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POLITICAL SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS 2014 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Papers

 

2014

POLITICAL SCIENCE

Full Marks – 100

Pass Marks - 30

Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

PART – A: (Contemporary World Politics)

1. Answer the following:                                              1x6=6

a)      Where was the first Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit held?

Ans: The first Non-Aligned summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. And this conference was attended by African and Asian countries.

b)      Give an example of global threat.

Ans: Health epidemic is a threat to global and human security:

(i) The success of one country or failure to limit the spread of diseases affects infection in other countries.

c)       Write the full form of ASEAN.

Ans:- Association of South East Asian Nations.

d)      In which year was the Berlin Wall demolished?

Ans: 9th November 1989.

e)      Who is the present Secretary-General of the UNO?

Ans: - Antonio Guterres is the current Secretary General of UNO.

f)       Rio Summit recommended a list of development practices called ‘Agenda 21’. [Write Yes or No]

Ans:  Yes.

2. When did the US hegemony begin and why?                                                1+1=2

Ans: - American Union started in 1991 after the fall of Soviet Union.

3. What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security?                      2

Ans: - Difference between traditional and non-traditional security:

Its traditional security poses a major threat to security and is the major means of achieving security.

Non-traditional nations of security go beyond military threat, including a wide range of threats and threats affecting human survival conditions.

4. What is meant by ‘second world’?      2

Ans: - The socialist countries of Eastern Europe and the nations that were part of the Warsaw Pact were known as the other world.

5. What is meant by allied and axis powers of the Second World War?                                 1+1=2

Ans: - The allied powers of World War II refers to the countries that won the World War. These Allied powers include countries such as America, Soviet Union, Britain and France.

6. The UN Security Council has 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members. [Fill in the blanks]       1+1=2

7. Mention one area each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.    1+1=2

Ans: - For cooperation:

(i) See prior policy,

(ii) Disaster Management.

For disagreement:

(i) The division of the Ganges and Brahmaputra waters.

(ii) Migrating from Bangladesh.

8. What is meant by ‘Global Commons’? Suggest three steps for protection of ‘Global Commons’.         1+3=4

Ans: The regions of the world which lie outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any state, therefore, the need for general administration by the international community is called 'Global Commons'. They enter the Earth's atmosphere, Antarctica, the ocean floor and space.

The following are the steps to conserve the Global Commons -

a) Antarctic Treaty in 1959.

b) Montreal Protocol, 1987.

c) Antarctic Environmental Protocol 1991.

9. Write a short note on the political systems of newly emerged States from the Soviet Union.                                4

Ans: - The newly emerged states of the Soviet Union were economically and politically weak. States such as Ukraine, Georgia, Belores, Lithuania, Lataria, and Estonia were once part of the USSR. These states expressed a desire to go for political change to speed up their economic development. When shock therapy was performed, the newly emerged countries did not retreat and adopted this process of infection. It should be noted that the newly independent countries were economically backward and their political and economic systems were designed along socialist lines, where the central government had complete command over each region.

10. Discuss briefly about the New International Economic Order (NIEO).                  4

Ans: - The new international economic order refers to an economic system to reduce the difference between the developed countries of the world and less developed countries.

The idea of ​​the New International Economic Order arose for the sustainable and equal economic development of the least developed countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development came out in 1972 with a report to give feedback on the new international economy.

The new international economic order is a tool for the least developed countries to achieve economic development and political independence. This non-alignment motive gradually changed the nature of NAM and by 1970 NAM became an economic pressure group.

11. Write two major areas of influence of European Union.        2+2=4

Ans: - Two major areas are given: -

(a) Economic power of the European Union: The European Union is the largest economy in the world, with a GDP of more than $ 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than the United States. Its currency, the euro, is now in a position to jeopardize the dominance of the US dollar.

(b) Political power of the European Union: Two members of the European Union, Britain and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council. The EU consists of several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the European Union to influence certain US policies such as the current US position on Iron's nuclear program.

12. Justify India’s inclusion in the Security Council as permanent member.         4

Ans: - As a citizen of India, I will wholeheartedly support India's candidature for permanent membership of the Security Council. India is entitled to a permanent membership as it fulfils almost all the criteria set by the United Nations. India is the second most populous country in the world, comprising one fifth of the world's population. India is also the largest democracy in the world. India has participated in almost all UN initiatives. Its role in UN peace efforts is a long and substantial one. India has emerged as a potential economic power in the world. India has made regular financial contributions to the United Nations and has not carried forward its payments.

All these factors justify India's claim for a permanent seat in the Security Council.

13. What are the different types of hegemony? Give examples of each of them.             4+2=6

Ans: - There are three types of hegemony.

(i) Business as hard power

(ii) Dominance in the form of cold power

(iii) Hegemony as structural power

(i) Dominance in the form of hard power:

(a) American military dominance today is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, both have military capability that can reach any point on the planet, accurately, deadly and in real time.

(b) America's military dominance is not based solely on high military spending, but at a qualitative interval, a technological gap that no other power can currently afford.

(ii) Dominance in the form of soft power:

(a) America's predominance in the world today is not only based on its military power and economic powers, but also on its cultural presence.

(b) All dreams of good life and personal success, most dreams of individuals and societies around the world, are dreams churned by practices prevalent in the twentieth century in America.

(iii) Hegemony as structural power:

(a) Internet: Although the Internet is the sun today as creating the virtual world of www, we will not forget that the Internet is something direct from the US military research project that began in 1950. Even today, the Internet relies on an Internet Global Network of Satellites, most of which are owned by the US government.

(b) Technical education like M.B.A: The idea that business is a profession depends on the skills that can be taught in a university. Today, there is no country in the world in which an MBA is not a prestigious academic degree.

Or

      What does SAFTA stand for? Examine the concept of SAFTA.                               2+4=6

Ans: - SAFTA is the term for South Asian Free Trade Agreement. It was signed at the 12th SAARC Conference in Islamabad in 2004 to provide a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.

It was SAPTA which gradually moved towards SAFTA. At the tenth SAARC conference in Colombo, the leaders decided in 2001 to constitute a committee of experts to conclude the treaty on SAFTA.

By this, items listed by countries will be exempt from custom restrictions and duties.

SAFTA will ensure free flow of goods between the countries of South Asia and promote mutual trade and economic cooperation in the region.

The feeling behind SAFTA's idea is that peace and cooperation in South Asia will develop if all countries in the region allow free trade along the borders.

The agreement on SAFTA came into effect on 1 January 2006. SAFTA aims to reduce trade tariffs by 20% by 2007.

14. In the present world context, do you think that the UNO is an indispensable organization? Justify your answer. 6

Ans: - United Nations is an indispensable organization. Its humanitarian and diplomatic efforts are necessary to bring peace and stability around the world and to address the crisis of terrorism from some of the long-suffering countries, especially Afghanistan. The United Nations has translated these words with the passage of resolutions in the U.N. General Assembly and the Security Council, which have recorded all their member states as condemning these hateful barbaric attacks and demanding justice for the perpetrators.

On 28 September, UN Security Council resolution 1373 demonstrates the unanimous adoption of the Security Council resolution by the international community to deny support to terrorists, wherever they may meet. The United Nations is taking additional initiatives to combat international terrorism. One hundred twenty-six member states have signed the UN Convention against Traditional Organized Crime (TOC). Almost all U.N. Members are implementing 12 pending international conventions and protocols specifically targeting terrorism.

Promising all these efforts, the United Nations will update and enforce criminal laws and procedures along the lines of the global counter-terrorism campaign, ensuring that criminal technical expertise is shared by greater cooperation between aid and law enforcement agencies . . . The United Nations can help highlight the close ties that exist between international terrorism and international organized crime and help establish a financial foothold under these organizations.

We need the UN Convention against "UN Against Transnational Organized Crime" and UN Against Money Laundering. The program also needs to be strengthened, while other nations will help implement all the UN Drug Conventions. U.N. by member nations With a very modest contribution to the Drug Control Program (UNDCP), we are able to clearly identify Afghanistan as the core of most of the world's opium production.

Or

      What are the political, economic and cultural effects of globalization? Discuss.          2+2+2=6

Ans: - Globalization is a multidimensional concept.

(i) It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and should be adequately distinguished.

(ii) Globalization is considered as a multidimensional concept, in which it is a process where 'Artha' is considered a global village.

(iii) The result of contemporary processes of globalization is related to its ongoing political influence. At the simplest level, globalization results in the erosion of state capacity, that is, the capacity of government to do what they do.

(iv) Globalization has indeed affected the political landscape, as the concept of the state has declined as a welfare state, and has changed as a minimal state.

(v) The economic face of the world has a relationship with globalization. Economic globalization has an important role in shaping world politics. Economic globalization is closely linked with international institutions such as the IMF, and the World Bank. Economic globalization, thus, is generally related to great economic flows between different countries of the world.

(vi) The consequences of globalization are not limited only to the fields of politics and economy. Globalization also affects our way of life, patterns of thought, dressing and eating habits. It has affected people's preferences, raising fears that it threatens world cultures. The cultural impact of globalization creates a fear that this process is a threat to all cultures, as it leads to the domination of a common culture, or Western culture, known as 'cultural homogeneity'. Similarly, cultural homogeneity also has the opposite effect. This makes each culture more uniquely ad hoc, known as 'cultural diversity'.

PART – B: (Politics in India since Independence)

 

15. Answer the following:           1x6=6

a)    Write the full form of NEFA.

Ans: - The full name of N.E.F.A is North East Frontier Agency.

b)   In which district was Anti-Arrack Movement started?

Ans:- Nellore.

c)    The Government of India appointed Mandal Commission in the year 1979. [Fill in the blank]

d)   What is the meaning of defection?

Ans:- Defection means an elected MLA and MP leave a political party in which they are not elected and join any other political party.

e)   When was the Planning Commission formed?

Ans:- The Planning Commission was formed in 1950.

f)     Find out the correct word:

      (Morarji Desai/Charan Singh) became the Prime Minister of the Janata Party Government after the 1977 election.

16. Before independence, there was a ‘two-nation theory’ advanced by the Muslim League. What were the two nations included in this theory?               1+1=2

Ans: India and Pakistan are the two countries involved in the theory of two countries. Hindu people will join India and it will be known as Hindustan whereas Pakistan will include Muslim people.

17. Write two most important basic principles of India’s foreign policy.                 2

Ans: Non-alignment, friendly relations with all countries

18. Write any two features of coalition government in India.                                     2

Ans: - Two features of coalition government:

(a) Coalition governments are formed by entering into alliances by several political parties.

(b) Regional political parties get adequate space in coalition government.

19. Write two factors that lead to the growing importance of regional political party in India.                    2

Ans: - Importance of regional parties:

(i) There have been many members of political parties at the centre or national level. During elections these parties try their best to get maximum votes to form a government.

(ii) Now are the days for regional political parties to address and focus on regional problems.

20. What do you mean by social movement? Give one example of a social movement.                                                1+1=2

Ans: - Social movements are directed towards the attainment of specific goals. Such movements are organized in opposition to some change of government or some wrong policy. It often arises with the aim of bringing about change on a public issue. Most social movements emerged as a corrective to new social distortions such as environmental degradation, violation of the status of women of tribal cultures, and human rights violations.

21. When was the Bharatiya Jana Singh formed and who was the founder President of the party?           1+1=2

Ans: Syama Prasad Mukherjee, 1951.

22. Write a note on Navnirman Movement in Gujarat.  4

Ans: - The Gujarat movement was a student movement against the misrule of the Congress government. There was price rise, food crisis, unemployment and corruption due to which there was discontent among the common people and especially the students. Morarji Desai played an important role in the Gujarat movement.

23. Discuss the demands for autonomy in North-Eastern Region of India.      4

Ans: - Various groups in the North East states of India are involved in extremism, which is connected to the rest of the land of India, which is narrow by 14 miles (23 km), which is known as Siliguri Corridor.

Many armed groups operate in the region. Some groups demand a separate state, others for regional autonomy, while some extreme groups demand complete independence.

The seven states (also known as the Seven Sisters) in Northeast India include Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland. Tensions exist between these states and the central government as well as the natives of these states and migrants from other parts of India.

Due to the concerted efforts of the Indian and state governments to raise the standard of living of the people in these areas, regional tensions have been delayed. However, insurgency still exists within the region. Currently insurgent activity exists in Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura.

24. Explain briefly about the nature of Congress dominance at the national level.           4

Ans: - The Indian National Congress had unique political achievements. The Congress dominated the Indian political scene from 1947 to 1967.

The factors responsible for its dominance are:

(i) Legacy of national struggle: The Congress party got a large and rich legacy from the nationalist struggle. This brought political harmony in his goodwill. Party leaders such as Nehru and Shastri were popular for spending years in jail and deprived others. The legacy of the nationalist movement helped create harmony and unity in view of the party's internal plurality.

(ii) Grassroots Organization: Congress was the only grassroots organization that existed at the time of its existence. Its federal structure had the basis of internal democracy. This helped resolve internal fights and cement party reconciliation. Internal party elections served as a means to legitimize party leadership and to train party workers in the skills of political leadership.

(iii) Adjustment to local conditions: Congress was dominating by being competent in local conditions. The nobility fully descended to power within the Congress. The electoral gains of the party and the Congress in internal democracy helped the Congress adjust to changes in the local balance of power.

(iv) Limited role of opposition: From 1947 to 1967 we see very limited role by opposition political parties. There were several reasons that the opposition could not unite against the Congress. Internal differences within the socialist fold, reservation of CPI, presence of dynamic leaders like Nehru in Congress, inability to unify opposition and absence of widely accepted leader were some of the main reasons for providing collective leadership.

25. Why did India adopt the policy of Non-Alignment? Discuss.                                                4

Ans: - India decided to follow the policy of non-alignment based on foreign policy. After independence from British colonialism, India wanted to maintain independence in the decision to forge external relations with various countries. At the time of India's independence, the Cold War between the two superpowers had started. India decided to remain independent of super-power rivalry and decided to frame foreign policy, which could protect its national interests. Therefore, India adopted non-alignment as the basis of foreign policy. India wanted peace and friendly relations between all the countries of the world.

26. What is Green Revolution? Discuss briefly.                                                 4

Ans: In the 1960s, India was facing a food crisis due to several reasons. The government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Therefore, in the mid-1960s, the growing use of traditional varieties of seeds and fertilizer and irrigation is called the Green Revolution. As a result of the Green Revolution, the area of ​​improved seeds increased from about 15 million hectares during 1970–71 to about 75 million hectares in 1995–96.

The major benefits of the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and northwestern India. There is unprecedented enthusiasm among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western UP. For the new variety of wheat, a situation developed in which the demand for seed by the farmers exceeded the supply.

The Green Revolution has positive consequences: The Green Revolution has created a concentration of wealth in the hands of the top 10% of the rural population. The Green Revolution widened the gap between the poor and small farmers and the rich landlords, and the Green Revolution proved beneficial for the middle class peasants, as they could get the benefit of mediation between the small farmers and the rich landlords.

27. Analyze the lessons India got from Emergency.                         6

Ans: Following are the consequences of emergency -

a) Violation of Rights: During an emergency, the government has the power to prevent or restrict any fundamental right included in the Indian Constitution.

b) Use of preventive detention: The government made extensive use of preventive detention laws during the emergency. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed a crime, but out of fear that they may commit a crime.

c) Return of the awards: Many recipients of civil awards went to the central government as a mark of opposition to the Emergency. Those who received Bharat Tanta, Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan returned the award for expressing displeasure with the law imposed by Indira Gandhi.

d) Centralized administration: As soon as emergency was declared, the entire administration came under the central government. This structure is followed as a part of the constitutional provision. According to the Indian Constitution, when any type of emergency is declared, the whole of India turns into a centralized federation.

e) Communal Organization Restricted: During the Emergency all Hindu and Muslim communal organizations were restricted to maintain communal harmony in the society. Some such communal organizations were RSS, Jamaat-e-Islami etc.

f) Central Amendment: Many constitutional amendments were made during the Emergency. Indira Gandhi extended the term of the Lok Sabha, dividing the authority of the Supreme Court in relation to the election of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Or

      Write about the Chipko Movement. What was the impact of this Movement?                            4+2=6

Ans: - The Chipko movement was an environmental movement that prevented the forest department from cutting ash trees for the production of agricultural commodities in rural areas, while they allotted land to a game maker for commercial use. This angered the villagers and thus started the movement.

The forest department prohibited the villagers of Uttar Pradesh from harvesting ash trees to make agricultural equipment. But the forest department allowed a game maker to make ash trees for commercial purposes. Villagers opposed this action of the forest department. The protest spread to many parts of the Uttarakhand region of Uttar Pradesh. This is known as the Chipko movement.

This movement had a great impact. The government stopped felling of trees for fifteen years. The Chipko movement became a symbol of many popular social movements in India. This movement inspired people to raise their voice against injustice and exploitation.

28. Explain the consequences of Partition of India.         6

Ans: Consequences of Partition of India are below:

(1) Communal violence: The year 1947 was the year of the largest, most sudden, unplanned and tragic rehabilitation of the known population in human history. There were murders and atrocities on both sides of the border.

(2) Refugees: Approximately 6 million refugees were lost in India due to the division and violence associated with it.

(3) Destruction of public property: Property worth thousands of rupees was looted and destroyed. The division was not merely a division of property, liabilities and property, but a political division of the country and the administrative system.

(4) Population and Minority Population on both sides: Even after the large migration of Muslims to Pakistan, about 12% of the total population of India were Muslims. The biggest problem facing the Indian government was how to treat Muslim minorities and other religious minorities.

(5) Division of hearts: Many writers, poets and filmmakers in India and Pakistan have expressed the brutality of the murders and the suffering of displacement and violence in their jurisdiction.

Or

      Who is regarded as Pioneer of India’s Nuclear Policy? Discuss India’s Nuclear Policy.                              1+5=6

Ans:-The "father of the Indian nuclear program", was the founding director of the Bhabha Atomic Energy Foundation, Trombay (AEET), now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in his honor.

When in October 1964, five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council tried to conduct nuclear tests in October 1964 when Communist China, the US, the USSR, the UK, France and China (then representing China). The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the world. India considered the NPT to be discriminatory and refused to sign it.

India is the sixth country in the world to enjoy nuclear power in 1974 after a successful nuclear experiment. There are four nuclear power stations operating in India. After India's nuclear test in May 1998, the United States and other countries urged India to sign the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).

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