Breaking News

Monday, October 05, 2020

POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2016 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 

2016

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks – 100

Pass Marks - 30

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

PART – A (Contemporary World Politics)

1. Answer the following as directed:                      1x6=6

a)      Who was the first Secretary-General of the UNO?

Ans. Trygue lie was the first Secretary-General of the UNO.

b)      Write the full form of WTO.

Ans. The full form is WTO is World Trade Organization.

c)       Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in the year ____. (Fill in the blank)

Ans. Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in the year 14th October 1962.

d)      Who started political and economic reforms in USSR?

Ans. Mikhail Gorbachev

e)      Where was the first SAARC Summit held?

Ans. First SAARC Summit was held in Dhaka in 1985.

f)       What do you mean by ‘Open Door’ Policy?

Ans. The Economic liberalization policy adopted by china in 1973 to open up different sectors of economy for competition is the open door policy.

2. Write the name of two countries which emerged out of Soviet disintegration.                            2

Ans. Russia and Kazakhistan

3. The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over ____ and ____ regions. (Fill in the blank)        2

Ans. The Border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin.

4. Mention two issues on which India and Bangladesh cooperate.                           2

Ans. The two issues on which India and Bangladesh cooperate are –

1)      Since India had helped in the creation of Bangladesh it was natural for both states to have a cordial relationship. In 1972 both states signed a friendship and an agreement on trade.

2)      The Farraka Accard of 1977 further strengthened the relations between the two states. It helped Bangladesh to make up for the deficiency of water during summers.

5. Name two arms control agreements signed by the two super-powers during Cold War era.                   2

Ans. The two arms control agreement signed by the two super powers are – Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NNPT).

6. Mention two sources of threats to human being.        2

Ans. Two new sources of threats are –Terrorism and Global Poverty.

7. Write the name of two organizations involved with economic globalization.                                                2

Ans. Two sectors involved with economic globalization are World Trade Organization and International Monetary Fund.

8. Write a note on achievements of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).                    4

Ans. NAM played on significant role in the cold war era. The role of NAM can be mentioned the like way –

a)      The Policy of Non Alignment such to promote peace and laid emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes by the states.

b)      NAM was entrusted with the tasks of social and economic reconstruction which could be done only in a world free from war and tension.

c)       The newly independent countries were aware of the danger of imperialism. So they wanted to come together and bring world peace.

d)      The significant role played by NAM was to maintain peaceful coexistence between nations, condemnation of racial discrimination etc.

9. What is the relation between migration and human security? Discuss.                             4

Ans. Migration is a central phenomenon in the modern world, and a major focus of policy attention is many countries and international organization. Major tensions exist is the current world order over understanding and antecedes towards migration. These are reflected in the function is meanings of rights between an aspiration for all people as members of humanity and a reduction of the meaning of humanity to specific groups based on their identities defined by states. 

      The diploma programme addresses questions of migrations, citizenship and human security. It situates the relationship between migration and citizenship in historical and geopolitical contexts, uses structural and critical social constructivist thinking to combine perspectives from a rich variety of sources including international relations and social-legal analysis. It employs human security thinking as a normative and explanatory framework to guide reflections.

      Upon completion of the programme participants will have become familiar with the key theatrical approaches used to explain and understand current trends and policy as on migration and have acquire competencies to develop and execute programmes and projects on migration gender and citizenship.

10. Discuss about the constraints on US hegemony.                        4

Ans. US hegemony is in today’s world means the dominance of US in spheres – military, economic ideas of good life etc. The constraints an US are –

1)      The first constraint is the institutional architectures of the American State itself. A system of division of power between the three branches of government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.

2)      The Second constraint is domestic is nature and stems from the open nature of American Society. American mass media may from time to time impose or promote a particular perspective on domestic public opinion in the US and they also keep on eye over the methods of government. 

11. Discuss briefly about the political consequences of globalization.                    4

Ans. Globalization is a multi dimensional concept.

1)      It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

2)      Globalization is regarded as a multi dimensional concept in which it is a process where the ‘Earth’ is regarded as a global village.

3)      The consequence of contemporary processes of globalization relates to its ongoing political impact. At the most simple level globalization results in an erosion of state capacity that is the ability of government to do what they do.

4)      Globalization has indeed affected upon the political scenario as the concept of the state as a welfare state has declined and has transformed more as minimum list state.

12. Justify India’s claim for permanent membership in the UN Security Council.               4

Ans. As a citizen of India I will support hearted India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council. India rightly deserves a permanent membership as it fulfills almost all the criteria laid down the UN. India is the Second most populous country in the world comprising almost one fifth of the world population. India is also the world’s largest democracy. India has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the UN. Its role in the UN’s peace keeping efforts is a long and substantial one. India has emerged as potential economic power in the world. India has also made regular financial contribution to the UN and never faltered on it payments

      All these factors justifies India’s claim to a permanent seat in the Security Council. 

13. What are the major areas of influence of European Union? Discuss in detail.                              6

Ans. European Union an influential regional organization in the Europe was formed in 1992. Since its inception EU continues to grow as a highly powerful organization. The European Union has economic political and diplomatic and military influence.

a)      European Union’s economic power: The European Union is the world’s biggest Economy with a GDP of more than 12 trillion in 2005. Slightly larger than that of the USA. Its currency the Euro is now in a position to threat the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the USA allowing it to be more assertive in trade dispute with the USA and China. Its economic powers give its influences over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organization such as WTO.

b)      European Union’s political power: Two members of the European Union, Britain and France held permanent sets in the Security Council. The EU includes several non permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence. Some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its uses of diplomacy economic investments and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environment degradation.

c)       European Union’s military powers: Military the European Union’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second after the US. Two EU member states Britain and France also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads. It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

Or

      How can permanent peace be established in South Asia? Discuss.                    6

Ans:- Governments of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal must commit to a uniform defense and security framework to establish lasting peace in South Asia.

At the higher political level, we should think of a common defense policy against terrorism.

We all know about the history of counter-terrorism cooperation between Bangladesh and India, and if we fight against terrorism along the same defense line, we can establish the final peace in South Asia.

14. Discuss the latest trend in Indo-US relationship.                       6

Ans. So far as the debate in Lok Sabha on Indo-US agreement on nuclear energy Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh says that recent time, India’s impressive economic development rate has made the country and alternative partner for a number of countries concerning USA.

International politics largely in terms of military energy are fearful of to growing closeness between India and USA. The growing closeness of interest between the USA and India creates welfare for India. At the recent phase of global hegemony India has needed a good partnership with the USA. Dr.

Manmohan Singh believes that it is in the welfare of our country to have a good and pivotal relation with all the major countries but interest on the relationship with USA. Hence he advocates a strategy that would allowed India to take opportunity of US hegemony and the mutual relations to set up the best possible for itself. The highlighting factor shows the Indo US relationship and its importance.

1)      15% of all high tech starts up are by Indo-Americans.

2)      The USA absorbs about 65% of India’s total exports in the software sectors.

3)      35% of the technology staff of doing is estimated to be of India.

Or

      Discuss India’s stands in global environmental debates.         6

Ans: - Government of India is already participating in global efforts through several programs.

(i) India's national auto-fuel policy mandates clean fuel for vehicles.

(ii) The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency.

(iii) The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.

(iv) Recent trends to encourage imports of natural gas and to adopt clean coal technologies suggest that India is making genuine efforts.

(v) The government is keen to start a national mission on biodiesel by using around 11 million hectares of land for the production of biodiesel by 2011-2012.

(vi) India has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world.

PART – B: (Politics in India since Independence)

15. Answer the following as directed:                    1x6=6

a)      Who is regarded as the ‘Father of Green Revolution’ in India?

Ans. Norman Ernest Borlaug

b)      When was the State Reorganization Act adopted?

Ans. The States Reorganization Act was adopted in 1955.

c)       The Anti-Arrack Movement is considered as a women’s movement. (Write True or False)

Ans. Yes as a women’s movement.

d)      Who started ‘Total Revolution’?

Ans. Jaya Prakash Narayan

e)      Which party is the first regional party to form government in a State?

Ans. AGP is the first regional party to from government in a state.

f)       Article ____ of the Indian Constitution gives special status to Jammu and Kashmir. (Fill in the blank)

Ans. Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gives special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

16. Write two features of coalition government in India.                             2

Ans. The two features of coalition government in India are –

1)      The coalition government is subjected to lot of adjustment. It must take note of that all allied are contended. Any discontentment would lead to break down of the alliance and also of the government.

2)      Regional political parties have started playing a major role in normative of the coalition government. This was clearly sun is the NDA alliance and also the present UPA alliance. 

17. Mention two recommendations of the Mandal Commission.                              2

Ans:- The Mandal Commission therefore recommended that 27 percent of central and state government jobs should be reserved for OBCs, and that 27 percent of the figure should be applied to other "compensatory discrimination" or "compensatory protection" benefits, including universities and affiliates. For colleges.

18. Write two features of party system in India.                               2

Ans. Two features of Indian party system are –

1)      Multi Party System.

2)      One Party dominance

19. Write two consequences of 1977 Lok Sabha Election.                              2

Ans. The two consequences of 1977 Lok Sabha Election are as follows –

a)      Indira Gandhi’s new congress after the split in 1969 won the 1971 election. The 1971 election were a clean sweep for congress with this the congress party led by India Gandhi established its chain to being the real congress and restored to it the dominate position in Indian politics.

b)      The Grand Alliance of the opposition proved a grand failure in 1971 election. Their combined tally of seats was loss than 40. The congress (O) get only 16 seats with 10% votes in the fifth general elections although it launched a campaign to remove Indira. 

20. Mention two major objectives of Jawaharlal Nehru’s foreign policy.                                               2

Ans. The two major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy are as follows –

1)      To protect hard earned sovereignty of India.

2)      To establish peace.

21. Write two causes of origin of regionalism in India.                                   2

Ans. Two causes of origin of regionalism in India are like –

a)      When religious and linguistic groups of a multicultural country feel continuously ignored neglected than the feeling of regionalism may outburst.

b)      When the economic benefits of a country are unevenly distribution than too the negative feeling of Regionalism may arise.

22. Why did India adopt policy of non-alignment? Discuss.                         4

Ans. India adopted Non Alignment for various reasons.

1)      It adopted non alignment to protect our national identity and sovereignty. It did not want to compromise on its hard earned freedom by taking part in cold war politics.

2)      India did not want to enter into military alliances and use money for an arms buildup.

3)      Lastly India did not want to aggravate world tensions by joining either bloc. It wanted to plays and independent role in global affairs.

4)      Historically India has adopted a policy of tolerance towards different religious philosophers etc.

23. Discuss briefly about Narmada Bachao Andolan.                                       4

Ans. The Narmada Bachao Andolan was a type of social movement headed by Medha Potkar which sustained agitation for more than twenty years against the construction of big slams, to be constructed on the Narmada River and its tributaries. It opposed the clam projects because it would lead to the displacement of several lakhs of people. It raised the issue about the relocation and rehabilitation of project affected people. 

24. Explain briefly about ‘Two-Nation Theory’.                  4

Ans. In 1947, India was divided into two nation states India and Pakistan. The division was based on the two nation’s theory advocated by Muslim league which said that India consisted of net one but two people India and Muslims. That is why it demanded Pakistan a separate country for the Muslims, the congress absolutely opposed this theory but several political developments in 1940s the political competition between the congress and the Muslim League and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.

25. Write the main objectives of planning in India.         4

Ans. The main objectives of planning in India are as follows –

a)      Raising national income and per capita income.

b)      Bringing self sufficiency in food.

c)       Raising the standard of living.

d)      Increasing agricultural production.

26. Discuss about the controversy relating to Presidential Election of 1969.         4

Ans:- The Congress Parliamentary Board met on 11 July 1969 to discuss the presidential candidate. The syndicate had already decided to nominate Sanjeev Reddy, whose intimacy was well known. Mrs Gandhi was naturally ready to do so. At the meeting, he suggested nominating veteran Dalit leader Jagjivan Ram. When it was shot, they asked that they postpone the decision to reach a long-term consensus. However, Nijalingappa forced a vote in the six-member parliamentary board. Mrs Gandhi was rejected from four to two.

Even when Indira Gandhi left for Bangalore, she introduced herself anew. Vice President V. V. Giri announced that he would contest the presidential election as an independent candidate. Mrs Gandhi knew that before supporting Giri against one of her party's candidates, she would have to reclaim the initiative within the party. This forced Morarji Desai to exit the cabinet and then nationalize banks. He went ahead and filed nominations for Sanjeev Reddy, though he refused to issue whips to Congress MPs.

The syndicate felt that Mrs Gandhi might yet come out in support of Giri. To vote his second preference for Nijalingappa Reddy (opposition candidate CD Deshmukh), the main opposition parties, Swatantra and Jana Sangh, went on and gave a fatal audition. Mrs Gandhi seized the opportunity to condemn Nijalingappa's move. Nevertheless, he did not formally disclose his choice until one night before the election, when he called on his party to 'vote according to discretion'.

V. V. Giri won the election with a narrow margin. Poll data showed that most members of Congress actually voted for Reddy. Giri supported a minority of congressional votes and a keen combination of opposition groups.

27. Discuss the consequences of National Emergency declared on 25th June, 1975.          6

Ans. The following are the consequences of National Emergency –

1)      Curtailment of Rights: During the emergency the government gets the power to curtail or restrict all or any of the fundamental rights incorporated in India constitution.

2)      Use of preventive Detention: The government made extensive use of preventive detention lows of during emergency. Under this provision people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offence but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence.

3)      Return of Awards: Many recipients of civilian awards were returned to central government as a mark of protest towards emergency. People who received Bharat Ratna, Padma Shree, Padma Bhushan, and Padma Bibhushan returned the award to show their grievance towards the law of composed by Indira Gandhi.

4)      Centralized Administration: As soon as emergency was reclaimed the whole administrations come under central government. This structure is followed as a part of constitutional provisions. According to Indian constitution when any short of emergency is proclaimed the whole of India transforms into centralized federation.

5)      Communal organization Banned: All Hindu and Muslim communal organization during emergency were banned to maintain communal harmony in the society. Some of such communal organizations were RSS Jamait-E-Islami etc.

6)      Central Amendments: Several constitution amendments were carried out during emergency. India Gandhi increased the tenure of Lok Sabha divested the authority of the Supreme Court. Regarding election of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Or

      Discuss about the conflict between judiciary and executive during the decade of 1970. Who was the Prime Minister of India during that time?                 5+1=6

Ans: It was the time before the declaration of emergency when there were many differences between the government and the ruling party with the judiciary. Three constitutional issues arose, causing tension between the judiciary, the legislature (parliament) and the executive.

1) First, can Parliament violate fundamental rights? The Supreme Court said that this cannot be done.

2) Secondly, can the President remove the curtain on the right to property? Then, the court held that Parliament cannot amend the constitution in such a way that rights and veils are inserted.

28. What do you mean by Green Revolution? Discuss the consequences of Green Revolution.                                 2+4=6

Ans. In 1960’s India was facing a food crisis due to many reasons. India government decided to make India self sufficient in food. Hence the mid 1960s the traditional variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution. As a result of green revolution area under improved seeds has gone up from about 15 million hectares during 1970-1971 to nearly 15 million hectares in 1995-1996. The major benefits of the green revolution were experienced mainly in northern and north western India. Unprecedented enthusing has prevailed among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and western UP for the new wheat variety seeds and a situation developed in which the demand for seeds by farmers exceeded the supply.

Positive consequences of green revolution are –

1)      The major achievement of the green revolution was to boost the production of major corals vis, wheat and rice and as a result of the green revolution the crops pattern in India has undergone significant changes.

Two negative consequences of green revolution are –

2)      Green revolution has led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of top 10% of the rural population. Green revolution had widened the gap between poor and small farmer’s and rich landlords and green revolution has proved beneficial to the medium category peasants because they could receive and advantage of mediation between small farmers and rich landlords. 

Or

      Discuss the role of Planning Commission in India. Write the name of the organization which replaces Planning Commission now.                           5+1=6

Ans. Planning is the systematic regulation of a purposeful activity. It is an invaluable aid to policy and helps to active national goals and is a continuous process. Planning is a rational process and concerns itself with the proposals for the future with the evolution of alternate proposals and the methods with which these proposals may be achieved. The Planning commission was set up in India in 1950.

The functions of planning commission are listed below –

a)      To make an assessment of the materials capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nations’ requirements.

b)      To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilization the country’s resources.

c)       Determination of priorities define the stage in which the plans should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.

d)      To indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development and determine the cancelation which in view of the current social and political situations should be established for the successful execution of the plan.

e)      To determine the nature of the machinery which will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects?

f)       To appraise from time to time the progress achieved is the execution of each stage of the plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary.

***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No comments:

Post a comment

Kindly give your valuable feedback to improve this website.

Note: only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Popular Posts for the Day