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POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2015 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 

2015

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks – 100

Pass Marks - 30

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

PART – A (Contemporary World Politics) 

1. Answer the following:                                              1x6=6

a)      How many member States signed the UN Charter, when it was adopted?

Ans: - 51 members signed the United Nations Charter when it was established.

b)      When was the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty signed?

Ans: - The Nuclear-Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968.

c)       What was the third bloc that emerged besides the two super power blocs during the Cold War era?

Ans:- In the Cold War era, the third block was a non-alignment movement, in addition to two super power blockers.

d)      India is a member State of ASEAN. (Write Yes or No)

e)      Where was the First SAARC Summit held?

Ans:- Dhaka in 1985.

f)       Berlin Wall was demolished in the year 1990. (Fill in the blank)

2. Write the name of two NGOs which are concerned with protection of Human Rights all over the world.     2

Ans:- Human Rights watch and Amnesty International NGO’s.

3. What do you mean by greenhouse gas?           2

Ans: - Greenhouse gas emissions refer to the emission of a harmful gas during the period of industrialization which is believed to be causing today's global warming and climate change.

4. Mention two reforms which Mikhail Gorbachev initiated in the USSR.                             2

Ans: - In the USSR, two reforms initiated by President Gorbachev are Perestroika and Glasnost.

5. Write two differences between migrants and refugees.          2

Ans. The differences between Migrants and Refugees are –

1)      Migrants are those who voluntarily leave their home countries. Refugees are those who flee for war, natural disaster or political persecution.

2)      Migrants are not accepted by the state. But states are supposed to accept refugees.

6. Mention the name of two organizations related to the process of globalization.         2

Ans: There are two organizations associated with economic globalization - the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund.

7. Write the name of the two conflicting communities in Sri Lanka.        2

Ans: Sinhalese and Tamil people are two conflicting communities in Sri Lanka.

8. Discuss briefly about ‘Hegemony as Hard Power’.                      4

Ans: US military dominance is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, there is US military capability that can reach any point on the planet in precise, lethal and real time. The military dominance of the US military is not only based on high military spending, but at a qualitative endpoint, a technical trench that currently holds no other power.

9. Write briefly about global poverty.     4

Ans: Global poverty is a traditional threat to security. Inequality between rich and poor countries is increasing. Poverty is the main factor of increasing population growth in third world countries. Global poverty has created some complex problems, such as illiteracy, development under the nutritional gap between rich and poor, etc.

10. Point out the reasons which led the people of East Pakistan for a liberation movement.       4

Ans: - After Pakistan formulated its first constitution, General Ayub Khan took over the administration of the country. He had to leave his post where there was popular discontent against his rule. It again made a military takeover under General Yahya Khan. During Yahya's military rule, Pakistan faced the Bangladesh crisis and after the war with India in 1971, East Pakistan broke away to emerge as an independent country called Bangladesh. Subsequently, an elected government under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto remained in power in Pakistan from 1971 to 1977.

11. Name four architects of Non-Aligned Movement.    4

Ans: - The architects of the Non-Aligned Movement were Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Ahmed Sukarno, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Kwame Nakuma.

12. Write two arguments in favour of and two arguments against globalization.               2+2=4

Ans: - Against globalization and in favour of the argument:

(a) International trade keeps prices low and high quality. In the past, no country has ever tried to be self-sufficient and has no stake in global markets, they find that their businesses become inefficient due to lack of competition, price increases, lack of innovation in their products, and They end with hyper calcification.

(b) Globalization can bring wealth to some of the world's poor. For example, a few decades ago most of Southeast Asia was very poor; Many of these countries have experienced double-digit annual growth due to globalization and international trade and many of those people were now better than their parents' generation.

(a) Globalization has led to greater inequality in wealth within many countries. In South-East Asia, people in those countries had experienced a lot of growth over the past few decades, but were not experienced equally by all of their people.

(a) The thing that essentially creates a large global market poses some danger. Previously, if a nation made financial mistakes and their markets collapsed, it would have little impact on the rest of the world.

13. Discuss critically about resource geopolitics.               6

Ans: Resource geopolitics is all about who gets what, when, where and how. Resources have provided some of the major means and objectives of global European power expansion.

Resource geopolitics are geopolitical matters related to the allocation and distribution of natural resources among the nation states of the global region.

There are two resources relevant to global politics -

1) Oil.

2) Water

Or

      Why did Soviet Union disintegrate? Discuss three reasons.                  2+2+2=6

Ans. The following points are analyzed by experts as the prime causes responsible for breakdown of Soviet Union.

a)      Defective Leadership: The most important cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union lies in the defective leadership. The leader of the party was considered to be the leader of the government and the state or country. The leaders were busy with their luxurious lifestyle and corruption. The poor leadership and effort to improve their rule became a cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union.

b)      Reformative policies of Gorbachev: the reformative policies of Mikhayl Gorbachev were also responsible for the disintegration of Soviet Union. He without preparing an environment of freedom, equality, nationality, economic self dependence and unity implemented the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring).

c)       Economic stagnation: The Soviet Union maintained a huge nuclear and military arsenal which was used to develop and maintain its satellite states in Eastern Europe and its Soviet Republics particularly the five Central Republics. It led to a huge burden on its economy and resources. People of Soviet Union could not advance as rapidly as their Western adversaries.

14. Discuss the rise of China as an economic power.                       6

Ans: - China followed its path in starting market economy to end stagnation. The Chinese did not go for "shock therapy" in their policy, but opened up their economy step by step. In 1982, agriculture was privatized, in 1998 by industry. Trade barriers were then eliminated only in Special Economic Zones (SEZs), where foreign investors could establish ventures. In China, the state played and continues to play a central role in establishing a market economy.

New economic policies helped break the impasse of the Chinese economy. Privatization of agriculture led to a significant increase in agricultural production and rural income.

Or

      Discuss the role of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) during the Cold War era. Do you think that NAM is still relevant in post-Cold War era? Justify your answer.              4+2=6

Ans: - The salient features of the policy of non-alignment adopted by India in early times were as follows:

(i) India tried to stay away from the power politics of the two blocks out of fear that it could lead to large scale disaster. Instead, India tried to follow a policy of peaceful co-existence, cooperation and friendship.

(ii) The policy of non-alignment was not based on the principle of isolationism or inaction. On the contrary, it was a positive policy designed to promote national security and international peace.

(iii) The policy of non-alignment sought to promote peace and emphasized the peaceful resolution of disputes by states.

(iv) India opposed military and security alliances and refused to join these alliances because it restricted the independence of the country to act independently. Furthermore, these alliances created hatred and mistrust in the international arena and posed a serious threat to world peace.

The Non-Aligned Movement started in 1961. The world was divided into two hostile segments. Capitalist bloc led by America and Communist bloc led by Russia (then USSR). Both these blocks were engaged in a cold war. Non-aligned countries adopted the policy of non-alignment i.e. opposed to politics based on groupism. The main objective of non-alignment was to maintain distance from both the factions. But now the world is unipolar after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in various 15 independent states.

PART – B (Politics in India since Independence)

15. Answer the following:           1x6=6

a)      Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India?

Ans: - The first Chief Election Commissioner was Mr. Sukumar Sen.

b)      Name the agreement which was signed by Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972.

Ans:- Shimla Agreement was signed by Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972.

c)       The Anti-Arrack Movement is considered as a women’s movement. (Write True or False)

d)      Name the first Home Minister of independent India.

Ans:- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the first Home Minister of independent India.

e)      Telengana becomes the 29th State of India. (Fill in the blank)

f)       Write any one recommendation of Mandal Commission.

Ans: - The Mandal Commission recommended that the backward classes should be equated with the "backward caste".

16. Mention two points of tension in India’s relations with Pakistan.                     2

Ans: - (i) Kashmir is the main issue of the current tension between India and Pakistan.

(ii) Another cause of tension in the relations between India and Pakistan is terrorism.

17. Mention two main features of New Economic Policy in India.             2

Ans: - Two main features of the new economic policy:

(a) Six industries were placed under distribution only licensing scheme.

(b) Entry into the private sector. The role of the public sector was limited to only four industries; All other industries were also opened to the private sector.

18. Write two consequences of emergency of 1975.       2

Ans: Following are the consequences of emergency -

a) Violation of Rights: During an emergency, the government has the power to prevent or restrict any fundamental right included in the Indian Constitution.

b) Use of preventive detention: The government made extensive use of preventive detention laws during the emergency. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed a crime, but out of fear that they may commit a crime.

19. Mention two causes for growing importance of regional political parties in India.    2

Ans:-The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. As we have seen, large societies need representative democracy. As societies grew larger and more complex, they also required some agency to collect different views on various issues and present them to the government. They needed a mechanism to support or curb the government, formulate policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties meet these needs which every representative government has.

20. Write any two objectives of planning in India.           2

Ans: - Planning has two objectives.

(a) To make the economy self-sufficient and dependent.

(b) To achieve distributional justice, which means to achieve a just society with development for all the people of the society.

21. Which two Articles of the Constitution of India give more autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir?                1+1=2

Ans:- Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir.

22. What was the electoral verdict of the Fourth General Election of 1967? Discuss.       4

Answer: - The election decision of the fourth election of 1967 gave a shock to the Congress party. In the fourth general election held in February 1967, the Congress Party was facing voters for the first time without Nehru. The Congress managed to win a majority in the Lok Sabha, but with its lowest number of seats and vote share. Since 1952, half the ministers in India's cabinet were defeated. The political heavyweights who lost in their constituencies were Kamaraj in Tamil Nadu. Patil in Maharashtra, Incredible Ghosh in West Bengal and K.B. Sahai in Bihar. Congress lost by a majority in seven states. Paws prevented it from forming government in two other states.

23. Discuss briefly the two challenges that India had to face immediately after independence.                2+2=4

Ans:- Soon after independence, there were many challenges or problems in independent India that needed to be resolved.

The challenges are as follows -

a) For the size of the nation: The first and foremost challenge was political integration and unification of the region. India is a country of continental size and diversity. About 600 states were of varying sizes and populations. Partition of the country appeared to prove the worst fear of all. So there was a serious question about the future of India, that is, the Indian will survive as a unified country.

b) To establish a democratic form of government: The second challenge was to establish a democratic form of government. Democracy in action according to constitutional norms. This means that India will have representative democracy based on the parliamentary form of government.

24. Write briefly about the conflict between judiciary and executive in India during the Prime Minister ship of Indira Gandhi.                    4

Ans: It was the time before the declaration of emergency when there were many differences between the government and the ruling party with the judiciary. Three constitutional issues arose, causing tension between the judiciary, the legislature (parliament) and the executive.

1) First, can Parliament violate fundamental rights? The Supreme Court said that this cannot be done.

2) Secondly, can the President remove the curtain on the right to property? Then, the court held that Parliament cannot amend the constitution in such a way that rights and veils are inserted.

25. Mention any four regional political parties of India.                4

Ans: - Four regional political parties of India:

(a) Asom Gana Parishad

(b) Akali Dal

(c) Telugu Desam

(d) D. M. K.

26. Do you think that social movement is important in India? Justify your answer.           4

Ans: Social movements are directed towards the attainment of specific goals. Such movements are organized in opposition to some change of government or some wrong policy. It often arises with the aim of bringing about change on a public issue. Most social movements emerged as a corrective to new social distortions such as environmental degradation, violation of the status of women of tribal cultures, and human rights violations.

27. Explain any three main outcomes of Lok Sabha election of 1977.       2+2+2=6

Ans: - The main results of the 19th Lok Sabha election are:

(i) In 1977, Congress did not come to power for the first time after independence. The reason for this is that the entire opposition received equal opposition in the Congress and its leader Indira Gandhi.

(ii) In the election, the Janata Party fought for the misrule of the Congress. It was a referendum. Public opinion was against the Congress due to public detention and press censorship.

(iii) Congress (I), Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), Bharatiya Lok Dal, Samajwadi Party and Jagjivan Ram led JP movement, a party led by dissidents or Janata Party.

Or

      Explain the Congress dominance in the first three general elections.                               6

Ans: - The Indian National Congress had unique political achievements. The Congress dominated the Indian political scene from 1947 to 1967.

The factors responsible for its dominance are:

(i) Legacy of national struggle: The Congress party got a large and rich legacy from the nationalist struggle. This brought political harmony in his goodwill. Party leaders such as Nehru and Shastri were popular for spending years in jail and deprived others. The legacy of the nationalist movement helped create harmony and unity in view of the party's internal plurality.

(ii) Grassroots Organization: Congress was the only grassroots organization that existed at the time of its existence. Its federal structure had the basis of internal democracy. This helped resolve internal fights and cement party reconciliation. Internal party elections served as a means to legitimize party leadership and to train party workers in the skills of political leadership.

(iii) Adjustment to local conditions: Congress was dominating by being competent in local conditions. The nobility fully descended to power within the Congress. The electoral gains of the party and the Congress in internal democracy helped the Congress adjust to changes in the local balance of power.

(iv) Limited role of opposition: From 1947 to 1967 we see very limited role by opposition political parties. There were several reasons that the opposition could not unite against the Congress. Internal differences within the socialist fold, reservation of CPI, presence of dynamic leaders like Nehru in Congress, inability to unify opposition and absence of widely accepted leader were some of the main reasons for providing collective leadership.

(v) Limited Role of Opposition: We see very limited role by opposition political parties from 19 Limited to 19 Limited. There were several reasons that the opposition could not unite against the Congress. Internal differences within the socialist fold, reservation of CPI, presence of dynamic leaders like Nehru in Congress, inability to unify opposition and absence of widely accepted leader were some of the main reasons for providing collective leadership.

(vi) Management: Congress had strong managerial skills. It can easily deal with differences that have cropped up within various factions of the Congress party. Rivalries and differences were dealt with with great technique and patience.

28. Discuss the two controversies related to planning in India at the beginning.                 3+3=6

Ans: - Development strategy in the early years gave rise to two big controversies. These included-

(a) Agriculture vs. Industry: There was a lot of debate among the planners as to which of the two was to be given priority in planning the agricultural industry. Many scholars thought that the Second Five-Year Plan had done more harm to the suffering industry in agriculture and rural India. An eminent Gandhian j. C. Kumarappa provided an alternative blueprint that could bring India on the path of rural industrialization. Congress leader and later Bharatiya Lok Dal leader Chaudhary Charan Singh stressed the need to make agriculture the backbone of the economy. Mr. Singh thought that planning led to prosperity and industrialization in rural areas to urban areas. There were others who believed that poverty could not be eliminated without industrialization. The state enacted laws to implement land reforms and distribute resources among the poor in the villages. Large funds were looted for proposals and irrigation projects on the community. However, all these policies failed because they were never implemented. This was because the zamindar classes had social and political power. Furthermore, this class argued that even if the government spends a large amount on agriculture, the problem of major poverty will not be solved.

(b) Public vs Private Sector: India adopted a mixed model of economy. The adoption of a mixed economy was subject to criticism from both left and right. Critics say that the private sector was not given enough space and incentive for development. The active, increased role for the public sector created powerful vested interests that created barriers to private capital using license permit monarchy and permits for investment. In addition, the state's policy of restricting the good produced by the private sector in the domestic market left the private sector with no incentives and competitions to improve its goods. This led to inefficiency and corruption. In addition, critics point out that the state has not spent enough on public health and education. The intervention of the state was only in those areas where the private sector did not interfere. Thus, the state helped the private sector benefit. No help was given to the poor and a new middle class was created due to the intervention of the state. This class enjoyed power and privileges without much accountability. Furthermore, even though the proportion of the poor decreased, their number continued to increase.

Or

      Discuss about India’s changing relations with Pakistan.           6

Ans: Since the birth of Pakistan in 1947, relations between India and Pakistan have never been cordial. Partition and problems arising from the country affected the relationship between the two states. Relations between India and Pakistan remained tense due to displaced property, constitutional location of Indian states, demarcation of borders and frequent clashes over the disputes of Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. There were two wars between the two countries on Kashmir issue first in 1948 and then in 1965.

In 1971, India and Pakistan fought another war on the Bangladesh issue. Also on the use of Indus water, a canal water dispute arose between the two countries. The long-running dispute over the sharing of river water was resolved through mediation by the World Bank. The Indo-Pakistan Indus Water Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub Khan in 1960.

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