Psychology 222 | NIOS Secondary Solved Assignment (2021 - 22)

 NIOS Free Solved Assignments (2021-22)
Psychology (222)
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20

Note:

(i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

psychology 222 solved assignment 2021 - 22

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.   2
(a) In the following experiment "To study the effect of different brands of pen on the individual's handwriting", identify Independent variable and Dependent variable. Support your answer with suitable reasons. (See Lesson 2)

Ans: To study the effect of different brands of pen on the individual's handwriting, an experiment is done and we found the following independent and dependent variables.

The Independent variables were:

1) Brand of pen used

2) Detail of pen strokes

3) Weights and size of paper used for writing

4) Pen colors used

5) Number of lines written per minute and number of words written per minute.

6) Amount and type of ink in the pens

Dependent variables:

1) Quality of Pen (Brand)

2) Gender

3) Age

4) Personality Type

5) Handwriting Style

In our experiment, we have a group of individuals who are asked to write using a particular type of pen. We then compare their handwriting with their handwriting when they use a different brand of pen. In order to eliminate any confounding variables, we use pens that are identical in size and shape and all characteristics except for the brand name on the label.

(b) On the basis of your chronological age; observe the stage of life you are in and explain its characteristics. (See Lesson 12)

Ans: The middle-age stage is an important one in life because adults are likely to have kids at this point in time. People also start feeling the effects of aging and are more concerned about their health and safety.

Middle-Age Characteristics:

a)    The mind starts to slow down

b)   There can be a sense of insecurity or being out of touch with reality

c)    People are more cautious due to health concerns

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words. 2
(a) Your friend is having stress because s/he couldn't score well in the examinations. How will you help her/him to cope with the situation? (See Lesson 18)

Ans: If your friend is struggling with stress because he/she couldn't score well in the examinations, you can offer to provide relaxation sessions for him/her.

You might say, "Let's go for a walk or go out to eat."

You could also do some light exercises that are not strenuous. Some common suggestions are meditation, yoga, staying up late at night and sleeping in. There are many other ways that you can help your friend relieve stress.

(b) Observe anyone in your surroundings to understand his/her behaviour. Write an observation report based on four indicators of his/her communication. (See Lesson 2)

In the past, people relied on certain behaviours to understand someone else’s communication. However, now with the advent of mobile phones and social media, people are more open than ever before.

It is not enough to just read what someone is writing anymore. People need to hear their opinions and hear what they are thinking as well for them to fully understand how they communicate.

The first indicator of someone’s behaviour is their proximity - physically or virtually - to the person they are observing or conversing with. The second indicator is tone of voice, which can be measured by speed and pitch variability. The third indicator is language-related triggers such as word choice and patterns in grammar usage. And finally, there’s body language which can be expressed through gestures or facial expressions.

One the basis of above indicators, I have prepare a report o behaviour of a person who is standing very close to me.

Observation Report:

a)    The person's posture is good.

b)   He smiles often and is open to laughter.

c)    He is confident and doesn't avoid eye contact.

d)   His tone of voice is gentle and warm, not harsh or aggressive.

e)   His body language seems relaxed and open to communication.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.   2
(a) How can you contribute in reducing environmental stress? Mention any four ways. (See Lesson 23)

Ans: Environmental stress is increasing more commonly. This is because the world is becoming more of a global village. These are just some of the ways that you can contribute in reducing environmental stress.

a)    Eating healthy meals: We all know it, but sometimes we find it hard to follow these healthy habits day-to-day. You can buy local produce and eat organic food to reduce your environmental impact.

b)   Cycling: We all know how bad cars are for the environment, but biking has its benefits too! Biking will reduce your carbon footprint and also work as a form of exercise!

c)    Use reusable bags: Reusable bags like these are better for the environment than using single use plastic ones

d)   Recycling: Recycling is another easy way that you can reduce environmental stress.

(b) Assume that by adding ± 3 to your chronological age you get your mental age (MA). Based on figures, calculate your Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in both the cases. (See Lesson 20)

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.          4
(a) You have to memorize a list of household items till the time you reach the shop. Mention at least four strategies that can be used to memorize the list better. Also explain the causes of forgetting. (See lesson 6)

Ans: For people who have a hard time memorizing lists of household items till the time they reach the shop, here are some strategies that can help them out.

1) Create a visual representation of each type of item you need to remember

2) Use a mnemonic device such as the acronyms for the items in order, or use a rhyming technique

3) Create a story that goes with the list that you want to learn and then connect your story with what you are memorizing

4) Use music or other audio to help with your memory process

You also have the option of using Word Swaps where you can take one word from your list and replace it with another word in every item.

Causes of forgetting

It is not easy for people to memorize the things that they need for shopping even though it is not hard for them to remember lists of items like books and movies. This could be due to the fact that there are too many things in one place and it is hard for us humans to know where we put anything. The causes of forgetting include: distractions, interruptions, distractions, speed of recitation/reading aloud etc.

(b) In the light of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, analyze the needs of your role model or any other famous person in your locality. (See lesson 8)

Ans: Answer any one question

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.       4
(a) Explain at least six characteristics of a happy person. (See lesson 17)

Ans: Happiness is a subjective experience that may differ from person to person. Other people could experience happiness in different ways. It is not possible to define happiness as a single characteristic, but there are some common traits that the happy people share.

1) The happy people are optimistic and embrace change

2) The happy people have a vision of what makes them happy and pursue it with enthusiasm

3) The happy people have good self-worth and don't think they need others' approval or validation of their accomplishments

4) The happy people have compassion for others

5) The happy people share who they are with those around them

6) The happy people can count on themselves

(b) Identify and explain any four problems that may be faced by students pursuing education in your locality. Also suggest some measures to deal with these problems. (See Lesson 16)

Ans: There are a few problems that students face in academic career in a our locality. Some of them include tuition costs, lack of family support, education inequality and high dropout rates. These problems can be overcome by creating a better system for education in the locality.

1) Tuition costs: The cost of education from primary school to secondary school level is growing at an alarming rate in some areas. This has been an issue since decades and it has been suggested that the government should intervene by subsidising educational institutes so that they can provide affordable education to students from low-income families.

2) Lack of family support: Many students don't have any support from their family while pursuing higher education. This lack of family support may lead to a low completion rate among young people who find it difficult to succeed in their academic pursuits.

3) High dropout: One such reason is the lack of quality education in India, where students have to fight for seats in colleges and universities. In addition to this, there is a very alarming dropout rate among students due to the high cost of education.

4) Education inequality: Lack of opportunities and diversity in education has caused a widening gap between the haves and have nots in India.

The education system in India can be a bit confusing for the students, who have to deal with many problems while pursuing their academic career. Students face issues such as high competition from other students, lack of funds to buy consumables, teachers’ absence and so on. Some measures that can be taken to solve these problems are:

a) Raising awareness among students about the importance of study and investing in it

b) Notifying parents about their child's grades regularly and requesting for necessary help

c) Making sure that the school has enough space for all students

d) Creating a comfortable and relaxing environment to study in by ensuring good infrastructure, good air quality, and clean food.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:       6
(a)  Identify any three types of pollution in your locality and describe at least three measures taken by 'Government, Resident Welfare Association (RWA) and you' to deal with the pollution. (See lesson 23)

Ans: Pollution is a serious concern for both humans and the environment. Pollution can impact every aspect of our lives and we need to take steps towards ensuring that it does not happen. There are three types of pollution in your locality that you should be aware of: air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution. It is important to identify these impacts initially so that you can take steps to minimize them.

1. Air pollution: exposure to air pollutants such as smog and harmful gases which can lead to respiratory problems and even death in extreme cases

2. Water pollution: exposure to toxic chemicals found in the ground or surface water which can cause several health problems such as cancer or infections

3. Soil pollution: Soil contamination is a very serious problem that can have major implications on the health of people in certain areas. Exposure to chemicals from pesticides, for example, has been shown to lead to severe health problems such as cancer and birth defects.

As a result of the growing pollution, the local government had to take measures to control it. The by 'Government, Resident Welfare Association (RWA) has taken the following measures:

1. Regular monitoring of water quality in the river

2. Implementing water and air purification system in their area

3. Establishing recycling unit in every locality

4. Adopting new ways of farming with cultural and environmental focus

5. Educating people in order to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels

6. Awareness campaigns for residents about pollution prevention

(b) Comment how 'Modern Education' differs in contrast to 'Jeevan Vigyan'. Practice 'Preksha Dhyana' for 15 days and 'Vipassana' for another 15 days and make a report on how both are useful/helpful in controlling and disciplining the mind. (See lesson 27)

Ans: Answer any one project only

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