Economics 318 Solved Assignment 2021-22 | NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22

 NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22
Economics 318 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20

Note:

(i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.         2

(a) "The world economy is broadly classified into two parts i.e. developed economy and developing economy." In the light of the statement distinguish between these two economies on the basis of following features-: (See Lesson 1)

1. Dependence on agriculture.

2. Heavy population pressure.

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

(b) "Planning is essential to ensure growth of any nation". Do you agree with the given statement? Give two reasons and explain them to support your answer. (See Lesson 2)

Ans: A plan is a proposed list of goals that an economy wants to achieve within a specific period of time. It suggests the optimum ways to utilize the scarce available resources to achieve the enlisted goals. In India, planning is done for a period of five years, which is called five year plan. Plans have both specific and general goals. Some of the common goals are economic growth, modernization, self-reliance and equity. Plans lay down the basic framework over which the policies are designed. Often various goals are conflicting to each other, for example, modernization reduces labour employment. So there is a need to maintain a balance among different goals. 

अर्थशास्त्र (318)| Economics 318 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.    2

(a) “Economic development without growth is almost inconceivable.” Keeping this statement in view, distinguish between the concept of development and growth. (See Lesson 3)

Ans: Economic development without growth is almost inconceivable. The comparison between the two concepts is given in the following table:

Basis

Economic Growth

Economic Development

Meaning

Economic growth refers to an increase in the real output of goods and services in the country.

Economic development implies changes in income, savings and investment along with progressive changes in socio-economic structure of country (institutional and technological changes).

Factors

Growth relates to a gradual increase in one of the components of Gross Domestic Product: consumption, government spending, investment, net exports.

Development relates to growth of human capital, decrease in inequality figures, and structural changes that improve the quality of life of the population.

 

(b) "Underdeveloped economies suffer from a large number of issues". Explain the common features of underdeveloped economies in the light of given statement. (See Lesson 3)

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.    2

(a) “Unemployment is defined as a state of work lessness for a person who is fit and willing to work at the current wage rate. It is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness”. Explain different types of unemployment in the light of above statement. (See Lesson 4)

Ans: “Unemployment is defined as a state of work lessness for a person who is fit and willing to work at the current wage rate. It is a condition of involuntary an d not voluntary idleness”.  Different types of unemployment are:

1)    Cyclical Unemployment:- Cyclical or demand deficient unemployment occurs when the economy is in need of low workforce. When there is an economy-wide decline in aggregate demand for goods and services, employment declines and unemployment correspondingly increases.

2)    Seasonal Unemployment:- This type of unemployment occurs in a particular time of the year or season and thus is known as seasonal unemployment.

3)    Structural Unemployment:- Structural unemployment arises when the qualification of a person is not sufficient to meet his hob responsibilities. It arises due to long term change in the pattern of demand that changes the basic structure of the economy.

4)    Frictional Unemployment:-  Frictional unemployment occurs when a person is out of one job and is searching for another for different reasons such as seeking a better job, being fired from a current job, or having voluntarily quite a current job.

5)    Natural rate of unemployment:- The sum total of frictional and structural unemployment is referred as the natural rate of unemployment.

6)    Disguised Unemployment:- The unemployment which is not visible is said to be disguised unemployment. It occurs when a person doesn’t contribute anything to the output even when visibly working.

(b) Statistical data can be systematically organized and presented in the form of tables, graphs and charts. One such diagrams is a bar diagram. Explain the steps involved in construction of bar diagram. (See Lesson 7)

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.     4

(a) Explain the following terms: (See Lesson 6)

(1) Exclusive series

(2) Open end classes

(3) Cumulative frequency

(4) Class limit

(5) Tally Mark

Ans:  (1) Exclusive series:- In this type one of the class limits (generally upper limit L2) is excluded while making a tally sheet. Any item having the value equal to the upper limit of a class is counted in the next class. For example, in a class of (20-25) all items having the value of 20 and more but less than 25 will be counted in this class. Item having the value of 25 will be counted in next class of (25-30).

(2) Open end classes:- Open-end frequency distribution is one which has at least one of its ends open. You will observe that either lower limit of first class or upper limit of last class or both are not given in such series.

(3) Cumulative frequency:- A ‘Cumulative Frequency Distribution’ is formed by taking successive totals of given frequencies.

(4) Class limit:- Every class has two boundaries or limits called lower limit (L1) and upper limit (L2). For example in the class (20-30) L1 = 20 and L2 = 30.

(5) Tally Mark:- is a statement where occurrence of each value of a series is recorded by making one bar. (/)

 (b) Unemployment rate is the percent of the labor force that is without work. It is calculated as below:

Unemployment rate = (Unemployed Workers/Total labor force) × 100. Rates of unemployment, however, differ based on different concepts. Can you suggest some other methods of measuring unemployment? (See Lesson 4)

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.    4

(a) Different states in India have different living standards. Some states are comparatively rich while some are comparatively poor. Keeping this in view explain the causes of growing regional disparity in India. (See Lesson 4)

Ans: Different states in India have different living standards. Some states are comparatively rich while some are comparatively poor. Causes of growing regional disparity in India are:-

(1) Historical Factors:- Historically regional imbalance in India started from its British regime. British industrialist mostly preferred to concentrate their activities in two states like west Bengal and Maharashtra and more particularly to their metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. They concentrated all their industries in and around these cities neglecting the rest of the country to remain backward.

(2) Geographical factors:- The difficult terrain surrounded by hills rivers and dense forest, leads to increase in the cost of administration, cost of development projects, besides making mobilization of resources partially difficult. Adverse climate and floods are also responsible factors for poor rate of economic development of different regions of the country as reflected by low agricultural productivity and lack of industrialization. These factors have resulted in uneven growth of different regions of India.

(3) Infrastructure:- The states with well-developed basic infrastructure such as power, water, roads and airport attracts the big investment projects and so has witnessed a very high growth rate. The poorer states on other hand lacking the basic infrastructure fails to attract private investments. This has accentuated the problems of inequality in the distribution of income and concentration of economic power.

(4) Decline in Public Investment:- In the new economic policy the Government has been continuously limiting it role with respect to participation in economic activity and has given more space to the private sector. There has been a steady decline in the public investment. This has adversely affected the poorer states. Since the public investment is a major contributor to growth of these States through bulk investment on irrigation, power and social sector projects decline in the same has adversely affected the process of development of many regions.

 (b) What are the differences between published and unpublished sources of data? Explain various sources of collection of primary and secondary data. (See Lesson 6)

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:      6

(a) As you know that the aim of presenting a statistical data provides power of visual display to communicate the information efficiently. Prepare a project by taking this information into account. Visit a school nearby and collect the data related to the number of students admitted in the school for three years in humanities, commerce and science streams. Present the data in the form of multiple bar diagram, subdivided bar diagram and percentage bar diagram and also interpret the presentation. (See Lesson 7)

Ans: Answer any one of the given question

(b) Data can be represented through various ways. Pie diagram which is a circle subdivided into component sectors to present the proportion of different constituent parts if the total is one of the ways to represent data in an understandable manner. You are required to identify ten items of your daily use in household and note the monthly expenditure on these items (for example toothpaste, medicine, milk etc.)

Ans: Given below the details of my monthly expenditure on 10 different items:



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