Psychology 328 Solved Assignment 2021-22 | NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22

  NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22
Psychology 328 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20


(i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words. 2

(a) Identify and explain any two examples of classical conditioning from your surroundings. (See Lesson 6)

Ans: Classical conditioning is a psychological phenomenon in which an organism learns to react to a stimulus without being directly involved in producing the response. Examples of this would be:

1. When we see our favorite food in the house, we start feeling hungry and crave for it.

2. If we see a picture of our favorite movie on a TV, we start feeling nostalgic and want to watch it again.

(b) “You were going for trekking in a jungle and you saw a snake crawl from your right side.” What will be your response to this situation? Support your answer using any one theory of emotion. (See Lesson 10)

Ans: The theory of emotion describes how human's behavior is influenced by emotional states. There are six main categories of emotions - anger, fear, sadness, disgust, joy and surprise.

“You were going for trekking in a jungle and you saw a snake crawl from your right side. You were startled by the snake and felt fear and will try to save yourself from snake. Such fear emotion can be explained by the psychology theory of emotion.

Theory of emotion: Fear is closely related to our innate survival instinct. In other words, when our bodies detect something dangerous or harmful, they automatically release adrenaline in order to save ourselves from it.

मनोविज्ञान (328)| Pshychology 318 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.  2

(a) According to the theory of Operant Conditioning, what methods can be used to enhance etiquettes of a child? (See Lesson 6)

Ans: The theory of operant conditioning was developed by psychologist B.F. Skinner in the 1950s and is one of the most influential psychological theories in history. The theory asserts that all behavior can be explained in terms of consequences and rewards, where consequences are things such as pain or pleasure and rewards are things such as praise or a piece of cake.

Some methods to enhance etiquettes of a child include:

1.    Providing them with boundaries and rules that they need to follow before, during, and after playing. This gives them the chance to know what is appropriate behavior in different situations such as when playing with others or interacting with family members.

2.    Letting children explore their interests and weaknesses so they can improve on those areas by exploring other areas where they can excel.

(b) Enlist different approaches to study development with one example of each from day to day life. (See Lesson 11)

Ans: There are many different approaches to study development. Some of the more popular ones are rote learning, self-regulated learning, and study design.

1.    Rote learning: This is a form of instruction that uses repetition to teach a skill or subject. It is used in classrooms across the globe and is the most commonly used approach for developing skills that have been previously taught, such as mathematics and reading.

2.    Self-regulated learning: This approach provides students with their own materials and allows them to explore new areas on their own without being told what to do. Self-regulated learners have been shown to be more motivated than those who use rote methods of study development.

3.    Study design: In this strategy, students are given a choice of what they would like to learn about before beginning an assignment or task. They have the freedom to choose from a wide variety of subjects, which allows them to learn more about the content they care most about.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words. 2

(a) Critically examine the Freud’s theory of personality development with reference to present scenario. (See Lesson 12)

Ans: The human personality has been studied for centuries. However, there are so many theories of how the personality develops. Freud’s theory was one of the most prominent ones back in his time.

Freud’s theory of personality development is the idea that personality is partly shaped by the environment, which means it can change with time. This theory also holds that personality traits are not hardwired into the brain but instead are formed through a series of experiences during development, leading to different personalities.

Freud’s theory of personality development with reference to present scenario is developed considering the human ego and id. It is believed that individuals develop in stages, starting with id, then moving to the ego and lastly the superego. There are four main concepts in his theory of personality development which are Ego, Id, Superego and Eros.

Freud’s perspective on personality development is still relevant even though it was developed back in 1900 when he first published his theories. There are many who use Freud’s perspective on personality development when investigating individuals with disorders such as neuroses and psychoses.

(b) ‘The relationship of man and environment is bi-directional’. Comment on the statement. (See Lesson 23)

Ans: The relationship of man and environment is bi-directional. There are many factors that could lead to man's need to be more environmentally conscious. Man's need to change the world for the better is due to the effects of environmental changes on human beings.

The relationship between man and environment is dependent on how technology has developed. Traditionally, humans have been at odds with nature by utilizing natural resources without considering the consequences of their actions. The Earth has also seen drastic changes in terms of temperature, rainfall, and ground erosion due to human activities. However, as technology continues to develop, it becomes more evident that humans are starting to appreciate nature more than ever before; this is due in part because they understand its importance in contributing towards our survival here on Earth.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.            4

(a) Based upon your experiences, mention at least two problems faced by you as an adolescent and explain how you will cope with those problems. (See lesson 13)

Ans: Adolescence is a difficult time for all of us. Many of us have to deal with both physical and mental health issues as we go through the stages. During adolescence I mainly face two problems which is quite common in every adolescence.

1. One problem faced by maximum adolescents today is the lack of friends and family support. Encouraging social interactions can help them cope with this problem.

2. Another problem faced by maximum adolescents is feeling alone in their world. This is often due to the fact that they have just moved out of their parents' house and it is hard for them to integrate into their new surroundings. The difficulty in transitioning into adulthood leaves them feeling sad and anxious about the future, making it harder for them to deal with problems in their life.

The following tips can help you cope with these issues better:

a) Breathe deep and think of the positives in life.

b) Learn to communicate your feelings and thoughts better.

c) Encourage yourself, talk about your struggles openly and work through them together.

d) Take care of yourself physically.

e) Find a good support system for example, a friend or family member who supports you and listens to them without judgment or criticism

(b) Design a Self Instructional Training (SIT) for any one skill that you want to enhance. (See Lesson 17)

Ans: You decide to learn a skill that you are struggling with. For example, if you are trying to improve your tennis game, you could design a Self Instructional Training (SIT) for yourself. A SIT is an intervention that focuses on the skills of interest and provides new experiences specifically designed to help people learn new skills.

The first step would be to find out what skills you want to develop. If you want to develop your tennis game, ask yourself these questions:

- What am I currently good at?

- What do I need more practice at?

- How can I practice this skill?

- Who can help me with this skill?

- How will this impact my life in the future?

The second step would be to find out what type of instructional training is needed for your skill development. This is where you can get a template that will help your employees learn on their own.

The third step in the self instructional training process would be to instruct yourself. This is a key skill that can help you improve your personal development, your career and even your writing.

In the fourth step of self-instructional training, you will study the role of the instructor in your learning process. In this step, you will focus on taking notes during a lecture and creating a personal learning plan.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.    4

(a) A person has decided to quit alcohol consumption habit as he was facing challenges in day to day life due to this habit. Identify and name the disorder one is having and mention different steps involved in the process of quitting this habit. (See Lesson 20)

Ans: Alcohol is a drug that makes people feel good in the short term, but with time it can cause a lot of physical and mental issues. There are a lot of problems which day-to-day life faces due to alcohol consumption.

One of the most common problems in day to day life is due to drunk driving. Another problem can be found with people who abuse alcohol and binge drink which can lead to health issues such as liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, and alcoholism.

An alcoholic can also go through withdrawal symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and memory loss when they stop drinking alcohol.

In order to quit alcohol habits, you need to be willing to give up the alcohol and want to have a sober life. You need a support system and a positive mindset. To start with, you should find a supportive community of people who are fighting alcoholism. This will help you stay motivated and help you break your addiction. Once you have those things in place, here is what works for most people:

a)    Make the decision that it’s time for change

b)   Identify triggers that cause drinking

c)    Identify how much alcohol you drink on an average day

d)   Estimate how much money it would cost to stop drinking for one month

e)   Cut out all sources of temptation

f)     Replace any negative thoughts with positive ones

(b) In today’s busy life each one of us is experiencing a variety of tensions and stresses. Identify and enlist the different stressors you are facing in daily life. Also explain the threats to health because of these stressors. (See Lesson 25)

Ans: Answer of only one question is necessary

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:               6

(a) Discuss different aspects/areas of Development. Visit a community health center in your locality and collect the data regarding physical development of children from birth to two years maintained by community health center. Prepare a brief report based on collected data and plot it on a graph. (See Lesson 11 and Lesson 12)

Ans: Answer of only one question is necessary

(b) Environment is made of two parts: Physical (such as noise, temperature, air, water, etc.) and psychological environment (perception and experiences of the environment by an individual). Observe your surroundings and prepare a report on "effects of human behavior on environment and environmental effects on human behavior". Also suggest measures to prevent the harmful impact of human behaviour on environment. (See Lesson 23)

Ans: Effects of human behavior on the environment

The effects of human behavior on the environment are often overlooked because of the fact that environmental changes are often gradual, which leads to no immediate danger. It is estimated that in order to sustain our current level of living, it would take 1-2 Earths to support 7 billion people.

This means that if we continue our unsustainable ways with our human behavior, it will not be long before the planet is depleted of resources and unable to sustain life.

Humans have a huge impact on the environment. We are the ones creating most of the waste and pollution. It is our responsibility to make sure that we make better decisions and use less natural resources.

To stop this cycle, we must change our behavior. We can start by using less paper, using public transportation more often, and recycling more. If we don’t change our ways, then we will end up in a world where everything is polluted and no one can live comfortably.

Environmental effects on human behavior

Environmental factors influence our behavior and the way we make decisions. For example, people who live in hot climates tend to stay indoors more often, while those living in cold climates tend to spend more time outdoors. Similarly, a study found that people who lived in an area with higher crime rates tended to spend less time watching TV. This phenomenon is called environmental criminology and has been used as a tool to predict crime rates based on weather variables such as temperature.

In order to understand how environmental factors affect human behavior, we need to look at the "environmental response" theory developed by Richard Cervone and others. The theory is derived from animal studies of how environmental stimuli influence their behavior and what effects this has on the animal’s brain state.

The measures that can be taken to prevent the harmful impact of human behaviour on the environment are given below. It lists a few examples of these measures and concludes by saying that they need to be done in a coordinated way.

a)    Partitioning of waste materials

b)   Planting trees for oxygen production

c)    Cement replacement with biofuels

d)   Renewable energy usage

e)   Use fewer papers

f)     Use of public transportation

g)    Recycling of waste products etc.


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