Indian Culture and Heritage 223 Solved Assignment 2021 - 22 | NIOS Secondary Solved Assignment (2021 - 22)

 NIOS Solved Assignments (2021-22)
Science and Technology 212 Solved Assignment 2021 - 22
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20

Note: (i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

indian culture and heritage 223

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.       2
(a) Examine any two similarities of culture and civilization. (See Lesson-1)

Culture and civilization are two concepts that we need to understand to fully understand the similarities between them. Culture is what we teach society, and it is what we believe in, while civilization is how we live as a society.

Similarities between culture and civilization:

a) Both cultures and civilizations require governance (such as laws)

b) Both cultures and civilizations have their own unique identities

c) Both cultures and civilizations have their own strengths and weaknesses

(b) Identify two features that show the importance of spirituality in India culture. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Over the years, the importance of spirituality in India culture has been on the rise. It has become a significant part of daily life for both people and businesses. Some features that show the importance of spirituality in India culture are:

a) The prevalence of oral traditions which provide immense value to people.

b) Indian gods are not confined to one religion or denomination but are honored by all communities and individuals irrespective of their religious background.

c) Indians traditionally take time out for spiritual practices like meditation, chanting, yoga, and pranayama.

भारतीय संस्कृति और विरासत (223)| Indian Culture and Heritage 223 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.    2
(a) Differentiate between Nagara and Dravida style of temple. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: Dravida style of temple is characterized by its sturdy, squat, and angular construction. It is known for its ornamental sculptures and the profusion of pillars with classical capitals.

Nagara style of temple, on the other hand, is characterized by its broad base and low pillars that are decorated with ornamental sculptures along with figures that act as divinities or guardians.

Diffrence between Nagara and Dravida style of temple:

1.    The Nagara style is found in Northern India, while the Dravida style is prominent in Southern India.

2.    Nagara temples are structured with a long central building flanked by two shorter, parallel buildings. While Dravida temples are built along a rectangular plan with an enclosed courtyard open to the east.

(b) List four fundamental Principles of Islam. (See Lesson 4)

Ans: The four fundamental principles of Islam are:

1. Tawhid (Oneness of Allah)

2. Nubuwwat (Prophethood)

3. Risalat (Messengerhood) and

4. Qadar (Divine Destiny).

The first principle is the absolute Oneness of Allah, the last Prophet taught that Allah has created everything in this universe and everything has its own purpose and meaning.

The second principle is that prophethood is granted to chosen people by God, and they pass on their message to others so they can teach them to be good Muslims and live in accordance with the teachings of Islam.

The third principle of Islam is one that makes sense. It says that every messenger must be sent from God to teach man about religion so people can live in accordance with the teachings.

The fourth principle of Islam Qadar or divine destiny is a concept that says that Allah has a plan for every individual's life and that the future cannot be changed.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.       2
(a) Interpret the non-material aspects of culture. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Indian culture has been a source of inspiration for a lot of writers. It is rich with art, literature, and poetry. Indian culture has also been a source of pride for many Indians because it is the amalgamation of various cultures from all around the world.

The non-material aspects of Indian culture bring about something unique and different to the world as well as to our society. In today’s world, there is a rise in technology that has brought materialism into our lives and given us more opportunities to embrace it. It is essential for people to have an understanding of the non-material aspects that exist in order to preserve what makes them unique and different from other societies.

It is important to understand the influence of globalization on Indian culture. This includes understanding how India differs from Western cultures, as well as how it has been influenced by globalization. For instance, the often-times difficult interactions between Indian and Western cultures have led to many different forms of global citizenry being developed in India, which has formed entirely new values and norms.

(b) Justify the statement that cultural is liable to change but heritage does not. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Cultural, heritage and social norms change over time due to events that happen. However, understanding and preserving heritage is essential for a society.

Cultural change: Cultural changes happen when people start to adopt new beliefs and behaviors that are different from the traditional cultural values in society. Cultural changes are inevitable but they don't always have to be negative.

Heritage does not change: Heritage refers to the cultural objects that are handed down through generations of human beings. Heritage remains the same regardless of how society evolves or changes over time.

Cultural is liable to change but heritage does not. The statement that cultural is liable to change but heritage does not is true. There are many examples of cultural change in the world, including technology, art, fashion, language etc. Furthermore, the world has changed considerably since the Industrial Revolution and with this there have been many changes in lifestyles and values.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.               4
(a) 'Sufi and Shakti movement were the two faces of the same coin.' Justify the statement. (See Lesson-4)

Ans: The two movements were the two sides of the same coin. They both represented a form of mysticism and it was not until much later that they were split.

The Sufi movement began in the 8th century and was eventually regarded as a deviant movement by Sunni Islam, which led to the Shakti movement taking place in India. The two movements were united again in the 19th century after a period of separation.

While the Sufi movement preached peace, love and self-discipline, it kept a patriarchal society in place to win people over with their message of kindness.

The Shakti movement was a concept that originated from Hinduism, which saw women as an embodiment of the divine energy and power of creation rather than as inferior to men. The Shakti movement strove for liberation for women, while also advocating violence against those who oppressed them.

(b) Identify any four similar cultural ways of life which were enjoyed by your grandparents and also followed by you. (See Lesson 1)

Ans: Answer any one question

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.           4
(a) The extensive use of iron brought great changes in the material life of the Aryans. Analyse. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: Iron was a significant tool that the Aryan society made use of over a vast period of time. The Aryans were responsible for using iron from around 1200 BC onwards and they used it extensively to make numerous changes in their material life.

The extensive use of iron brought great changes in the material life of the Aryans. Iron-making is one area where the Aryans made a significant contribution as they began to produce iron from approximately 1200 BC onwards. Iron-making became an important part of their cultural practices and cultural identity with cultural significance that led to its widespread use among many groups. It allowed them to create new tools, weapons, and architecture with a greater ease than ever before with a wide range of consequences on social, political, economical and religious aspects as well as on the environment itself.

(b) Ancient India saw the rise of two very important religions like Jainism and Buddhism which left a lasting influence on Indian life and culture. Analyse. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: The rise of these two religions in India has had an impact on the culture of the country. Jainism, for instance, is widely accepted and acknowledged by many Hindus who follow it and Buddhism which started off as a Hindu sect and became a separate religion nowadays.

Jainism: The followers of this religion believe that there is no eternal soul so they live their life without hurting any living creature. They also believe in reincarnation and do not kill animals.

Buddhism: Buddhism started out as a Hindu sect but gradually took its own form to become a separate religion with unique beliefs on what obstacles should be faced in life to be able to attain nirvana.

Jainism and Buddhism have been around for a long time in India. The two religions have left a deep footprint on Indian culture and society. This is because they use quite different methods of teaching, teaching that focus on the essential truth rather than the abstract one. They also help people to reach spiritual fulfillment through their teachings. However, there are some who believe that these religions are overly influenced by Indian culture and that they fail to draw the attention of outside world. The rise of Jainism and Buddhism was largely due to the powerful impact it had on people’s lives which was profoundly different from what other religious beliefs had offered before them.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:                6

(a) During the medieval period two new religious faiths flourished in India: i.e. Sikhism and Zoroastrianism. These religions have influenced our society. Keeping this in mind, make a report containing at least 4 teachings of those religions. List and write about their important religious place or places. (See Lesson-4)

(b) Prepare a list of three social organisations working in your area. Find out the main objectives and functions of each organisation and make a table as below. Which organization will you like to join and why?

S. No.

Name of the organisation

Main objectives

Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans: The three social organisations that work in your area are

- The Women's Resource Centre

- The Women's Centre for Change

- The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fairness.

S. No.

Name of the organisation

Main objectives

Function

1.

The Women's Resource Centre

1) Educate women on how they can protect themselves from gender-based violence and violent relationship dynamics;

2) Provide direct services such as counselling, legal assistance, outreach programs, etc.;

 

1) Building a community of women and girls in the city of Johannesburg

2) Providing peer support and spaces for self-care

3) Advocating for gender equality through research, policy development, marketing and project management.

2.

The Women's Centre for Change

1) Creating awareness about the issues faced by women and girls,

2) Encouraging policy change,

3) Working to prevent violence against women,

4) Advocating for better outcomes for survivors of violence,

5) Providing training and support to improve skillset.

 

1) Offering support to anyone who needs it,

2) Taking steps to prevent domestic violence,

3) Dealing with the trauma of victims and supporting the victims to recover their self-esteem.

 

3.

The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fairness.

1) To increase understanding of disability issues by providing education opportunities

2) To increase knowledge about the different forms of assistive technologies available

3) To promote employment opportunities from accessible workplaces

4) To help employers understand their obligations under the law

1) Providing quality education and training to weaker section of the society;

2) Researching policies and providing policy advice;

3) Advocating for the elimination of discrimination.


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