common minimum programme. It is formed taking some common goals into consideration.

2)      Coalition Governments are formed when no political party secures clear majority. The parties ideologically congruent or incongruent may come together for formation of government.

3)      Coalition Governments tend to be temporary. When a coalition partner suddenly withdraws from the government then it is reduced to minority and many a times leading to breakdown of the government.

4)      In coalition Governments, the political parties may be regional or national. For example – Asom Gana Parishad was an ally in the BJP led NDA coalition.

23. Discuss briefly the two challenges that India had to face immediately after independence.                                2+2=4

Ans. Immediately after independence there were many challenges or problems in independent India that needed a solution. The challenges are the following –

a)      To shape of nation: The first and foremost challenge was the political unification and integration of the territory. India is a land of continental size and diversity. There were around 600 states of varying sizes and population. The partition of the country appeared to prove everyone’s worst fears. Hence there was a serious question about the future of India, i.e. would Indian survive as a unified country.

b)      To establish democratic form of government: The second challenge was to establish a democratic form of government. Democracy in function according to constitutional norms. This means India will have representative democracy based on the Parliamentary form of government.

24. What is meant by Emergency? Write any one effect of the declaration of emergency due to internal disturbances.         2+2=4

Ans: Emergency is an extra-ordinary situation, in which normal democratic politics cannot function, and the government is granted special powers after the state of emergency is declared, federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and all powers are concentrated in hands Union Government.

When any emergency is declared due to internal disturbances, the government is empowered to veil or ban all the fundamental rights of the Indian Constitution.

25. Mention any four regional parties of India.                                  4

Ans. Four Regional Political Parties of India are – National Conference of Jammu and Kashmir, Assam Gana Parishad of Assam, Akali Dal of Punjab and D.M.K. of Tamilnadu.

26. Would you consider the anti-arrack movement as a Women’s movement? Why?    1+3=4

Ans: Yes. The antiwar movement was definitely a women's movement. This is due to the fact that women came together in District Nellore to protest the sale of arrack and the closure of liquor shops. When this news spread, women from about 5000 villages were inspired and together they completed prohibition and sent them to the District Collector. As a result, the crack in Nellore district was postponed 17 times. Later, this movement gradually spread throughout the state.

27. Who was the architect of India’s Foreign Policy? Explain the basic objectives of Jawaharlal Nehru’s foreign policy.       1+5=6

Ans:- Prime Minister as well as India's Foreign Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of India's foreign policy. He made a profound impact in the formulation and implementation of India's foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.

The three basic objectives of Nehru's foreign policy are as follows:

(i) First, it seeks to protect the territorial integrity of the country and the territorial integrity of the country and the interests of citizens within and outside the country. For this purpose states prefer to follow the status quo policy, it is amended as it is the cause of revisionism and scepticism of other members of the international community. This was to protect the interests of its citizens both inside and outside the state for the maintenance of its reputation.

(ii) Secondly, the purpose of foreign policy is to maintain relations with other members of the international community and to adopt a policy of conflict or policy with them with the aim of promoting their own interest. Jawaharlal Nehru stated in early 1951 that India needed a passion to maintain friendly relations with all countries for peace and internationally civilized behavior.

(iii) Thirdly, to promote rapid economic growth. After independence, the economic situation was not good, so he wanted rapid economic development for the country. With its limited resources, development plans were launched.


      Explain the Congress dominance in the first three general elections.                                               6

Ans. The Indian National Congress had unique political accomplishments. The Congress dominated the Indian political scenario from 1947-1967. The factors responsible for its dominance are –

1)      Legacy of National Struggle: The Congress Party had inherited a vast and enriched legacy from the nationalist struggle. It gave its goodwill political mileage. Party leaders like Nehru and Shastri were quite popular for spending years in jail and other deprivations they endured. The legacy of nationalist movement helped in forging coherence and unity in the wake of party’s internal pluralism.

2)      Grassroot Organization: Congress was the only grassroot organization which existed at the time of existence. Its federal structure had the basis of internal democracy. This helped it to resolve internal feuds and cement party cohesion. Internal party elections served as means of legitimizing party leadership and training party workers in the skill of political competition. It helped in rewarding the movable members.

3)      Adjustment to local circumstances: The congress was able to dominate because it was able to local circumstances. The erstwhile landed aristocracy completed for power within the Congress. The internal democracy in the party and electoral gains of Congress helped Congress to adjust to changes in local balance of power. Further the broad base allowed Congress even to incorporate successful opposition leaders along with its fold. It served as a channel to inform about local conditions to party hierarchy.

4)      Attract New Supporters: With the expansion of development role of the state, resources which could be disbursed to party members also increased. The growing pool of resources and opportunities enhanced the ability of Congress to adjust conflicts among its members. The party reaped benefits of a virtuous cycle in which the electoral gains provided it access to politico-economic resources to garner new supporters.

5)      Limited role of opposition: From 1947 to 1967 we see a very limited role played by the opposition political parties. There were a number of reasons why the opposition was not able to unite against the Congress. Some of the main reasons were the internal differences within the socialist fold, reservations of the CPI, presence of dynamic leaders like Nehru in the Congress, the inability of the opposition to unite and to provide a collective leadership in the absence of one widely accepted leader in their midst, lack of clarity of thought and approach among them and also their appeal being limited and confined to certain pockets.

6)      Management: The congress possessed strong managerial skills. It could easily tackle the differences that cropped up within the various factions of the Congress Party. The rivalries and differences were dealt with great technique and patience. This allowed the Congress to remain as a grand centrist party which facilitated the party to win elections term after term.

28. When was the Planning Commission set up in India? Discuss its role.             1+5=6

Ans. In India the planning commission was set up in the year 1950. It covered a wide spread scope in the planning and development process of India.

Role of Planning Commission: -

(a) To assess the country's material, capital and human resources, including technical personnel, and to examine the possibilities of increasing such resources which are found to be deficient in relation to the needs of the nation.

(b) To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced use of the country's resources.

(c) Determining priorities, define the stage in which the plan should be completed and propose allocation of resources for the completion of each phase.

(d) Indicating the factors which are slowing down economic growth and determining the circumstances which should be established for successful implementation of the scheme in view of the present social and political situation.

(e) To determine the nature of machinery which will be necessary to ensure successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects.


      Explain any three main outcome of Lok Sabha election of 1977.                                          6

Ans:- The main three results of the 1977 Lok Sabha elections are: -

(i) In 1977, Congress did not come to power for the first time after independence. The reason for this is that the entire opposition found a common adversary in the Congress and its leader Indira Gandhi.

(ii) In the election, the Janata Party fought for the misrule of the Congress. It was a referendum. Due to the detention of the people and the censorship of the press, public opinion was against the Congress. JP ensured that non-Congress votes were not split. The Congress won 154 seats in the Lok Sabha. Its vote percentage came down to 35%. The Janata Party and its allies got 330 seats out of 542. The Janata Party won 295 seats and won seats in Bihar, UP, Delhi. Indira Gandhi lost to Rae Bareli and Sanjay Gandhi took the form of defeat from Amethi.

(iii) The JP movements led the Congress to unite under the leadership of a party or Janata Party led by dissidents led by Congress (I), Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), Bharatiya Lok Dal, Samajwadi Party and Jagjivan Ram. Riding the anti-Janata party wave, he won a majority in the Lok Sabha elections in 1977 and formed a government under Morarji Desai.


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