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Monday, October 05, 2020

POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2013 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 2013

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks - 100

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

(New Course)

(GROUP – A)

PART – A: Contemporary World Politics

1. Answer the following:              1x6=6

a)      Which date is celebrated as United Nations Day?

Ans. 24th October is celebrated as United Nations Day.

b)      The collapse of which country is known as collapse of ‘Second World’?

Ans. United States of Soviet Russia

c)       When did India sign and ratify Kyoto Protocol?

Ans. India signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in August 2002.

d)      Fill in the blank:

        Euro is the common currency of European Union.

e)      What is ‘Operation Desert Storm’?

Ans: - The liberation of Kuwait from Iraq by the United Nations is known as "Operation Desert Storm".

f)       Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’:

Technology is one of the important factors that cause globalization. Yes

2. What is meant by Shock Therapy in post communist regime?

Ans. The collapse of communism in the most of Second World countries was followed by a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system.

      The model transition in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe that was influenced by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, came to be known as Shock Therapy.

3. Mention two areas of conflict between India and Pakistan.

Ans. Kashmir issue and Border issue and problem of river water sharing have affected India-Pakistan relations.

4. What are the different dimensions of globalization?

Ans. The different dimensions of globalization are –

a)      Economical dimension.

b)      Political dimension.

c)       Cultural dimension.

5. Name two arms control agreement signed by the two Super Powers, USA and USSR in the cold war era.

Ans: - Two arms control agreements were signed by two superpowers - Limited Test Bar Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NNPT).

6. Fill in the blanks:

    Earth Summit was held in Rio-de-Janaria in the year 1992.       1+1=2

7. Write two differences between migrants and refugees.          2

Ans. The differences between Migrants and Refugees are –

1)      Migrants are those who voluntarily leave their home countries. Refugees are those who flee for war, natural disaster or political persecution.

2)      Migrants are not accepted by the state. But states are supposed to accept refugees.

8. Discuss briefly about the rise of China as economic power.    4

Ans: - The rise of Chinese economy has made it the third option of world power. The growth of China's stable economy is projected to grow the US as the world's largest economy, with China's economic integration into the region making it a driver of great influence in regional affairs. The strength of its economy, along with other factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location, and political influence, has connected it in significant ways and made it the third alternative power in the world.

9. What is meant by resource geopolitics? Mention two resources which are relevant for global politics.  2+2=4

Ans. Resource geopolitics is the geographical political affairs which are concerned with the allocation and distribution of natural resources among the nation states of Global arena.

      The two resources which are relevant for global politics are –

1)      Oil.

2)      Water.

10. Write a brief note on India USA relationship?            4

Ans: - India-US relations:

(A) Areas of conflict:

(i) India's friendship with the Soviet Union: America did not like the behavior shown by Indians during the Cold War era. It was displeased with India's proximity to the Soviet Union.

(ii) India's policy of non-alignment: America was also troubled by India's policy of non-alignment. It said that India is a diplomat on this issue.

(iii) US support to Pakistan: India did not like US supporting Pakistan and providing all the required assistance during Indo-Pak War.

(B) Areas of cooperation:

(i) Indian-American diaspore: This factor is providing a good platform for the development of Indo-US relations.

(ii) Trade relations: Trade relations between the two countries have been beneficial to both the countries and this relationship is improving.

11. Do you think that United National Organization (UNO) is a perfect international organization? Give reasons.

Ans: - To some extent the United Nations is an incomplete body, but without it the world would be bad. Given the growing connections and links - 'interdependence' on Tween Societies and issues - it is very hard to imagine how more than a billion people would live together without an organization, such as the United Nations Technology promises to increase interdependence of planets , And therefore the importance of the United Nations will remain at the crease only. Peoples and government must find ways to support and utilize the United Nations and other international organizations that are more broadly compatible with their own interests and interests on the international community.

12. Discuss two factors which have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building stable democracy.         2+2=4

Ans:- Several factors have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. These can be mention    like –

1)      Social Dominance: The social dominance of the military, clergy and landowning aristocracy has led to the frequent overthrow of elected government and the establishment of military government.

2)      Conflict with India: Pakistan’s conflict with India has made the pro-military groups more powerful. These groups have often said that political parties and democracy in Pakistan are flowed, that Pakistan’s security would be harmed by selfish minded parties and chaotic democracy and that the army’s stay in power is therefore, justified.

3)      Lack of International Support: The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan has further encouraged the military to continue its dominance. The United States and other western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule in the past, for their own reasons.

4)      Global Islam Terrorism: As the western powers, assumed the threat of “Global Islamic Terrorism” and the apprehension that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal might fall into the hands of these terrorist groups, the military regime in Pakistan has been seen as the protestor of western interests in West Asia and South Asia.

13. Discuss the role of India as a leader of NAM during the cold war era.              6

Ans: - The salient features of the policy of non-alignment adopted by India in early times were as follows:

(i) India tried to stay away from the power politics of the two blocks out of fear that it could lead to large scale disaster. Instead, India tried to follow a policy of peaceful co-existence, cooperation and friendship.

(ii) The policy of non-alignment was not based on the principle of isolationism or inaction. On the contrary, it was a positive policy designed to promote national security and international peace.

(iii) The policy of non-alignment sought to promote peace and emphasized the peaceful resolution of disputes by states.

(iv) India opposed military and security alliances and refused to join these alliances because it restricted the independence of the country to act independently. Furthermore, these alliances created hatred and mistrust in the international arena and posed a serious threat to world peace.

Or

      Why the Super Powers did have military alliances with smaller countries? Discuss three reasons.    2+2+2=6

Ans. the superpowers entered into military alliances with smaller countries due to the following reasons:

a)      Smaller states were helpful for the superpowers in their gaining access to vital resources such as oil and minerals.

b)      Access to locations or territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.

c)       Access to locations from where they could spy on each other.

14. What is non-traditional or human security? Discuss two threats to the human security.         2+2+2=6

Ans. The non-traditional conceptions both Human Security and Global Security focus on the changing nature f threats to security. We will discussed some of these new threats in the section below –

a)      Global Poverty: One of the causes of insecurity is global poverty. The disparities between the developed and developing nations are ever-increasing. Growth of population is the prime factor for poverty in the Third world countries. It is estimated that world’s population will increase by 50% due to expansion of population in global south. High growth rate, high per capita income, high literacy level and low population makes rich states richer while low per capita, low literacy rate, slow growth, high populations is likely to make states poorer.

b)      Health epidemics: Another modern source of threats is the health epidemic like stars, Hauta virus, Ebola, bird flu etc. These diseases spread across continents within minutes creating health hazards. It is estimated that by 2003 over 4 crore people were affected by HIV-AIDS throughout the world. Inability to control these disease affects other nations badly.

Or

      Why did Soviet Union disintegrate? Discuss three reasons.                  2+2+2=6

Ans. The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

c)       Economic stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and its Soviet Republics particularly the five Central Republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People of Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their Western adversaries.

PART – B: Politics in India since Independence

15. Answer the following:                           1x6=6

a)      Who is called the ‘Milkman of India’?

Ans. Dr. Verghese Kurien is called as the ‘Milkman of India’.

b)      When was National Emergency due to internal disturbance declared for the first time in India?

Ans:- 1975

c)       When was the Indian National Congress founded and by whom?

Ans:- A.O. Hume founded the Congress Party in 1885.

d)      Why Dalit Panthers was formed?

Ans:- Dalit Panthers is a social organization that seeks to combat caste discrimination. This organization Namdev Dhasal, Raja Dhale and J. V. Was established by Pawar on 29 May 1972 in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

e)      Which Article of the Indian Constitution gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir?

Ans:- Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir.

f)       What is the full form of UPA?

Ans:- United Progressive Alliance.

16. Why did Chipko Movement begin?                 2

Ans: - The Chipko movement was an environmental movement, which started by the forest department preventing villagers from harvesting ash trees to produce agricultural goods, while they allotted land to a game maker for commercial use. This angered the villagers and thus started the movement.

17. When was the State Reorganization Act passed? Name any one state created under this Act.   1+1=2

Ans: - The State Reorganization Act 1955 was passed. According to this act, states were created on the basis of language.

Madhya Pradesh was one of such a state created under this Act.

18. What do you mean by Panchsheel?                 2

Ans: - Panchsheel means the five principles of the conduct of relations between nations. India and China formed the Panchsheel for main friendly relations.

19. Mention two objectives of planning.              2

Ans. Two objectives of planning is to ensure development and program.

20. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

a)      At the time of first General Election in the year 1952, there were 14 national political parties. false

b)      India has a multi-party system. true

21. Mention the two challenges faced by India from 1964 to 1966 during Lal Bahadur Shastri’s brief Prime Minister Ship.                 1+1=2

Ans:- In the time of Lal Bahadur Shastri, India had two challenges from 1964 to 1966: -

(i) During this time India was recovering from the economic impact of the war with China.

(ii) There was a food crisis in his rule. Due to frequent monsoon failure, India saw droughts in many states, leading to reduced food productivity.

22. Write a short note on Kashmir Problem.       4

Ans: - Jammu and Kashmir is the most violent issue of relations between India and Pakistan since independence. This led to the loss of many lives and the displacement of many families. It covers the issue of Kashmiri identity known as Kashmiri and the aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir for political autonomy. The political situation of the state has many dimensions like external and internal. Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions such as Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir Valley. The people are Kashmir speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority.

23. Discuss briefly any two factors responsible for the emergence of regional political parties in India.  2+2=4

Ans:-The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. As we have seen, large societies need representative democracy. As societies grew larger and more complex, they also required some agency to collect different views on various issues and present them to the government. They needed a mechanism to support or curb the government, formulate policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties meet these needs which every representative government has.

24. Discuss the causes of decline of Congress.   4

Ans: - The reasons for the defeat of the Congress Party were the increasing unity between the non-Congress parties and internal differences within the Congress Party. But the parties opposing the Congress at that time felt that it was the division of their votes that kept the Congress Party in power. Thus, parties opposing their programs and ideologies in Congress got together to form an anti-Congress front in some states and entered seat-sharing electoral adjustments in others. He also felt that the new Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's inexperience and internal factionalism within the Congress party gave her an opportunity to exit the Congress. Socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia accepted this strategy in the name of non-Congressism.

25. Discuss briefly about Narmada Bachao Andolan. Do you find the movement justified? Give reasons.   3+1=4

Ans: - Narmada Bachao Andolan was a type of social movement, which was led by Medha Patkar against the construction of large dams on Narmada River and its tributaries. It opposed the dam projects as it would displace several lakh people. This raised issues regarding the rehabilitation and resettlement of project affected people.

But the NBA is also not free from criticism. Several criticisms against the NBA can be cited.

Here are:

(i) It was heavily criticized for abstracting the process of development.

(ii) It was criticized that he refused the use of water.

(iii) It is said that it is a hindrance in the economic development of the country and in doing so it hinders the development of many people.

26. How did fourth General Election of 1967 change the dynamics of Indian politics?     4

Ans: - Features of the fourth general election:

(a) Election context: The 4th general elections were fought in a very delicate political and economic environment. The country had a severe price rise of essential commodities, food shortages, rising unemployment and the overall economic situation.

(b) Non-Congressism: In the fourth general elections, anti-Congress parties formed anti-Congress fronts. The coming together of anti-Congress parties is called the strategy of non-Congressism.

(c) Electoral decision: The 1967 election decision gave a shock to the Congress party. In the 4th general elections, Congress was facing voters for the first time without Nehru.

(d) Coalition form of government: The election of 1967 brought out the coalition incident. Since no single party had got a majority, various non-Congress parties formed a joint legislative party.

(e) Defection: Another feature of politics after the 1967 elections was his role in forming and unmatched government in the states.

27. Discuss the challenges posed by communalism in India in relation to the Ajodhya and Godhra incident.           6

Or

      Describe the three challenges that India had to accept in the time of independence.                              2+2+2=6

Ans: - Soon after independence, there were many challenges or problems in independent India which needed to be solved.

The challenges are as follows:

(i) To shape a nation: The first and important challenge was political integration of the region. India is a country of continental size diversity. About 600 states were of varying sizes and populations. Partition of the country proved to be the worst fear for everyone. So there was a serious question about the future of India, that is, India will survive as a unified country.

(ii) Establishing a democratic form of government: The second challenge was to establish a democratic form of government. Democracy in action according to constitutional norms. This means that India will have representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government.

(iii) To ensure the development and welfare of the society: The third challenge came to develop effective policies for the economic development of the eradication of unemployment poverty. The Indian Constitution has laid down in the Directive Principles of State Policy that democratic politics should achieve the welfare goals achieved.

28. The 1977 election for the first time saw the opposition coming into power at the Centre. What do you consider as the reasons for this development?                 6

Ans: In the 1977 elections, the Congress party lost its dominance in both the Lok Sabha and the state legislatures. Not only did it lose dominance, but it was defeated at the hands of the newly emerged Janata Party. The following major reasons were responsible for the defeat of the Congress in the 1977 election or the victory of the Janata Party.

For the first time in India's history, an internal emergency was imposed by Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Soon after the imposition of the Emergency, leaders of all opposition parties, including JP Narayan, were put behind bars. The real motive behind the declaration of emergency was personal. Mrs Indira Gandhi wants to stick to the "chair" of the Prime Minister. The basic freedoms of the people were suppressed.

No person or party could speak words against the imposition of emergency or the excesses committed by the government. Sanjay Gandhi appeared as an additional constitutional center of power during the Emergency. It was he who controlled the administration of India. During the Emergency, various black acts were passed by the Indira government. People were suspected of anything against the government. Those suspected of anything against the government could be corrected and put behind bars without any trial.

The life, liberty, honor and property of any person were not considered safe. Indira government reduced the status of judiciary through 42nd an amendment. In fact, the judiciary was under the executive. The scope of judicial review was largely limited. At the instance of Sanjay Gandhi, various states resorted to compulsory sterilization, particularly in Haryana. Buses were stopped and sent to the hospital for sterilization of passengers. The condition of the people of India became very pathetic due to the constant increase in prices. During the Emergency, people abolished the bonus given to the public sector employee to the Congress government.

As such he was very weak with the Congress government. JP Narayan emerged as the leader of the Indian unrest. He was the most respected leader after Nehru. People came to know that they could fall back on JP Narayan after being out of power from Congress. The measures adopted during the Emergency and the Emergency by the Congress Government were responsible for the defeat of the Congress Party in the 1977 election.

Or

      Discuss the main controversies around planned development in the early years of India’s independence.  3+3=6

Ans: - Development strategy in the early years gave rise to two big controversies. These included-

(a) Agriculture vs. Industry: There was a lot of debate among the planners as to which of the two was to be given priority in planning the agricultural industry. Many scholars thought that the Second Five-Year Plan had done more harm to the suffering industry in agriculture and rural India. An eminent Gandhian j. C. Kumarappa provided an alternative blueprint that could bring India on the path of rural industrialization. Congress leader and later Bharatiya Lok Dal leader Chaudhary Charan Singh stressed the need to make agriculture the backbone of the economy. Mr. Singh thought that planning led to prosperity and industrialization in rural areas to urban areas. There were others who believed that poverty could not be eliminated without industrialization. The state enacted laws to implement land reforms and distribute resources among the poor in the villages. Large funds were looted for proposals and irrigation projects on the community. However, all these policies failed because they were never implemented. This was because the zamindar classes had social and political power. Furthermore, this class argued that even if the government spends a large amount on agriculture, the problem of major poverty will not be solved.

(b) Public vs Private Sector: India adopted a mixed model of economy. The adoption of a mixed economy was subject to criticism from both left and right. Critics say that the private sector was not given enough space and incentive for development. The active, increased role for the public sector created powerful vested interests that created barriers to private capital using license permit monarchy and permits for investment. In addition, the state's policy of restricting the good produced by the private sector in the domestic market left the private sector with no incentives and competitions to improve its goods. This led to inefficiency and corruption. In addition, critics point out that the state has not spent enough on public health and education. The intervention of the state was only in those areas where the private sector did not interfere. Thus, the state helped the private sector benefit. No help was given to the poor and a new middle class was created due to the intervention of the state. This class enjoyed power and privileges without much accountability. Furthermore, even though the proportion of the poor decreased, their number continued to increase.

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